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Topic: Theory of justification

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  Dramatica: The Lost Theory Book - Character Justification
Before the final version of "Dramatica - a New Theory of Story" there was an earlier draft which contained unfinished concepts and additional theory that was ultimately deemed "too complex".
The dismantling of Justification is the purpose and function of the Acts.
Justification is a state of mind wherein the Subjective view differs from the Objective view.
storymind.com /dramatica/lost_theory_book/justification.htm   (2742 words)

  Zagzebski on Justification
The heart of the epistemological interest of Zagzebski’s book is found in the tasks of clarifying the natures of justification and knowledge in terms of the intellectual virtues.
In this respect, her account suffers by comparison with more standard virtue accounts, according to which the justification of a person’s belief is a result of the exercise of that very person’s intellectual virtues.
So one can have a propositionalist virtue epistemology, but the theory is obviously and hopelessly inadequate, as inadequate as a theory that picks out some actual person and evaluates all beliefs by whether that person believes the claim.
web.missouri.edu /~kvanvigj/papers/zagzebskionjustification.htm   (2301 words)

  Theory of justification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of statements and beliefs.
More generally, the theory of justification focuses on the justification of statements or propositions.
It is generally accepted that the concept of justification is normative, because it is defined as a concept regarding the norms of belief.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Theory_of_justification   (939 words)

 Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Unfortunately, the usage of the term theory is muddled by cases such as string theory and various theories of everything, all of which are better characterized at present as a bundle of competing hypotheses for a protoscience.
A theory is also different from a physical law in that the former is a model of reality whereas the latter is a statement of what has been observed.
In the humanities, theory is often used as an abbreviation for critical theory or literary theory, referring to continental philosophy's aesthetics or its attempts to understand the structure of society and to conceptualize alternatives.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /Theory   (1618 words)

 [No title]
While justification defenses themselves are nearly universal, there is much disagreement over whether the defense is given because a person's act avoids a greater harm, the so-called deeds theory, or because she acts for the right reason, the so-called reasons theory.
The deeds theory of justification justifies conduct that avoids a greater harm, and thus it is conduct that we would be happy to tolerate under similar circumstances in the future.
Under a deeds theory (sometimes termed an "objective" theory), the rationale for justification is whether or not the conduct is something that we are content to have the actor perform due to the justifying circumstances and to have others perform under similar circumstances in the future.
www.law.upenn.edu /fac/phrobins/justification.html   (6781 words)

 From Tim McGrew, The Foundations of Knowledge, chapter 1
The link between justification and truth here is that the increasing coherence of a belief‑set is, by definition, an increase of the justification of its members, and by definition the unique coherent set of propositions which account for the data of experience is the sum of all truth.
It is an advantage of the coherence theory of justification, he claims, that it dispenses with the evidential asymmetries of foundationalism.
The coherence theory of epistemic justification, though historically related to what we have been discussing, is concerned with the latter question; it is compatible with the traditional notions of justification and truth and will be considered later.
homepages.wmich.edu /~mcgrew/book_02.htm   (1525 words)

 Foundationalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Foundationalism is any theory in epistemology (typically, theories of justification, but also of knowledge) that holds that beliefs are justified (known, etc.) based on what are called basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs).
Historically, two varieties of foundationalist theories were rationalism (or continental rationalism, to refer to the historical movement) and empiricism (or British Empiricism).
Contextualism (or, in a stripped-down version, the blind posits theory) is the epistemological version of relativism; relativism is more often regarded as a theory of truth than as a theory of justification or knowledge.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Foundationalism   (628 words)

 Theory of justification
One popular way of explaining the theory of justification is to say: A justified belief is one which we are within our rights in holding.
According to the theory, you have an intellectual responsibility or obligation, to believe what is true and to avoid believing what's false.
In this case, proponents of the theory of justification say: If a belief is justified, then it has at least one justifier.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ju/Justified.html   (1219 words)

 Justification by Faith - Part II: The Roman Catholic Doctrine of Justification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Romanist confounds the doctrine of justification with sanctification.
The ground of the sinner’s justification is thus a divine and gracious one.
Justification is judicial; it is not the purification of the heart.
www.graceonlinelibrary.org /etc/printer-friendly.asp?ID=93   (4223 words)

 Coherentist Theories of Epistemic Justification (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Coherentists typically hold that justification is solely a function of some relationship between beliefs, none of which are privileged beliefs in the way maintained by foundationlists, with different varieties of coherentism individuated by the specific relationship among beliefs appealed to by that version.
Further, it is this subjective theory of evidence that defines the relation of coherence on the system of beliefs in question: coherence obtains when a belief conforms to the subjective theory of evidence in question, given the other items in the set of things over which coherence is defined.
Subjective theories may also characterize the relationship between justification and truth in terms of a means/ends relationship, but they reject the requirement that something is a means to an end only if it is an effective means to that end, i.e., only if it increases the objective chances of that goal being realized.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/justep-coherence   (6995 words)

 The Coherence Theory of Truth (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Certainly a coherence theory was adopted by a number of British Idealists in the last years of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth.
A coherence theory of truth gives rise to a regress, but it is not a vicious regress and the correspondence theory faces a similar regress.
All other versions of the theory, however, have to cope with the objection, including the view that truth is coherence with a set of propositions believed at the limit of inquiry.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/truth-coherence   (2904 words)

 20th WCP: Abduction and Hypothesis Withdrawal in Science
In case of scientific theory change selective abduction is replaced by creative abduction and there is a set of competing theories instead of diagnostic hypotheses.
Furthermore the language of background scientific knowledge is to be regarded as open: in the case of competing theories, as they are studied by epistemology of theory change, we cannot-contrary to Popper's point of view (1970)-reject a theory merely because it fails occasionally.
As Lakatos argues, in a mature theory with a history of useful consequences, it is generally better to reject an anomalous conflicting report than it is to abandon the theory as a whole.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Scie/ScieMagn.htm   (3004 words)

 Certain Doubts » Subjective and Objective Justification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
But, if subjective justification is nothing but the taking of a belief to be justified, it is not a normative property of the belief in question, but merely a further psychological state with the target belief as content.
And, since the reliabilist takes justification to be truth conducive, subjective justification has value WRT the goal of truth: if one is justified in taking oneself to be justified, then it is likely that one is justified, in which case it is likely that the proposition in question is true.
What degree of justification supports a knowledge claim in the first place–what degree of justification will count *as* justification–will be determined by the epistemic community of which one is part; normally, that’ll be the best we can do, and our epistemic community’s determination of epistemic standards will then tell us what is [subjectively] justified.
bengal-ng.missouri.edu /~kvanvigj/certain_doubts/index.php?p=381   (5956 words)

 Lecture 15
To put it less abstractly, a theory of scientific justification is hierarchical if it says that there is no way to adjudicate between disputes at the (axiological) level of cognitive values, aims, or goals; disagreement at this level is always rationally irresolvable.
To see that these mechanisms exist, however, we have to drop all vestiges of the view that scientific justification is "top-down." Instead, scientific justification is a matter of coherence between the various levels; scientific disputes can be rationally resolved so long as one or more of the levels is held fixed.
Central to this model of scientific justification is the view that the different levels constrain each other, so that holding some of the levels fixed, there are limits to how far you can go is modifying the other level(s).
www.soc.iastate.edu /sapp/phil_sci_lecture15.html   (958 words)

 Epistemology, theory of justification and answers to prayers - Zogdog.com Forums
I specifically want to argue the point that there are several epistemological theories that deal with justification (supporting reasons for a belief) which allow room for kinds of experiences (answers to prayers, pure reasoning, etc) that might not fit in the scientific method paradigm, and still be considered legitimate.
Theory of justification recognizes two different approaches to validate belief as knowledge: irrationalism and rationalism.
I will comment on the several epistemological theories described in the article, talk about the flaws in empiricism and the scientific method, and give my reasons to believe why the feelings after praying are a valid justification for a belief.
theboard.zogdog.com /index.php?showtopic=7788   (6134 words)

 Coherence, Certainty, and Epistemic Priority
And I shall comment on the coherence theory of concepts only to suggest that it might be quite acceptable to Lewis even though he rejects the coherence theory of justification.
It is clearly this last theory, the coherence theory of justification, which Lewis is primarily concerned to refute in his epistemological writings.
A position of this kind seems to me to avoid Lewis's logical objection to the coherence theory of justification and thus to demonstrate that the issue between this theory and the thesis of epistemic priority must ultimately be decided on purely empirical grounds.
www.ditext.com /firth/firth.html   (2916 words)

 Page 45
To solve the difficulty Ritaehl advanced the theory that the sinner who becomes a believer is first passively placed by God in a state of justi fication, justification in turn being practically real ized in the atonement which perfects it, and the atonement constituting the basis of Christian activ ity.
Theory organization, but the complex of all of the justified believers and the permanent Church.
The agency which produces belief in justification in the individual, and thus leads to re generation and divine sonship, is preaching; and through this proclamation of the word of God or of the Gospel the religious community comes to be the mother of the individual believers.
www.ccel.org /s/schaff/encyc/encyc10/htm-old/0063=45.htm   (781 words)

 Propositionalism and the Perspectival Character of Justification
Once we grant the distinction between justification predicated of propositions and justification predicated of beliefs, we can show that there is a disturbing problem for a broad range of theories of justification, including Zagzebski=s agent-centered virtue theory.
These two theories are not identical, and we can see that they aren=t by noting what she says about the understanding a person would acquire if that person were virtuous.
In this way, a propositionalist can offer a theory of justification which avoids the need for purging beliefs and other attitudes from a cognitive system prior to determining which beliefs are justified from the perspective embodied in that system.
web.missouri.edu /~kvanvigj/papers/propositionalismperspectivalism.htm   (7049 words)

On the one hand, there is coherence as involved in the justification of a single propositional claim in terms of other propositional claims, in the context of a particular conceptual framework and of a relatively fixed body of propositional claims within that framework.
In the light of a coherence theory of justification such as here proposed, the other hand, such facts fit neatly into the epistemological picture in a manner which reveals them to be, not aberrations, but, in a way, the heart of the matter.
This objection is the one outlined in the second paragraph of this section, to the effect that a coherence theory of justification seems at least to deprive the notion of justification of all relation to the world.
www.ditext.com /bonjour/bonjour2.html   (9990 words)

 Theory and Theology: Part II
Any justification of theoretical thought will itself be a theory and thus will be found in the awkward position of having to provide its own justification.
Theology is also theory, and a theological justification of theoretical thought is not non-theoretical as to its methodology, even though it sets forth non-theoretical religious factors as the basis of theory.
If a theory has presuppositions that are inexpressible in language, these presuppositions may not be employed as premises of an argument in the theory itself or in a theory about the theory.
members.aol.com /RSIGRACE/theory2.html   (2298 words)

 Justification by Faith   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
This is a confounding of justification with sanctification.
Justification honors God’s law in every respect because the law is not ignored, bypassed, or put away, but rather perfectly obeyed by Christ and perfectly satisfied, as regards the penalty, by His death.
Justification refers to God’s legal declaration based on the imputation of Christ’s righteousness and should never be confounded with regeneration and sanctification; but although they are distinct, they cannot be separated.
www.reformed.com /pub/just.htm   (18218 words)

 Propositionalism and the Perspectival Character of Justification
Once we grant the distinction between justification predicated of propositions and justification predicated of beliefs, we can show that there is a disturbing problem for a broad range of theories of justification, including Zagzebski=s agent-centered virtue theory.
These two theories are not identical, and we can see that they aren=t by noting what she says about the understanding a person would acquire if that person were virtuous.
In this way, a propositionalist can offer a theory of justification which avoids the need for purging beliefs and other attitudes from a cognitive system prior to determining which beliefs are justified from the perspective embodied in that system.
www3.baylor.edu /~Jonathan_Kvanvig/papers/propositionalismperspectivalism.htm   (7049 words)

 VirusWiki - justification
Reliabilism, a theory of more recent vintage, holds (in its simplest form) that a belief is justified if it is produced by a sequence of reliable psychological processes (Goldman 1979).
Proponents of foundationalism and coherentism often reject the relevance of experimental science to the theory of justification (e.g., Chisholm 1989).
Epistemological theories of justification sometimes ignore computational considerations, which are essential from a cognitivist perspective.
www.churchofvirus.org /wiki/justification   (1144 words)

 Atheism and Theory of Justification - Knowledge and Justification « The Thinkers’ Podium
This is where the theory of justification comes in, and the forms of atheism hit a fork in the road.
Walter isn’t convinced about this theory he is having peddled to him, so he chooses not to believe it, just like he chose not to believe the claims of the guy trying to peddle health tonics by the entrance.
They have all been weak atheists from birth; one can have an absence of belief in a theory that they have never been exposed to, but one can’t be indifferent toward, or have beliefs in relation to a theory that they have never encountered.
thinkerspodium.wordpress.com /2007/05/04/atheism-and-theory-of-justification-knowledge-and-justification   (1852 words)

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