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Topic: Theory of mind

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In the News (Mon 22 Apr 19)

  Theory of mind - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In functionalist theories, functionalists like Georges Rey explore computational theories of mind that are independent of the physical instantiation of any particular mind.
A Theory of Mind appears to be a usually-innate potential ability in humans (and, some argue, in certain other species), but one requiring social and other experience over many years to bring successfully to adult fruition.
The theory of mind that normal children develop appears to be that other people have different knowledge from themselves, but process their knowledge in the same way that they would.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Theory_of_mind   (1155 words)

 Theory of Mind in Autism: Development, Implications, and Intervention   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Mind reading is often thought to be the activity of psychics, but in a sense most of us are mind readers, or at least we have a theory of mind.
Theory of mind development begins early in life, as does the shift from the typical course of development that is seen in children across the autism spectrum.
While the peak in theory of mind development occurs in typical children from the age of 3 to 4, mental state understanding in individuals within the spectrum often continues to be conspicuously absent throughout the lifespan and leads to significant social and communicative challenges.
www.iidc.indiana.edu /irca/education/TheoryofMind.html   (2748 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Theory of mind
In recent years, the phrase "Theory of mind" has commonly been used (following the paper "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?" by David Premack and G. Woodruff, 1978) to refer to a specific cognitive capacity: the ability to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions that are different from one's own.
The theory of mind that normal children develop appears to be that other people have different knowledge from oneself but process their knowledge in the same way that one would.
It is not yet established whether this different theory of mind is inherent in the autistic way of thinking or a result of the usual autistic experience of growing up among people with a very radically and obviously different way of thinking.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Theory_of_mind   (806 words)

 Type physicalism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Type physicalism (also known as Type Identity Theory, Type-Type theory or just Identity Theory) is the theory, in the philosophy of mind, which asserts that mental events are type-identical to the physical events in the brain with which they are correlated.
The barrier to the acceptance of any such vision of the mind, according to Place, was that philosophers and logicians had not yet taken a substantial interest in questions of identity and referential identification in general.
The dominant epistemology of the logical positivists at that time was phenomenalism, in the guise of the theory of sense-data.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Identity_theory_of_mind   (1266 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Theory of Mind and the Origin of Divergent Thinking Introduction Theory of mind (ToM), or the appreciation of the representational nature of mind and its relation to behavior, has become the subject of much research in developmental and comparative psychology (e.g.
ToM has been acquired), the child can impute mental states even when these contradict his or her own current mental states, and the diversity of the heterogenous mental world becomes accessible.
The emerging theory of mind may therefore not only be important for social understanding but also for understanding and utilizing one's own mind.
cogprints.org /727/00/TOM.txt   (3449 words)

 Theory of Cognitivity - Basis of Mind.Forth Tutorial AI   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The dimensionality of the mind is crucial to its logical structure.
The first dimensional component of your mind is the straight and linear record of its sensory input, in parallel with the straight and linear "keyboard" of its motor output.
An abstract fiber in the core of the mind serves associatively as a unifying fiber which crosses time-boundaries and interconnects potentially all original and re-occurring instances of the experience of a particular pattern of perception.
mind.sourceforge.net /theory5.html   (8971 words)

Section 2 is a survey of the evidence of theory of mind from specific categories of behavior (imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking and perspective-taking), which argues for each study that the behavior reported could have occurred by chance or via nonmentalistic processes such as associative learning or inferences based on nonmental categories.
In Section 3, I argue that a theory of mind interpretation of the data reviewed in section 2 cannot be defended on the grounds of parsimony or convergence, and in section 4 I describe a test procedure that may be able to provide evidence of theory of mind in primates.
Combining commitment to the theory of mind hypothesis with scepticism, and skills in experimental design with knowledge of the habits and natural history of primates, would guard against confirmation bias and would maximise our chances of developing procedures that are both practicable and potentially effective in testing the theory of mind hypothesis against nonmentalistic alternatives.
www.bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/05/46/bbs00000546-00/bbs.heyes.html   (13972 words)

 Center for the Study of Autism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Theory of mind refers to the notion that many autistic individuals do not understand that other people have their own plans, thoughts, and points of view.
Many of the tasks used to test this theory have been given to non-autistic children as well as children with mental retardation, and the theory of mind phenomenon appears to be unique to those with autism.
In addition, theory of mind appears to be independent of intelligence even though people with Asperger's syndrome exhibit this problem to a lesser degree.
www.autism.org /mind.html   (413 words)

 Theories of Theory of Mind: Entry
A "Theory of Mind" (often abbreviated in TOM) is a specific cognitive ability to understand others as intentional agents, that is, to interpret their minds in terms of theoretical concepts of intentional states such as beliefs and desires.
In their 1978 famous paper : "Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?" D. Premack and G. Woodruff argued that experimental evidence of chimpanzees’ understanding of human behaviour could be interpreted as detection of intentions.
As in the case of language, the TOM module is dedicated, specific, fast, automatic, at least partly encapsulated, and its functioning is largely independent of intellectual general capacities of the individual.
host.uniroma3.it /progetti/kant/field/tom.htm   (1756 words)

 The Ethics, Part II: The Human Mind   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The mind is not simply a "thinking thing"; it is the idea which expresses the state and circumstances of a particular body (the one I identify as mine).
What the human mind really is, for Spinoza, is a very complex and always changing collection of ideas (sensory ideas as well as "clear and distinct" intellectual ideas), which are united through their all being ideas of the same body.
Our mind, defined as the idea of the actually existing body, is the idea of the body as a unitary and persisting thing, which experiences and interacts with other bodies.
philosophy2.ucsd.edu /~rutherford/phil104/spinoza3.html   (1489 words)

 Thematic reasoning and theory of mind. Accounting for social inference difficulties in schizophrenia by Rhiannon ...
Theory of mind (Premack and Woodruff, 1978) is a term that is now widely used to describe the understanding that our own and other's behaviour is determined by thoughts, beliefs and intentions.
It does however have some similarities to the simulation model of theory of mind proposed by Harris (1992) which proposes that the appreciation of another's mental state is achieved by imagining oneself in the other's situation.
As outlined earlier, the literature on theory of mind in schizophrenia suggests that some patients have more problems with ToM than others and that this difference may be related to the nature of the signs and symptoms present.
human-nature.com /ep/articles/ep03119.html   (6049 words)

 Neuroscience Concepts in a New-Age Religion: Scientology's Model of the Mind
Ron Hubbard, is noteworthy among New Age religions for its detailed theory of the nature of mind, the mechanisms of memory and consciousness, and the causes of mental illness.
The mind is also tripartite, consisting of an analytical mind, a reactive mind, and a somatic mind.
The somatic mind is responsible for reflexive, animal-like behaviors.
www.cs.cmu.edu /afs/cs/user/dst/www/pubs/sfn98/poster.html   (2565 words)

 Brenda Schick Home Page
The acquisition of a mature "theory of mind" is a major achievement of the preschool years.
We plan to explore the prerequisites for a developing theory of mind in deaf children raised in different social and linguistic circumstances, aged between 3 and 7 years, compared to hearing controls.
Educationally, it is of central importance to understand the experiences necessary for a theory of mind, since different consequences follow for early deaf education if a mature theory of mind depends on mastery of a full languages than if it is a function of cognitive or social maturity alone.
stripe.colorado.edu /~schick/ToM/ToM.html   (483 words)

 Theory of Mind
A "Theory of Mind" (or TOM, for short) is something that all people must develop in order to understand the minds of other people.
Indeed, many researchers have argued that the ability to understand false beliefs is a key concept at the heart of Theory of Mind, and the subject has inspired a large number of studies.
Lack of TOM would certainly explain the social withdrawal and communication disorders associated with autism, but this cannot be the whole story because not all autistic children fail the false belief tasks.
www.uclan.ac.uk /facs/science/psychol/bully/tom.htm   (2583 words)

 Theory of Mind
Theory of Mind is a topic that comes up regularly on a.s.a., frequently leading to complex philosophical debates.
A child with Theory of Mind will realise that Sally doesn't know that Ann has played a trick on her, and will therefore look in her own box for her marble, and discover it missing.
But a child lacking in Theory of Mind will only see the situation from her own point of view, and suggest that Sally look for the marble where it actually is: in Ann's box.
mugsy.org /asa_faq/issues/tom.shtml   (663 words)

 Philosophy of Mind Bibliography, Part 5: Philosophy of Psychology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Folk psychology is a theory: defense against objections from logicality, softness of laws, practical function, behavior, and simulation.
Zahavi, D. The embodied self-awareness of the infant: A challenge to the theory-theory of mind.
Freeman, N. Theories of mind in collision: Plausibility and authority.
consc.net /biblio/5.html   (2890 words)

 Theory of Mind
The emerging conception of a series of Theory of Mind Mechanisms, or ToMM, however, are also of great interest for the understanding of normal human psychology.
In the mind, this may be functioning as a conceptual primitive--that is, as something that is not decomposed into simpler elements.
Even such a theory of mind would be very elementary, modeling only a simple version of intentionality.
cogweb.ucla.edu /CogSci/ToMM.html   (2627 words)

 Mixing Memory: Autism and Theory of Mind
While his theory that males and females exhibit differences in these abilities, on average, is highly controversial and, to say the least, not widely accepted among cognitive psychologists (see, e.g., this paper for a short critique of his empirical evidence), B-C has extended it to explain many of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.
For one, some autistic patients do perform well on theory of mind tasks, and by adolescence, most are able to perform the most common theory of mind task, the false belief test.
This is what the theory of mind theory of autism was designed to do, and the weak central coherence theory will have to do it as well if it is going to be a viable alternative.
mixingmemory.blogspot.com /2005/08/autism-and-theory-of-mind.html   (4451 words)

 Baboon Calls
What the baboons lack is what psychologists call "the theory of mind," the ability to recognize that other animals have knowledge, thoughts and feeling apart from their own.
If baboons have no theory of mind, they may well extract information from others' vocalizations, but they likely don't produce calls with the intention of influencing others.
Research seems to show that a theory of mind - understanding that others have minds that allow them to think, remember, infer and even deceive - is one of the milestones of early childhood, becoming evident sometime after or about the fourth birthday.
www.apa.org /releases/babooncalls.html   (704 words)

 Current Research Projects
Theories of human attention inspired visual subsystems, neurological structures inspired arm control modules, and speech pattern recognition in infants inspired an auditory sense.
This set of metarepresentational abilities, which have been collectively called a "theory of mind", allows us to understand the actions and expressions of others within an intentional or goal-directed framework.
The recognition that other individuals have knowledge, perceptions, and intentions that differ from our own is a critical step in a child's development and is believed to be instrumental in self-recognition, grounding in linguistic acquisition, and possibly in the development of imaginative and creative play.
www.ai.mit.edu /projects/humanoid-robotics-group/cog/current-projects.html   (859 words)

 Theory of Mind   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
I think that theory of mind in most children develop between 2 and 4 or 5 years of age.
Additionally, theory of mind develops through pretend play and learning that things don’t have to be there, in order to believe in them.
Seems to me that you might have a case that TOM is a core defect for autistics if you tested a whole range of spectrum members and found that not only could none of them do it, furthermore none of them could even learn it.
home.earthlink.net /~abaantonia/TOM.htm   (8357 words)

 Lecture 20: Theory of Mind
The term 'theory of mind' refers to the understanding that people have mental states including thoughts, beliefs and desires.
This finding belies a lack of 'theory of mind': the child cannot attribute a belief other than their own to another person.
While Hughes and Donaldson revise the age estimates for the onset of 'decentering' or escaping egocentrism, they do not doubt that the process of representing others' perspectives based on knowledge of their mental states is a crucial development.
pages.slc.edu /~ebj/IM_97/Lecture20/L20.html   (1597 words)

 Monkey Talk
This behavior suggests that in the monkey's mind the call "stands for" or "conjures up images of" an avian predator even when the monkey has not yet see the eagle" (125).
There is some evidence that chimpanzees have an incipient theory of mind; however, monkeys apparently do not.
While "animals are clearly sensitive to the presence or lack of an audience," there is "considerable evidence suggests that animals cannot recognize the distinction between an ignorant audience and a knowledgeable one" (126-7).
cogweb.ucla.edu /CogSci/Seyfarth.html   (607 words)

 Oxford Scholarship Online: Descartes's Theory of Mind
He cannot, therefore, propose substance dualism as a theory of mind.
To explain mental activities such as sensation, memory, or imagination, one must hypothesize how they result from interaction between the environment, the senses, and the processing of the brain.
The failure to construct a scientific theory that bridges the theoretical gap between mental events and matter (as understood by Descartes) results, by default, in a property dualism that marks the limits of his scientific efforts.
www.oxfordscholarship.com /oso/public/content/philosophy/0199261237/toc.html   (186 words)

 OUP: Descartes's Theory of Mind: Clarke   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Descartes is commonly read as the paradigm defender of substance dualism, a theory caricatured by Ryle as the 'dogma of the ghost in the machine'.
On this reading, mind and body are defined in such a way that they have no common properties that might help explain how they interact, and it is therefore impossible to provide any account of precisely those features of human experience that this 'theory' was meant to explain.
Clarke's compelling and important new reading shows that a failure to engage with Descartes's scientific work leads to a wholesale misunderstanding of his theory of mind.
www.oup.co.uk /isbn/0-19-928494-6   (432 words)

 Brain-Mind: Know Thyself! [The Concept-Fiber Theory of Mind]
The Concept-Fiber Theory of Mind for Artificial Intelligence
Concept-Fiber Theory of Mind -- Critique and Discussion
your own discussion/interpretation/refutation of the theory of mind.
mentifex.virtualentity.com /theory5.html   (8970 words)

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