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Topic: Thermodynamics

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  Thermodynamics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermodynamics (from the Greek thermos meaning heat and dynamis meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics.
Essentially, statistical thermodynamics is an approach to thermodynamics situated upon statistical mechanics, which focuses on the derivation of macroscopic results from first principles.
Thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state are said to be reversible processes.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Thermodynamics   (2240 words)

Thermodynamics is the study of energy, its conversions between various forms such as heat, and the ability of energy to do work.
It can be argued that thermodynamics was misnamed as it does not actually relate to rates of change as such and therefore would probably have been better called thermostatics as a field.
Zeroth law: A fundamental concept within thermodynamics, however, it was not termed a law until after the first three laws were already widely in use, hence the zero numbering.
www.teachersparadise.com /ency/en/wikipedia/t/th/thermodynamics.html   (1135 words)

 Thermodynamics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Thermodynamics is a branch of physics which deals with the energy and work of a system.
The basic ideas of thermodynamics are taught in high school physics classes, so the Wright brothers knew and used these concepts, particularly in their engine design.
The first law of thermodynamics relates the various forms of energy in a system (kinetic and potential) to the work which a system can perform and to the transfer of heat.
wright.nasa.gov /airplane/thermo.html   (380 words)

The second law of thermodynamics is sometimes given as a statement that precludes perpetual-motion machines of the second kind.
One useful way of discussing thermodynamic processes is in terms of cycles-processes that return a system to its original state after a number of stages, thus restoring the original values for all the relevant thermodynamic variables.
A thermodynamic system consisting of a pure substance can be described as a collection of like molecules, each with its individual motion describable in terms of such mechanical variables as velocity and momentum.
www.garlikov.com /science/thermody.htm   (2232 words)

The first law of thermodynamics, however, merely states that the total energy content of a closed system is constant; it does not predict the manner in which the energy in such a system may shift from place to place.
To make the second law of thermodynamics fully general, it must be seen to apply to electrical energy, to chemical energy, indeed to all forms of energy, and not to heat alone.
This did not mean that the laws of thermodynamics, established in the first place on the basis of a fluid theory of heat turned out to be false.
pratt.edu /~arch543p/readings/thermodynamics.html   (8405 words)

Thermodynamics deals only with the large scale response of a system which we can observe and measure in experiments.
We will present some simple examples of these laws and properties for a variety of physical systems, although we are most interested in thermodynamics in the study of propulsion systems and high speed flows.
Thermodynamic equilibrium leads to the large scale definition of temperature, as opposed to the small scale definition related to the kinetic energy of the molecules.
www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/thermo.html   (356 words)

Thermodynamics is the study of the conversion of energy between heat and other forms, mechanical in particular.
Although it is possible to speak of the subject matter of thermodynamics in a general sense, the establishment of analytical relationships among heat, work, and thermodynamic properties requires that they be related to a particular system.
For example, it is often impossible by means of thermodynamic methods alone to make heat transfer calculations if a system is defined so that both heat transfer and diffusional mass transfer occur simultaneously through the same area on the boundary of the system.
thermal-energy.net   (552 words)

From its Greek etymology, "thermodynamics" could be the study of the forces associated with beans, or with heat.
This was the fundamental concept of thermodynamics, the new science of heat and force.
Thermodynamics can limp along on such an unsatisfying definition, but it was found possible to make a better definition that does not depend on the properties of a substance.
www.du.edu /~jcalvert/phys/thermo.htm   (4775 words)

 Chemical Thermodynamics
The scientific discipline that intersects the areas of chemistry and physics is commonly known as physical chemistry, and it is in that area that a thorough study of thermodynamics takes place.
Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes accompanying physcial and chemical changes.
You might remember the first law of thermodynamics: energy cannot be created or destroyed.
www.shodor.org /UNChem/advanced/thermo   (1674 words)

We have criticized evolutionists for their lack of understanding of basic thermodynamic principles, and we have criticized creationists for their inadequate explanation of why thermodynamic considerations rule out any possibility of evolution.
That’s why thermodynamics, which is generally a mechanical engineering course, is usually required for graduation with a mechanical, electrical, civil, or chemical engineering degree.
Thermodynamics is, from an engineer’s point of view, the ultimate science.
www.ridgenet.net /~do_while/sage/v7i1f.htm   (1850 words)

The first law of thermodynamics is a law of energy conservation and it is based on experimental observations.
The second law of thermodynamics is ometimes called the law of entropy as it introduces the important property called entropy.
thermodynamic process of a typical jet engine can be modelled using an ideal Brayton cycle, which consists of an isentropic compression, an isobaric combustion (heat addition) and an isentropic expansion processes.
www.eng.fsu.edu /~shih/eml3016/thermodynamics/thermodynamics.htm   (452 words)

Thermodynamics is an experimental science based on a small number of principles that are generalizations made from experience.
From the principles of thermodynamics one can derive general relations between such quantities as coefficients of expansion, compressibilities, specific heat capacities, heats of transformation, and magnetic and dielectric coefficients, especially as these are affected by temperature.
Thermodynamics is complementary to kinetic theory and statistical thermodynamics.
www.termodynamics.com   (404 words)

Included are the applications of chemical engineering thermodynamics to issues such as distribution of chemicals in the environment, safety, polymers, and solid-state processing.
Coverage includes empirical techniques and theory, with material on fundamentals of classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria, thermodynamic properties from volumetric data, intermolecular forces, fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures, viral coefficients for ordinary and quantum gases, polymer solutions, and osmotic systems.
A text for a three-semester graduate course in chemical thermodynamics emphasizing problem-solving skills in applying fundamentals to new and sometimes unusual situations.
engineeringbookshelf.tripod.com /bk_chemical/thermodynamics.htm   (1159 words)

Thermodynamics is the branch of science that deals with the conversions of various forms of energy and the effect on the state of a system.
Thermodynamic process is a way of changing one or more of the properties in a system resulting in a change of the state of the system.
When the second law of thermodynamics states that not all the supplied heat in a heat engine can be used to do work, the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction of the heat which can be so used.
www.universe-review.ca /R13-09-thermodynamics.htm   (3896 words)

Thermodynamic calculations do not give information as to the rates of reaction only whether they are favorable or not.
Free energy is a valuable concept because it allows one to determine whether a reaction will proceed and allows one to calculate the equilibrium constant of the reaction which defines the extent to which a reaction can proceed.
Two or more reactions in a cell sometimes can be coupled so that thermodynamically unfavorable reactions and favorable reactions are combined to drive the overall process in the favorable direction.
web.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/thermodynamics.html   (1538 words)

 Into the Cool: Energy Flow, Thermodynamics, and Life by Eric D. Schneider and Dorion Sagan
Thermodynamics, often considered boring and irrelevant—a gray mathematical wasteland of steam tables and arcane verbiage, important perhaps for laboratory measurement of molecules, for creationists or Victorian historians, but of no concern to the ordinary scientist or person—turns out to be a most fascinating field.
But theirs was a thermodynamics of equilibrium systems—systems that were boring, because they were headed toward stasis, an end state where nothing (or at least nothing of interest) happened.
This book focuses on how thermodynamics has evolved over the past fifty years to allow for the study of a new class of thermodynamic systems known as nonequilibrium or dissipative systems because they exist some distance away from equilibrium.
www.press.uchicago.edu /Misc/Chicago/739368.html   (3643 words)

 Thermodynamics - Succeed in Physical Science
Thermodynamics is the study of the connection between heat and work and the conversion of one into the other.
There are two laws of thermodynamics that explain the connection between work and heat.
A third variation on the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy available for work in the universe is continually decreasing.
www.school-for-champions.com /science/thermodyn.htm   (1160 words)

 CHP - Thermodynamics Intro   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
As the name implies, thermo-dynamics is concerned with changes in heat, which is one form of energy.
A broader definition is that thermodynamics is the set of excepted behaviors (laws) that let us predict the possible changes in energy of a chemical or physical system.
Thermodynamics describes the changes in the form of energy when a reaction occurs, for example, converting chemical energy to heat.
www.chem.vt.edu /chem-ed/general/thermo.html   (316 words)

 Physics Encyclopedia: Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics laws - nice lectures from Tennessi Univ.
Applied thermodynamics - a very good tutorial with both theroetical concepts coverage and numerous applications.
Thermodynamics laws and Entropy - nice lectures from Tennessi Univ.
members.tripod.com /~IgorIvanov/physics/thermo.html   (276 words)

 IoHT :: 20+ Variations of the Third Law of Thermodynamics
If the entropy of each element is some crystalline state be taken as zero at the absolute zero of temperature, every substance has a finite positive entropy; but at the absolute zero of temperature the entropy may become zero, and does so become in the case of perfect crystalline substances.
The contribution to the entropy of a system by each aspect which is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium tends to zero as the temperature tends to zero.
The entropy of all pure substances in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature of the substance approaches absolute zero [Nernst theorem].
www.humanthermodynamics.com /3rd-Law-Variations.html   (569 words)

 THERMODYNAMICS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The latter is called thermodynamic entropy whose extreme form is dispersed heat and manifested in a uniform temperature distribution.
The third law of thermodynamics, or the asymptotic law, states that all processes slow down as they operate closer to the thermodynamic equilibrium making it difficult to reach that equilibrium in practice.
This law suggests that the powerful and fast changes which are typical of technology and characteristic of living forms of organization are bound to occur only at levels far removed from thermodynamic equilibrium.
pespmc1.vub.ac.be /ASC/THERMODYNAM.html   (221 words)

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