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Topic: Thermosphere


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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  
  Thermosphere
The thermosphere (literally "heat sphere") is the outer layer of the atmosphere, separated from the mesosphere by the mesopause.
Within the thermosphere temperatures rise continually to well beyond 1000°C. The few molecules that are present in the thermosphere receive extraordinary amounts of energy from the Sun, causing the layer to warm to such high temperatures.
Therefore, since the air is so thin within the thermosphere, such temperature values are not comparable to those of the troposphere or stratosphere.
www.ace.mmu.ac.uk /eae/Atmosphere/Older/Thermosphere.html   (178 words)

  
 Atmosphere - Thermosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Thermosphere is the uppermost region of the earth's atmosphere.
As a result, the atmospheric pressure in the lower thermosphere is a million or more times as low as the pressure at sea level.
The region of ionized particles is calld the iconosphere and it extends the thermosphere.
library.thinkquest.org /C005686/htmfiles/thermosphere.htm   (143 words)

  
 The Thermosphere
The Earth's thermosphere is the layer of the atmosphere which is first exposed to the Sun's radiation and so is first heated by the Sun.
Because of the thin air in the thermosphere, scientists can't measure the temperature directly.
The thermosphere also includes the region of the Earth's atmosphere called the ionosphere.
www.windows.ucar.edu /tour/link=/earth_science/Atm_Science/Temp_structure/structure_thermo.html&edu=high   (226 words)

  
 Thermosphere Summary
The upper part of the mesosphere and a big part of the thermosphere overlap with the ionosphere, which is a region defined on the basis of electric properties.
In the thermosphere, oxygen molecules absorb the energy from the Sun's rays, which results in the warming of the air.
Because the thermosphere and exosphere belong to the upper atmosphere, the density of the air in addition to the atmospheric pressure is greatly reduced when compared to the atmosphere at Earth's surface.
www.bookrags.com /Thermosphere   (514 words)

  
 Climate Change Affecting Earth's Outermost Atmosphere - News Release
Lower density in the thermosphere, which is the highest layer of the atmosphere, reduces the drag on satellites in low Earth orbit, allowing them to stay airborne longer.
As it cools, the thermosphere settles, so that the density at a given height is reduced.
During the active phase of the cycle, ultraviolet light and energetic particles from the Sun increase, producing a warming and expansion of the upper atmosphere.
www.ucar.edu /news/releases/2006/thermosphere.shtml   (881 words)

  
 The Atmosphere
The mesopause separates the mesophere from the thermosphere.
The upper and lower layers of the thermosphere will be studied more closely during the Tethered Satellite Mission (TSS-1R).
The exosphere starts at the top to the thermosphere and continues until it merges with interplanetary gases, or space.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /academy/space/atmosphere.html   (568 words)

  
 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Thermosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The thermosphere is that layer, of the Earth's atmosphere, which is directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere.
Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of highly energetic solar radiation by the small amount of residual oxygen still present.
Temperatures can rise to 2,000°C. Radiation causes the scattered air particles in this layer to become charged electrically (see ionosphere), enabling radio waves to bounce off and be received beyond the horizon.
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/th/Thermosphere   (160 words)

  
 Atmosphere | Troposphere | Stratosphere | Mesosphere | Thermosphere
In the troposphere and mesosphere, temperature generally falls with increasing altitude, whilst in the stratosphere and thermosphere, temperature rises with increasing altitude.
The ionosphere, for example, which occupies the same region of the atmosphere as the thermosphere, is defined by the presence of ions, a physico-chemical criterion.
It is separated from the stratosphere by the stratopause and from the thermosphere by the mesopause.
www.weather-climate.org.uk /02.php   (1590 words)

  
 The Seattle Times: Nation & World: Greenhouse effect could cause space problem
The thermosphere is the fourth layer of Earth's atmosphere — only the exosphere is higher — and it contains substantially less gas than the lower levels.
Because the thermosphere does not benefit from the protective shield of the lower atmosphere, it is prone to greater swings in density and temperature.
At high points in the solar activity cycle, Solomon said, the thermosphere becomes sufficiently dense that some of the space junk is slowed by atmospheric drag and falls to the lower atmosphere, where it burns up and is destroyed.
seattletimes.nwsource.com /html/nationworld/2003474786_space13.html?syndication=rss   (741 words)

  
 NOAA/SEC and SET/SpaceWx - The SOLAR2000 E10.7 Index - The Solar Spectrum and Terrestrial Effects
The thermosphere describes that part of the neutral atmosphere dominated by exponential temperature increases to a maximum temperature plateau, and include atomic or molecular species in diffusive equilibrium.
The thermosphere ends at the boundary with the exosphere, approximately 500-700 km, where atoms are in free escape from the atmosphere.
The thermosphere is heated by solar UV and EUV wavelengths where photons are absorbed by atoms and molecules leading to their dissociation or ionization.
www.sec.noaa.gov /spacewx/Solar_Spectrum.html   (1225 words)

  
 MIT Haystack Observatory: Thermospheric Science
The density of the neutral atmosphere, highest near the surface of the Earth, decreases exponentially with increasing altitude.
Although behavior of the thermosphere and ionosphere is governed by different physical processes, these processes are tightly coupled and mutually dependent, with a complicated chain of cause-and-effect phenomena.
The thermosphere absorbs ionizing solar radiation, thus affecting the intensity of the radiation at lower altitudes.
www.haystack.edu /atm/science/thermo/index.html   (324 words)

  
 Thermosphere
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere.
The thermosphere, named from the Greek thermo for heat, begins about 80 km above the Earth.
Temperatures are highly dependent on solar activity, and can rise to 2,000°C. Radiation causes the scattered air particles in this layer to become electrically charged (see ionosphere), enabling radio waves to bounce off and be received beyond the horizon.
www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/t/th/thermosphere.html   (166 words)

  
 The Thermosphere
The Thermosphere is so big that it is divided into two additional parts: the Ionosphere and the Exosphere.
There are very few particles in the Thermosphere, however, so not enough particles would strike a thermometer to heat it.
The outer layer of the Thermosphere is called the Exosphere.
members.tripod.com /atmosphere_guys/thermosphere.html   (336 words)

  
 Observation and Simulation of Winds and Temperatures in the Antarctic Thermosphere for August 2 -
The thermosphere was not sunlit except for a thin region of the of the Antarctic coast in the direction of 12 noon local solar time.
Polar plot of measured winds in the upper thermosphere at Mawson, Antarctica averaged for the quiet period 920802 to 920804.
Polar plot of measured winds in the upper thermosphere at Halley, Antarctica averaged for the quiet period 920802 to 920804.
www.gi.alaska.edu /space/roger_smith/papers/aug92/observt1.htm   (5379 words)

  
 Climate change: Good for satellites in low Earth orbit? - The Planetary Society Blog | The Planetary Society
In the much thinner thermosphere, a carbon dioxide molecule absorbs energy when it collides with an oxygen molecule, but there is ample time for it to radiate energy to space before another collision occurs.
As it cools, the thermosphere settles, so that the density at a given height is reduced.
Another natural phenomenon that affects the density of the thermosphere is the 11-year solar activity cycle.
www.planetary.org /blog/article/00000794   (601 words)

  
 CO2 emissions predicted to reduce density of thermosphere by 2017
According to Solomon, lower density in the thermosphere, which is the highest layer of the atmosphere, would reduce the drag on satellites in low Earth orbit, allowing them to stay airborne longer.
According to researchers, the 11 year old cycle of solar activity is also affecting the density of the thermosphere.
For their study, the team used a computer model of the upper atmosphere that incorporated the solar cycle as well as the gradual increase of carbon dioxide due to human activities.
news.webindia123.com /news/articles/World/20061212/534967.html   (544 words)

  
 Carbon dioxide emissions predicted to reduce density of Earth's outermost atmosphere by 2017
Lower density inthe thermosphere, which is the highest layer of the atmosphere, would reduce the drag on satellites in low Earth orbit, allowing them to stay airborne longer.
During the active phase of the cycle, ultraviolet light and energetic particles from the sun increase, producing a warming and expansion of the upper atmosphere.
The amount of drag depends on the density of the thermosphere, which is why satellite planners need better predictions of how the thermosphere changes.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2006-12/nsf-cde121106.php   (662 words)

  
 Vibrationally Excited N Molecules in Triton's Thermosphere, 15-9124
(v) molecules in the thermosphere of Triton is important for the ionospheric sink.
Thus an accurate modeling of each of the 40 vibrational levels as a function of altitude self-consistently with the ionospheric calculations is required.
The model density profiles of atomic nitrogen are shown for three model in comparison with Voyager measurements at 200 km and 400 km altitudes with error bars.
www.swri.org /3pubs/ird1999/15912499.htm   (490 words)

  
 Greenhouse Effect Could Cause a Space Problem - washingtonpost.com
But just as all those cars and factories burning gasoline and coal are said to be creating a greenhouse effect, causing the lower atmosphere to warm, new research has concluded that the carbon dioxide released by humans is gradually changing the upper atmosphere, too.
But on another level, the finding, he said, is quite important because climate researchers theorized in the late 1980s that carbon dioxide released by burning fossil fuels could have an effect on the outer atmosphere.
The thermosphere is the fourth layer of Earth's atmosphere -- only the exosphere is higher -- and it contains substantially less gas than the lower levels.
www.washingtonpost.com /wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101241.html   (1009 words)

  
 Solar Activity Puffs Up Earth's Atmosphere
The thermosphere is about a million times less dense than the atmosphere at sea level, but that's enough to affect the orbits of these satellites."
The density of the thermosphere can soar by a factor of 50 during solar maximum, with a commensurate increase in atmospheric drag on satellites.
The photons that heat the thermosphere are at least 10 times more energetic and they vary 100 times more [between solar minimum and solar maximum].
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2000/ast30may_1m.htm   (1379 words)

  
 MAD Scientist: Feeling of Heat in the Thermosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Molecules are far apart in the thermosphere, so a thermometer doesn't register the 2000 degrees Celsius plus that it is. It registers below 0 degrees Celsius.
No, a person who was sitting in the thermosphere would not feel the heat of the atmosphere at all; like the thermometer, he would probably feel cold.
Since "this gas is hot" means "the molecules of this gas are moving helter-skelter very fast", the result is that the molecules crashing into the front of the spacecraft will seem very much hotter than their actual temperature.
spider.ipac.caltech.edu /staff/waw/mad/mad14.html   (530 words)

  
 Study: CO2 reducing Earth's thermosphere
Recent observations by scientists tracking satellite orbits have shown the thermosphere, which begins about 60 miles above Earth and extends upward to 400 miles, is beginning to become less dense.
That confirms a prediction made at NCAR in 1989 by Ray Roble and Robert Dickinson that the thermosphere will cool and contract because of increasing carbon dioxide levels.
The new study is the first to analyze whether the observed change will become more pronounced during the next decade.
news.webindia123.com /news/articles/Science/20061212/535334.html   (185 words)

  
 RAND | Reports | Tidal Oscillations in the Thermosphere and Their Implications for Upper Atmosphere Density Models.
A study of the variation of atmospheric parameters in the lower thermosphere (80-150 km) in terms of the theory of atmospheric tides.
The effects of heat conductivity and absorption of solar radiation in the thermosphere are added to the existing tidal theory.
The results are then compared with observations of winds in the lower thermosphere to determine the extent to which the tidal theory can explain the observed variations of meteorological variables in the lower thermosphere.
www.rand.org /pubs/reports/R0585   (347 words)

  
 thermosphere   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Ionosphere or Thermosphere, name given to a layer or layers of ionized air in the atmosphere extending from almost 80 km (50 mi) above the surface of the earth to altitudes of 640 km (400 mi) and more.
At these altitudes the air is extremely thin, having about the density of the gas in a vacuum tube.
The F layer rises during the night and therefore changes its reflecting characteristics.
library.thinkquest.org /21418/spacee/thermos.htm   (361 words)

  
 LTCS Website   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It entails coordinated investigation of the mesosphere/thermosphere region using a combination of observations and modeling efforts with the goal of better understanding the dynamic and electrodynamic processes coupling the mesosphere to the lower and upper thermosphere.
A cornerstone of LTCS is the conduct of campaigns involving simultaneous observations by a variety of instruments distributed globally over periods of several consecutive days.
The purpose of LTCS is to perform coordinated investigations of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere combining both experimental and theoretical modeling efforts.
www.dartmouth.edu /~cfesen/ltcs   (257 words)

  
 Preparing for the Living With a Star Ionosphere-Thermosphere Storm Probe I Mission I - SPA-Aeronomy [SA]
The ionosphere and thermosphere constitute an important part of near Earth space environment where low-Earth orbiting satellites operate and through which communication and navigation signals are being transmitted.
Solar UV and EUV radiation is the main source of energy for heating, ionization, and photochemical reactions in the thermosphere and ionosphere.
The mid-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere are influenced by both the equatorial processes and the polar inputs.
www.agu.org /meetings/sm05/sm05-sessions/sm05_SA13B.html   (1702 words)

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