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Topic: Third Crusade

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 Third Crusade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
The Crusader army, thirsty and demoralized, was destroyed in the ensuing battle.
Accounts of events surrounding the Third Crusade were written by the anonymous authors of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre (parts of which are attributed to Ernoul), and by Ambroise, Roger of Howden, Ralph of Diceto, and Giraldus Cambrensis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Third_Crusade   (2564 words)

The crusades took place through the 11th and 13th centuries A.D. The original intent of the crusades was to recapture “Christian” lands that had been invaded by Muslims.
Third Crusade: The Third Crusade was launched in 1189 A.D. In 1187 A.D., the Muslim armies, led by Saladin, had re-conquered Jerusalem.
The Ninth Crusade: The Ninth Crusade was Led by King Edward I of England in 1271 A.D. It was an attempt to defeat the Mamluk sultan of Baibers.
www.allaboutgod.com /crusades.htm   (779 words)

 Crusades - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Later crusades were launched against various targets outside of the Levant for a mixture of religious, economic, and political reasons, such as the Albigensian Crusade, the Aragonese Crusade, and the Northern Crusades.
A crusader would, after pronouncing a solemn vow, receive a cross from the hands of the pope or his legates, and was thenceforth considered a "soldier of the Church".
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Crusade   (6840 words)

 Royalty.nu - Royal History - The Crusades
A concise, general history of the crusades from the first calls to arms in the later 11th century to the fall of the last crusader strongholds in Syria and Palestine in 1291.
Crusader Archaeology: The Material Culture of the Latin East by Adrian J. Boas.
Lionhearts: Richard I, Saladin, and the Era of the Third Crusade by Geoffrey Regan.
www.royalty.nu /history/religion/Crusades.html   (1690 words)

 Third Crusade, 1189-1192
Crusade that followed Saladin's re-conquest of much of Palestine in 1287, which included the lose of Jerusalem.
The Third Crusade was led by Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany, Philip II Augustus of France and Richard I the Lionheart of England, the three greatest monarchs of Western Europe at the time, all of whom were experienced military leaders, although Philip and Richard were already at odds before the crusade began.
Both Richard and Saladin emerged from the Third Crusade with enhanced reputations, Saladin as the best of the infidels, and a honourable enemy, Richard as one of the great generals, and as a heroic knight.
www.historyofwar.org /articles/wars_crusade3rd.html   (382 words)

 Murano Magic: The Fourth Crusade
In the intervening period the Saracens had recaptured the territory and successfully defended it against the forces of the Second and Third Crusades (except for Acre, which was recovered by the Europeans in the Third Crusade).
The anomoly of Crusaders attacking a Christian city was overlooked by most of the assembled Crusaders in light of the financial shortfall they faced (though not by the Pope, who excommunicated all of the participants).
For the Crusaders, however, the first order of business was to decide how to divide the spoils that they confidently anticipated from their conquering and pillaging of the great capital city.
www.boglewood.com /murano/crusade.html   (1702 words)

 The Third Crusade - Frederick Barbarossa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The idea of the crusades was cheapened by their too frequent and trivial use.
Whenever the pope quarreled with anyone now, he called for a crusade until the word ceased to mean anything but an attempt to give flavor to an unpalatable war.
Richard I of England now became the chief leader of the Crusade amid great difficulties caused by the jealousies of other princes and his own inconsiderate eagerness, for he was but a glorified schoolboy.
latter-rain.com /crusade/cruthr.htm   (659 words)

 Rejection of Pascal's Wager: The Crusades
The Crusades is the name given to a series of military expeditions, which spanned the eleventh to the thirteenth century, organized by western Christendom to recover the holy land of Palestine from the Muslims.
Convinced that God was on their side (apparently one of the crusaders, enlightened by numerous visions, found the holy lance that pierced Jesus side during the crucifixion [John 19:34]), surged out from the city to kill the infidels.
The Third Crusade (1189-1192) was launched when the Muslims, under Saladin (1138-1193) recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.
www.geocities.com /paulntobin/crusades.html   (2043 words)

Although it was led by the Kings of France and Germany, the Crusade failed to recapture Edessa.
After the proclamation of the Third Crusade by the new Pope, Gregory VIII, three of the most powerful rulers in Europe took the cross: Frederick I Barbarossa ('Redbeard'), Emperor of Germany, Philip II of France, and Richard I of England, known as the Lionheart.
The Battle of Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin were short-term causes of the proclamation of the Third Crusade.
www.bischgym.at /engarbspr/crusade3.htm   (769 words)

 The Crusades - Features on thehistorychannel.co.uk
The Sixth Crusade, 1228-29, undertaken by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, was simply a peaceful visit, in the course of which the emperor made a truce with the Muslims, securing the partial surrender of Jerusalem and other holy places.
This event led to the Seventh Crusade, 1248-54, due solely to the idealistic enterprise of Louis IX of France.
The fall of Jaffa and Antioch to the Muslims in 1268 caused Louis IX to undertake the Eighth Crusade in 1270, which was cut short by his death in Tunisia.
www.thehistorychannel.co.uk /site/features/the_crusades-1.php   (1888 words)

 The Crusades
The crusaders were a bit overzealous, sacking a few cities on their way to the Holy Land for food, water, and excitement.
The crusaders went to Constantinople, and after a few misunderstandings, the crusaders decided that they were sufficiently provoked to sack the last remnant of Rome.
The crusaders were trapped on an island and were running out of supplies when the Egyptians attacked and decisively defeated them.
www.rit.edu /~tgj7024/imm/project3/crusades.html   (1269 words)

 ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies
Despite skirmishing, the Crusaders avoided being provoked into battle or being drawn away from the main body of the army.
Because of the Third Crusade, Outremer still clung to a narrow strip of cities along the coast of Lebanon and Palestine, and those cities could serve as the basis for future efforts to reclaim Jerusalem.
Moreover, the victories had served as a significant counter-balance to Saladin's early victories, and he emerged from the Third Crusade not quite as invincible as he had at first appeared.
the-orb.net /textbooks/crusade/thirdcru.html   (5366 words)

 the third crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Third Crusade began in 1189 as an attempt to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin.
Unfortunately for his crusade, the third crusade, the emperor drowned in the Saleph River on June 10, 1190.
The failure of The Third Crusade would also lead to the call for the Fourth Crusade six years later.
www.crusades-history.com /The-Third-Crusade.aspx   (680 words)

 Third Crusade
The papal bull summoning the Third Crusade was issued by Gregory VIII in 1187, after Jerusalem had been recaptured by the armies of Islam under Saladin.
The crusaders failed to capture Jerusalem, but obtained from Saladin, by treaty, the seacoast from Tyre to Joppa for three years, and protection for pilgrims on their journey to Jerusalem.
In this case, as in the other Crusades, it was not so much the Saracens, or even the splendid abilities of Saladin, which defeated the Crusaders, but their feuds among themselves.
jmgainor.homestead.com /files/PU/Cru/3cr.htm   (446 words)

 Amazon.ca: Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade: Books: James Jr Reston   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Third Crusade, spanning five years at the end of the 12th century, was, writes James Reston Jr.
The Third Crusade, as Reston ably shows, was complicated by fierce rivalries among the Christian leaders, by a chain of military disasters that led to the destruction of an invading German army and its emperor, and by the dedication of an opposing Islamic army that shared both a goal and a language.
Chronicling the often inglorious exploits during the third crusade (1187-1192) of King Richard I of England and Saladin, the sultan of Egypt, Syria, Arabia and Mesopotamia, Reston's panoramic narrative begins with the first crusade, launched by Pope Urban II in the last years of the 11th century.
www.amazon.ca /Warriors-God-Richard-Lionheart-Saladin/dp/0385495625   (1502 words)

 Third Crusade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
By March 1188, Henry II of England, Richard (Henry's son), Philip II of France, and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I had sworn crusade vows.
The Germany army was not delayed, but their progress disintegrated upon the death of Frederick I while crossing the Goksu river in June 1190.
Henry II had died before even leaving on crusade, but Richard and Philip arrived in the Holy Land by the summer of 1191.
www.umich.edu /~eng415/timeline/summaries/third_crusade.htm   (293 words)

 The Age of Chivalry - The Third Crusade 1189-1192   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
A new Crusade was preached and it would be led by some of the greatest leaders of the day, most notably Richard the Lionheart.
He was the architect of the jihad that mobilised all of Islam against the Franks; he annihilated the Christians at Hattin, re-conquered Jerusalem and brought the Crusader kingdoms to its knees.
The Third Crusade failed in that it did not recapture Jerusalem but it did secure the Crusader Kingdoms for another 100 years.
www.taoc.co.uk /content/view/51/48   (3679 words)

Saladin and Richard the Lionheart are two names that tend to dominate the Crusades.
Both have gone down in Medieval history as great military leaders though their impact was limited to the Third Crusade.
It was led by Richard I (Richard the Lionheart), Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany and King Philip II of France.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /Saladin.htm   (873 words)

 chronological 1189 - 1199
September 15: Alarmed by the growing threat of the Crusaders camped outside of Acre, Saladin launches an attack on the Crusader camp which fails.
The Crusaders land for water and provisions in the natural harbor of Suda Bay.
January 20: After deciding that a siege of Jerusalem during the winter weather would be unwise, Richard the Lionheart's Crusading forces move into the ruined city of Ascalon, demolished by Saladin the previous year in order to deny it to the Crusaders.
www.allcrusades.com /CHRONOLOGICAL/chrono-1189-1199.html   (4335 words)

 The Crusades | Special Topics Page | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Crusaders then took over many of the cities on the Mediterranean coast and built a large number of fortified castles all over the Holy Land to protect their new territories.
By the end of the Third Crusade (1189–92), however, Crusader forces had gained Cyprus and the city of Acre.
In 1291, the Crusader city of Acre fell, and the era of Latin Crusader kingdoms ended.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/crus/hd_crus.htm   (601 words)

 H-Net Review: Michael Pedrotty on Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the ...
Reston characterizes Islam as the "native faith" of the Holy Land and states that, "In the first instance [the Third Crusade] was a Christian Holy War that was met in response and in reaction by the Muslim concept of jihad" (pp.
The Third Crusade supposedly dissolved because Philip could not bear to labor on in his ex-lover's shadow (pp.
In fact, Richard himself explained why he dared not press the attack, and his decision was in full accord with the vast majority of the most experienced military minds of the host--men of the time who lived or died by their skill at judging these affairs.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=296791047652032   (1563 words)

 ::The Third Crusade::
The Third Crusade is dominated by the leadership offered by the two main leaders involved - Saladin and Richard the Lionheart.
This was written at the time of the Third Crusade
This was written by Baha' ad-Din Ibn Shaddad, a Muslim writer, during the Third Crusade.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /third_crusade.htm   (583 words)

Thomas A. The Crusade of Richard I, 1189-92.
The Leper King and His Heirs: Baldwin IV and the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.
SSCLE contribution on the events that led up to, and including, Saladin's victory at the Battle of Hattin which caused the Third Crusade.
www.allcrusades.com /BIBLIOGRAPHY/bibliography-04.html   (223 words)

 Medieval Sources online
Jerusalem during the Crusades Map of Jerusalem from the time of the crusades shows the various hospitals, temples, towers and fortifications of the Holy Land (Medieval Sourcebook)
Chronicles the ill-fated Crusade of French and German children to recover the Holy Sepulcher from the Muslims in 1212 CE (Military History)
Precursor to the actual first crusade, this ill-conceived crusade of poor people was led by Peter the Hermit at the bequest of Pope Urban II (Military History)
www.medievalsources.co.uk /portal_crusades.htm   (1582 words)

 Amazon.com: Lionhearts: Richard 1, Saladin, and the Era of the Third Crusade: Books: Geoffrey Regan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Lionhearts is the story of the Third Crusade (1189 to 1192), which sent thousands of men into a holy war.
Regan is a skillful writer, and his pages are peppered with vivid odds and ends: pious crusaders operating "God's own catapult"; Saladin sending a gift of snow and fruit to Richard I, preparing to besiege Acre; small rodents called jerboas leaping up and alarming the crusaders.
Regan points out that this is one of the most amazing incidents in the entire history of military affairs during the crusade, or even during the medieval period.
www.amazon.com /Lionhearts-Richard-Saladin-Third-Crusade/dp/0802713548   (3040 words)

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