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Topic: Thirty Years War

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  Thirty Years War. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The war as a whole may be considered a struggle of German Protestant princes and foreign powers (France, Sweden, Denmark, England, the United Provinces) against the unity and power of the Holy Roman Empire as represented by the Hapsburgs, allied with the Catholic princes, and against the Hapsburgs themselves.
In 1629, Denmark, by the Treaty of Lübeck, withdrew from the war and surrendered the N German bishoprics.
The general results of the war may be said to have been a tremendous decrease in German population; devastation of German agriculture; ruin of German commerce and industry; the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a mere shell in the succeeding centuries; and the decline of Hapsburg greatness.
www.bartleby.com /65/th/ThirtyYe.html   (1366 words)

German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe, not only because nearly all the countries of Western Europe took part in it, but also on account of its connection with the other great European wars of the same era and on account of its final results.
In this year the command of the Bavarian army was assumed by the Duke of
www.newadvent.org /cathen/14648b.htm   (10042 words)

  Thirty Years War - Encyclopedia.com
The war as a whole may be considered a struggle of German Protestant princes and foreign powers (France, Sweden, Denmark, England, the United Provinces) against the unity and power of the Holy Roman Empire as represented by the Hapsburgs, allied with the Catholic princes, and against the Hapsburgs themselves.
The general results of the war may be said to have been a tremendous decrease in German population; devastation of German agriculture; ruin of German commerce and industry; the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a mere shell in the succeeding centuries; and the decline of Hapsburg greatness.
The rhetoric of death and destruction in the Thirty Years War.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-ThirtyYe.html   (2131 words)

 The Thirty Years War: Home Page
During the Thirty Years War the opponents were, on the one hand, the House of Austria: the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III together with their Spanish cousin Philip IV.
This phase of the Thirty Years War encompassed the years 1621 to 1624.
This phase of the Thirty Years War encompassed the years 1625 to 1630.
www.pipeline.com /~cwa/TYWHome.htm   (1338 words)

 The Thirty Years' War
In 1625 the war widened with the invasion of Germany by the king of Denmark and Norway, Christian IV, who expressed his support for Protestant princes.
The war that people called the Great War ended in 1648 with a negotiated settlement, the Peace of Westphalia - thirty years after the war's inception, with France and Spain continued to war for ten more years.
The Thirty Years' War, by Herbert Langer, 1980
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h25-war.html   (1443 words)

 Thirty Years War: Europe in Agony 1618 - 1648 Wargame War Game   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
Germany is plunged into thirty years of war that will last until 1648, when the exhausted combatants sign a peace establishing the competing spheres of interest that will control Germany for the next two centuries.
Thirty Years War recreates this conflict with the award winning game system used in GMT's Wilderness War, Paths of Glory, and For the People.
Thirty Years War allows the players to determine these and other historical what-ifs, while opening a window onto one of the most influential events in European history.
www.strategypage.com /strategypagegamestore/thirty_years_war.asp   (407 words)

 The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648
War was resolved upon in May 1625, in April 1626 Mansfeld was defeated in the Battle of Dessau, in August 1626 Christian's Danish Army in the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge.
The Swedish army carried the war from one region into another, in May 1639 appearing off Prague, their itinerary less dictated by the desire for conquest than by ravaging the countryside to feed her (growing) army.
The Thirty Years War changed the strategy of warfare, Sweden becoming the most accomplished land power of her time.
www.zum.de /whkmla/military/17cen/xxxywar.html   (2207 words)

 Battles of the Thirty Years War — www.greenwood.com
Guthrie's Battles of the Thirty Years War attempts to fill this gap, and it does so in solid if formulaic style, laying out the strengths of the opposing forces, the abilities and personalities of the commanders, and the tactical details of the actions...
The main emphasis is on the unique character and aspects of the Thirty Years War, with attention to the evolution of warfare and weapons, the impact of this evolution on actual operations, and the replacement of the previously dominant "tercio" style of warfare by the nascent linear system.
The Thirty Years War is considered within its own context, rather than merely as a poor relation to the linear or Napoleonic periods.
www.greenwood.com /catalog/GM2028.aspx   (433 words)

Therefore the Thirty Years' War, the region of Ostprignitz, the battle and &endash; last but not least &endash; the city of Wittstock with its historical buildings are parts of the ideal background for the set-up of Europe's first Thirty Years' War Museum.
The entry of France into the Thirty Years' War was the point of departure for a Franco-German traditional enmity, which was efficiently fomented during the late 19th century, while the Peace of Westphalia was interpreted as a visible sign of the inner conflicts and the powerlessness of the Reich.
Our notion of the 17th century and the Thirty Years' War is shaped by ebullient mirth and courtly splendour as well as deep religiosity and apprehension of death, formed by the apocalyptic scourges of the epoch: war, plague and famine.
www.uni-potsdam.de /u/geschichte/mdk/h1e.htm   (1814 words)

  Thirty Years' War information - Search.com
The Thirty Years' War, accompanied by famine and disease, was devastating.
In the decades after the war, while Austria and its German allies were defending against the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War (Battle of Vienna etc.), France under King Louis XIV used the occasion for aggressive expansion on both sides of the Rhine.
The war did much to end the age of mercenaries that had begun with the first landsknechts, and ushered in the age of well-disciplined national armies.
www.search.com /reference/Thirty_Years   (4518 words)

 Thirty Years' War - LoveToKnow 1911   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
THIRTY YEARS' WAR (1618-1648), the general name of a series of wars in Germany which began formally with the claim of Frederick the elector palatine to the throne of Bohemia and ended with the treaty of Westphalia.
Fifty years before the outbreak of the war the Convention of Passau had compromised the burning questions of the Reformation, but had left other equally important points as to the secularization of church lands and the consecration of Protestant bishops to the future.
From the battle of Stadtlohn to the pitiful end twenty years later, the decision of German quarrels lay in the hands of foreign powers, and for two centuries after the treaty of Westphalia the evil tradition was faithfully followed.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Thirty_Years'_War   (12088 words)

 [No title]
The Thirty Years' War had its roots in the ongoing religious struggle between Protestant and Catholic, which became bound up in the dynastic and imperial ambitions of the house of Hapsburg.
Nonetheless, in their own lands, the Habsburgs enjoyed greater political and religious control than before the war: they had gained loyal new followers from among the nobles by redistributing estates confiscated from rebels, and they were free to enforce religious conformity, which they did based on the model applied earlier in Bohemia.
The term Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648.
www.lycos.com /info/thirty-years-war--roman-catholic.html   (840 words)

 Women of the American Civil War Era
During the Civil War, Mary Adams wants to do more than work at the aid society so she sets out for the front lines, where she cleans the wounds of Lynn Rhodes and then conceals the fact that Lynn is female.
In 1861, Kate was 20 years old, her immediate future being beaus, courtship, and a gay social life before she settled down to become a proper southern matron.
Her widowed mother made it clear that 14-year-old James was now in charge of the running of the plantation and the protection of the rest of the family.
www.americancivilwar.com /women/women.html   (1589 words)

 Amazon.com: The Thirty Years' War 1618-1648: Books: Richard Bonney   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
It was one of the first wars where contemporaries stressed the importance of atrocities, the horrors of the fighting and also the sufferings of the civilian population.
The Thirty Years' War remains a conflict of key importance in the history of the development of warfare and the 'military revolution'.
The war which was fought to, and failed, settle once and for all, which religion a state's subjects should follow, succeeded in fracturing the once mighty Holy Roman Empire into over a thousand petty states and principalities.
www.amazon.com /Thirty-Years-War-1618-1648/dp/1841763780   (2153 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The Thirty Years War was a complicated period of military conflict in Europe.
The war was fought primarily in Germany as the various German Principalities allied themselves with the Holy Roman Empire or their opponents, France, Sweden, and Denmark.
War at the individual level is discussed and described using these sources, which are extensively quoted in their own words.
www.lycos.com /info/thirty-years-war.html   (504 words)

 Thirty Years' War Home Page
War exhaustion now led to a desire for peace, but there was no consensus on how this was to be achieved, and the fighting dragged on.
The breakthrough came in 1648, when Spain and Holland concluded their eighty year war, which had become enmeshed in the wider conflict of the Thirty Years' War, and the other combatants followed suit and settled their differences one after another.
Steinberg The 'Thirty Years War' and the conflict for European Hegemony 1600-1660.
www.strategos.demon.co.uk /tywhome   (1225 words)

This Saturday is the 30th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam war, and in marking it one cannot help but note the parallels with the present intervention.
In the 30 or so years between My Lai and Abu Ghraib, the dilemma of the officer corps – caught between the delusions of an elite that believes in the invincibility of American military power and the very real limitations of that power on the ground – has not changed very much.
The war we're fighting is different, the set of issues we face is more complex, and the ostensible reasons for the present conflict are not the same as they were during the Vietnam era – but we haven't changed all that much.
www.etherzone.com /2005/raim042905.shtml   (1449 words)

 Excite UK - Society - History - By Time Period - Seventeenth Century - Wars and Conflicts - Thirty Years War
Money being the sinews of war, this article describes the sources of French revenue both before and after intervention in the Thirty Years War.
Brief summaries of the war, its battles and its warlords, primarily focussed on the military dimension.
Lecture by Professor Gerhard Rempel that summarizes the course of the war and the individuals involved.
www.excite.co.uk /directory/Society/History/By_Time_Period/Seventeenth_Century/Wars_and_Conflicts/Thirty_Years_War   (494 words)

 A Thirty Years War? - by George Hunsinger
War is a quarrel between two thieves too cowardly to fight their own battle.
"The guerrilla war," he writes, "is likely to go on a decade to 15 years." But Paul Rogers, a diffident Oxford military expert, now echoes James Webb.
His "ostensibly rash" conclusion is that "a thirty-year war is in prospect." On June 19 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice acknowledged that America's involvement in Iraq is indeed "a generational commitment."
www.antiwar.com /orig/hunsinger.php?articleid=6435   (723 words)

 ::France and the Thirty Years War::
France was also out-of-touch with the more modern methods of fighting that were coming to the surface in the Thirty Years War.
No-one throughout Europe was particularly surprised by this as in October 1634, the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and the Roman Catholic princes of Germany had agreed to a joint attack on France.
France was not in such a favourable position and Richelieu had to raise loans, sell government offices to the highest bidder (though not necessarily the most talented) and to place government tax inspectors (Intendants) on permanent location in the provinces to ensure that taxes that were due for Paris actually got there.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /France_30YW.htm   (1388 words)

 [No title]
It was shown that the electorate of Brandenburg alone in the last few years had furnished hventy million gulden, to say nothing of the terrible disturbances and destruction that war always brings with it.
According to the decisions and decrees of the imperial diet, he is under no obligation to support an army by himself and bear unaided a burden that should be divided among all the members of the empire.
On the contrary, I have been now for several years goaded into it by the imperial party, not only through the reception accorded to our emissary to Lubeck, but also by the action of their general in aiding with his army our enemies, the Poles, to our great detriment.
www.shsu.edu /~his_ncp/Thirty.html   (3012 words)

 The Thirty Years War - NYRB Classics
She published her first history, The Thirty Years War (1938), before her thirtieth birthday, and in the years that followed wrote a succession of chronicles of seventeenth-century Europe that made her one of the most popular and best-known historians in Britain.
The Thirty Years War was long regarded as an occasion when the lowest depths of human depravity came into sight.
There has been much research in the seventy years since her book was written, but no historian of the War has matched the sweep and elegance of Wedgwood's writing.
www.nybooks.com /shop/product?product_id=4552   (550 words)

 H-Net Review: Paul Douglas Lockhart on The Later Thirty Years War: From the Battle of Wittstock to the Treaty of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The Later Thirty Years War: From the Battle of Wittstock to the Treaty of Westphalia.
The author's coverage of military actions outside of the main theatre of war, namely the Germanies and the Habsburg hereditary lands, is accordingly minimal, not well-balanced, and sometimes subject to factual error.
Again, Guthrie's book is not meant to be a general history of the Thirty Years' War, but a history of its campaigns only, and for that reason the book should not be condemned for shortcomings that lay outside the parameters of its stated purpose.
www.h-net.msu.edu /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=33121121184854   (1308 words)

 Thirty Years War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
After Bohemia was defeated the Protestant king of Denmark invaded the empire but was defeated by the famous general Albrecht von Wallenstein.
The war ended in stalemate and diplomats gathered to patch up affairs in the Peace of Westpahlia (1648).
The Thirty Years War persuaded everybody that neither the Protestants nor the Catholics could be completely victorious and dreams of an empire, united under a Catholic Church had to be abandoned.
www.hyperhistory.com /online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/thirty1.html   (304 words)

 Thirty Years War - Europe in Agony, 1618-1648 | BoardGameGeek
A direct decendant of Paths of Glory, 30 Years War covers the confusing post-Reformation conflict in central europe, as the Holy Roman Empire attempts to reassert domination over the protestant states.
On the side of Catholocism we have the Holy Roman Empire (Austria and some of Northern Italy at this point) and Spain, opposed by a cast of thousands: the German Protestants, Sweden at the height of her power, France, England, Denmark, and others.
Thirty Years War official errata and clarifications from GMT
www.boardgamegeek.com /game/2748   (304 words)

 Avoiding a Thirty Years War - Commentary - The Washington Times, America's Newspaper   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27)
The Thirty Years War (1618 - 1648) was caused by conflict among various Christian groups, notably the Catholics, the Lutherans and the Calvinists, and rival principalities.
After considerable blood-letting and economic destruction throughout much of Europe, the War was ended with the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia, which gave rise to the modern concept of the sovereign state.
Another Thirty Years War will most likely be avoided if our policymakers start looking at history for lessons of what has and has not worked in the past, rather than trying to force a new world order that the people may not want.
www.washtimes.com /commentary/20061220-092735-9159r.htm   (898 words)

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