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Topic: Thyroid gland


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  Thyroid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The thyroid is quite large for an endocrine gland - 15-40 grams in adults- and butterfly-shaped: the wings correspond to the lobes and the body to the isthmus of the thyroid.
The superior thyroid artery is the first branch of the external carotid, and supplies mostly the upper half of the thyroid gland, while the inferior thyroid artery is the major branch of the thyrocervical trunk, which comes off of the subclavian artery.
In particular, the parathyroid glands, which produce parathormone (PTH) reside on the posterior wall of the thyroid gland, and the recurrent laryngeal nerves, which provide motor control for all external muscles of the larynx except for the cricothyroid muscle, also runs along the posterior thyroid.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Thyroid   (851 words)

  
 MSN Encarta - Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland, endocrine gland found in almost all vertebrate animals and so called because it is located in front of and on each side of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx (see Endocrine System).
The thyroid gland in human beings is a brownish-red organ having two lobes connected by an isthmus; it normally weighs about 28 g (about 1 oz) and consists of cuboidal epithelial cells arranged to form small sacs known as vesicles or follicles.
The thyroid gland appears to be quite sensitive to irradiation: during the 1970s an increased incidence of thyroid cancer was found among people who had been treated early in life with X rays for such conditions as acne, ringworm, and tonsilitis.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761556732&pn=1   (616 words)

  
 AllRefer.com - thyroid gland (Anatomy And Physiology) - Encyclopedia
Thyroid tissue is composed of millions of tiny saclike follicles, which store thyroid hormone in the form of thyroglobulin, a glycoprotein.
Before it is released into the bloodstream, the thyroid hormone is converted into thyroxine and small quantities of the other closely related thyroid hormones.
The thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin, which is involved in the regulation of serum calcium in the body.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/T/thyroidg.html   (410 words)

  
 Thyroid - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The thyroid is quite large for an endocrine gland - 15-30 grams in adults- and butterfly-shaped: the wings correspond to the lobes and the body to the isthmus of the thyroid.
The superior thyroid artery is the first branch of the external carotid, and supplies mostly the top half of the thyroid gland.
The inferior thyroid artery is the major branch of the thyrocervical trunk, which comes off the subclavian artery.
open-encyclopedia.com /Thyroid_gland   (693 words)

  
 XI. Splanchnology. 4. The Ductless Glands. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The deep or medial surface is moulded over the underlying structures, viz., the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, the trachea, the Constrictor pharyngis inferior and posterior part of the Cricothyreoideus, the esophagus (particularly on the left side of the neck), the superior and inferior thyroid arteries, and the recurrent nerves.
According to Bensley 180 the thyroid gland prepares and secretes into the vascular channels a substance, formed under normal conditions in the outer pole of the cell and excreted from it directly without passing by the indirect route through the follicular cavity.
The veins form a plexus on the surface of the gland and on the front of the trachea; from this plexus the superior, middle, and inferior thyroid veins arise; the superior and middle end in the internal jugular, the inferior in the innominate vein.
www.bartleby.com /107/272.html   (1398 words)

  
 The Thyroid Gland: A General Introduction | thyroid disease | goitre | goiter | | iodine | hormones
The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck attached to the lower part of the voicebox (or larynx) and to the upper part of the windpipe (or trachea).
Abnormalities of the thyroid gland are common and affect one in twenty (1 in 20) of the Canadian population.
In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the goitre is caused by an accumulation of white blood cells and fluid (inflammation) in the thyroid gland.
www.thyroid.ca /Guides/HG01.html   (987 words)

  
 Pathology Education: Endocrine
The thyroid gland develops from an evagination of the tongue anlage, termed foramen cecum, and then descends to the neck.
Iodination of colloid at epithelial apex micro-villous/colloid interphase of gland.
Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's) is the most common form (affecting approximately 2% to 4% of the population in the 5th decade) and frequently serum antibodies toward thyroglobulin or thyroid microsomal an-tigen can be found.
www.pathology.vcu.edu /education/endocrine/endocrine/newthyroid   (2952 words)

  
 Salivary Glands & Thyroid
90% of salivary stones occur in the submandibular gland, and 10% occur in the parotid gland.
Neoplasms of the salivary glands usually occur in the major salivary glands, with 80% occurring in the parotids, and almost 20% occurring in the submandibular glands.
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid arises from parafollicular or C-cells.
www.utmb.edu /oto/MedicalStudent.dir/sal-gland-thyroid.htm   (1238 words)

  
 Thyroid Gland
Your thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands, which make hormones to regulate physiological functions in your body.
Other endocrine glands are the pancreas, the pituitary, the adrenal glands, the parathyroid glands, the testes, and the ovaries.
Thyroid surgery is an operation to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.
www.entnet.org /healthinfo/thyroid/thyroid_gland.cfm   (822 words)

  
 Patient Information - Santa Monica Thyroid Diagnostic Center
The influence of the thyroid gland is both far-reaching and critical to normal body function.
Despite its pervasive influence, however, the thyroid gland and its disorders are still not widely understood among the general public.
The thyroid gland operates as part of a feedback mechanism involving the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
www.thyroid.com /patient.html   (1553 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL--SECOND HOME EDITION, Introduction in Ch. 163, Thyroid Gland Disorders
Thyroid hormones influence the metabolic rate in two ways: by stimulating almost every tissue in the body to produce proteins and by increasing the amount of oxygen that cells use.
As thyroid hormones are used, a small amount of the iodine contained in the hormones is released, returns to the thyroid gland, and is recycled to produce more thyroid hormones.
Thyroid scanning can also help determine whether the functioning of a specific area of the thyroid is normal, overactive, or underactive compared with the rest of the gland.
www.merck.com /mrkshared/mmanual_home2/sec13/ch163/ch163a.jsp   (895 words)

  
 Your Thyroid Gland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Your thyroid is one of the endocrine glands which make hormones to regulate physiological functions in your body.
The thyroid gland manufactures thyroid hormone, which regulates the rate at which your body carries on its necessary functions.
Other endocrine glands are: the pituitary, the adrenal glands, the parathyroid glands, the testes and the ovaries.
www.slcent.com /thyroid.html   (876 words)

  
 Thyroid Deficiency: Online Reference For Health Concerns
The thyroid gland secretes hormones which control the body's metabolic rate in two primary ways: by stimulating tissue response in the body to produce specialized proteins and by increasing cell oxygenation.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism, presenting with an enlarged thyroid gland that becomes nonfunctional, with the active parts of the gland deteriorating after several years.
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland thought to be caused by autoimmune factors.
www.lef.org /protocols/prtcl-104.shtml   (2148 words)

  
 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Thyroid gland removal
Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all (total thyroidectomy) or part (subtotal or partial thyroidectomy) of the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland is part of the endocrine system and plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism.
Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and adolescents (especially in girls) than in infants.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/002933.htm   (385 words)

  
 Thyroid Scan (thyroid scanning) information on MedicineNet.com
A thyroid scan is an image taken of the thyroid gland after radioactive iodine is taken by mouth.
Thyroid scanning is a nuclear medicine procedure whereby the thyroid gland produces an image noted as it accumulates radioactive material (technetium or iodine).
Thyroiditis - Inflammation of the thyroid gland, is often called thyroiditis.
www.medicinenet.com /thyroid_scan/article.htm   (402 words)

  
 [No title]
Thyroid operations are done in a hospital operating room under a general anesthetic.
Occasionally, a parathyroid gland may be concealed in or around part of the thyroid that is removed.
If this blood supply to a parathyroid gland is not adequate after the thyroid is removed, the parathyroid gland may be "transplanted" into a nearby muscle within the same incision with the intention that it may recruit new blood supply from that muscle and function again in the near future.
www.um-endocrine-surgery.org /thyroid.html   (293 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 2, Ch. 8, Thyroid Disorders
Iodide, which is ingested in food and water, is actively concentrated by the thyroid gland, converted to organic iodine by thyroid peroxidase, and incorporated into tyrosine in intrafollicular thyroglobulin within the colloid at the basal cell surface of the thyroid follicular cell.
Autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase and, less commonly, to thyroglobulin are present in almost all patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies are usually detected in patients with Graves' disease.
The thyroid is the only source of this iodinated high molecular weight glycoprotein, which is readily detectable in normal patients and is usually elevated in patients with nontoxic and toxic goiter.
www.merck.com /pubs/mmanual/section2/chapter8/8a.htm   (1845 words)

  
 Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid problems are among the most common medical conditions but, because their symptoms often appear gradually, they are commonly misdiagnosed.
A thyroid scan should then be performed to determine whether the hyperthyroidism is due to Graves' disease or another condition such as toxic multinodular goiter, hot nodule, subacute thyroiditis, or silent thyroiditis.
Because the thyroid is the only organ in the body that takes up and uses iodine, when a dose of radioactive iodine is given the radiation enters the thyroid and destroys part of it.
www.endocrinologist.com /thyroid.htm   (626 words)

  
 The Thyroid Gland - Endocrinlogy Health Guide
The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box).
The thyroid tissue is made up of two types of cells: follicular cells and parafollicular cells.
Levels of hormones secreted by the thyroid are controlled by the pituitary gland's thyroid-stimulating hormone, which in turn is controlled by the hypothalamus.
www.umm.edu /endocrin/thygland.htm   (220 words)

  
 Thyroid Disease
To do its job, the thyroid needs a chemical element called iodine that the body absorbs from the foods you eat and the water you drink.
Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland doesn't supply the proper amount of hormones needed by the body.
An enlarged thyroid gland is a lump that can be felt under the skin at the front of the neck.
www.kidshealth.org /teen/diseases_conditions/growth/thyroid.html   (441 words)

  
 MedlinePlus Drug Information: Thyroid
Thyroid hormone should not be used to treat obesity in patients with normal thyroid function.
Thyroid medication is ineffective for weight reduction in normal thyroid patients and may cause serious or life-threatening toxicity, especially when taken with amphetamines.
Thyroid is akso used to treat goiter (enlarged thyroid gland).
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682475.html   (787 words)

  
 Thyroid gland definition - Thyroid: health and medical information about Thyroid Disease, Hypothyroidism, ...
The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck, below the Adam's apple, wrapped around the trachea (windpipe).
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the pituitary gland, acts to stimulate hormone production by the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland also makes the hormone calcitonin, which is involved in calcium metabolism and stimulating bone cells to add calcium to bone.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5778   (379 words)

  
 How Your Thyroid Works
Your thyroid gland is a small gland, normally weighing less than one ounce, located in the front of the neck.
During development (inside the womb) the thyroid gland originates in the back of the tongue, but it normally migrates to the front of the neck before birth.
Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine.
www.endocrineweb.com /thyfunction.html   (473 words)

  
 Thyroid Gland Diseases: Hormones, Cancer, Doctors, Drugs, Surgery
The thyroid gland takes the shape of a butterfly with the two wings being represented by the left and right thyroid lobes which wrap around the trachea.
The thyroid gland is prone to several very distinct problems, some of which are extremely common.
Thyroiditis ~ Thyroiditis is an inflammatory process ongoing within the thyroid gland.
www.endocrineweb.com /thyroid.html   (694 words)

  
 AACE Thyroid Awareness Month - 1998 - Neck Check   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Although relatively small, the thyroid gland influences the function of many of the body's most important organs, including the heart, brain, liver, kidneys and skin.
The thyroid gland is located further down on your neck, closer to the collarbone.
You may have an enlarged thyroid gland or a thyroid nodule and should be checked to determine whether cancer is present or if treatment for thyroid disease is needed.
www.aace.com /pub/tam1998/card.php   (397 words)

  
 The Thyroid and Parathyroids
The thyroid gland is a double-lobed structure located in the neck.
The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny structures embedded in the rear surface of the thyroid gland.
The cells of the parathyroid glands have surface G-protein-coupled receptors that bind Ca (the same type of receptor is found on the calcitonin-secreting cells of the thyroid and on the calcium absorbing cells of the kidneys).
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/T/Thyroid.html   (1114 words)

  
 Underactive Thyroid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland located just under the Adam's apple in the throat.
To perform its function properly, the thyroid needs sufficient quantities of trace minerals like zinc, copper, selenium, iron, and particularly iodine: as well as adequate amounts of vitamins such as A, C, E and the B vitamins.
Starvation slows the body's metabolism as the thyroid gland learns to expend energy more efficiently to conserve calories for the next "famine." After a starvation diet we have a tendency to gain even more weight than we took off, and we may find it even harder to lose weight the next time we try.
www.theherbspecialist.com /save/thyroid.html   (1774 words)

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