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Topic: Timeline of other background radiation fields


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In the News (Fri 19 Jul 19)

  
  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Astronomy and astrophysics
Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomy embraces the scientific method, while astrology does not.
Fields of study are also categorized in another two main ways: by subject, usually according to the region of space (e.g.
Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium
encyclopedia.kids.net.au /page/as/Astronomy_and_astrophysics   (975 words)

  
 Astronomy : QuicklyFind Info
Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomers embrace the scientific method, while astrologers do not.
In astronomy, information is mainly received from the detection and analysis of electromagnetic radiation, photons, but information is also carried by cosmic rays, neutrinos, meteors, and, in the near future, gravitational waves (see LIGO and LISA).
Cosmology made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the big bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble's Law and cosmological abundances of elements.
www.quicklyfind.com /info/Astronomy.htm   (1339 words)

  
  Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Astronomy and astrophysics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Nearly all astronomers now have a strong background in physics, and the results of observations are usually put in an astrophysical context, so astronomy and astrophysics are used with a very close meaning.
Fields of study are also categorized in another two main ways: by subject, usually according to the region of space (e.g.
In astronomy, the main way of obtaining information is through the detection and analysis of electromagnetic radiation, photons, but we also receive information from outside the earth carried by cosmic rays, neutrinos, and, in the near future, gravitational waves (see LIGO and LISA[?]).
www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/as/Astronomy_and_astrophysics   (975 words)

  
 PlanetPhysics: cosmic microwave background radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Accordingly, the radiation from the sky we measure today comes from a spherical surface, called the surface of last scattering, from which the photons that decoupled from interaction with matter in the early universe, 13.7 billion years ago, are just now reaching observers on Earth.
The cosmic microwave background was predicted by George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman in 1948.
This is version 1 of cosmic microwave background radiation, born on 2006-07-31.
planetphysics.org /encyclopedia/CosmicMicrowaveBackgroundRadiation.html   (3304 words)

  
 Learn more about astronomy in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomy embraces the scientific method, while astrology, with no basis in science, does not.
Fields of study are also categorized in another two ways: by subject, usually according to the region of space (e.g.
Cosmology made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the big bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble's Law and cosmological abundances of elements.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /a/as/astronomy.html   (1385 words)

  
 Learn more about List of themed timelines in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Other lists can be found at List of reference tables.
Timeline is the title of a 1999 historical / science fiction novel by Michael Crichton.
Timeline is also the title of a 2003 motion picture based on the novel.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /l/li/list_of_themed_timelines.html   (277 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Astronomy Article   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomers embrace the scientific method, while astrologers do not.
Ever since the twentieth century the field of professional astronomy has tended to split into observational astronomy and theoretical astrophysics.
In astronomy, information is mainly received from the detection and analysis of electromagnetic radiation, photons, but information is also carried by cosmic rays, neutrinos, meteors, and, in the near future, gravitational waves (see LIGO and LISA).
www.ipedia.com /astronomy.html   (1562 words)

  
 Designing Integrated Circuits to Withstand Space Radiation
The edges of the transistors where the thin gate oxide abuts the much thicker field oxide, which covers and insulates the border regions of the semiconductor, are also prone to leakage in a radiation environment.
Other novel techniques are being applied to conventional transistor switches to boost their immunity to total ionizing dose radiation.
Radiation hardness by design has quickly evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a business strategy that may well redefine the way electronic components are procured for defense space systems.
www.aero.org /publications/crosslink/summer2003/06.html   (3396 words)

  
 List of themed timelines - Wikinfo
Other lists can be found at List of reference tables.
Timeline of quantum mechanics, molecular physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics
Timelines of History: a collection of timelines by time, country, today in history along with assorted subjects
www.wikinfo.org /index.php/List_of_themed_timelines   (210 words)

  
 Electric Thruster Test and Evaluation
This cylinder is surrounded by a semi-anechoic room, which shields the measurement space from the ambient electromagnetic fields and reduces the reflections of the thruster radiation from the metallic walls of the room.
The grid reduces the background radiation that leaks from the main chamber, and the pyramids reduce sputtering by the high-energy xenon ions and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by the metal walls of the vacuum tank.
Radiative Hall-effect thruster emissions at frequencies below a few hundred megahertz are largely understood, and many of the associated oscillations are required for the proper operation of the thruster.
www.aero.org /publications/crosslink/fall2005/05.html   (3721 words)

  
 Etiology Action Plan   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields Subgroup organized this workshop to bring together scientists, advocates, and other interested parties to discuss research on the effects of EMF and LAN on breast cancer and, based on what is known and/or suspected about their effects, make recommendations about the appropriate national response.
Other maternal factors thought to be associated with pregnancy hormone levels have been assessed in relation to breast cancer risk in offspring.
Because medical ionizing radiation is a known cause of breast cancer, the amount of radiation dose to the breast should be a matter for public concern.
www.4woman.gov /napbc/catalog.wci/napbc/etioplan.htm   (13859 words)

  
 Astronomy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The lens is produced the cluster's gravitational field that bends light magnify and distort the image of a distant object.
Cosmology made huge advances during the 20th with the model of the big bang heavily supported by the evidence provided astronomy and physics such as the cosmic microwave background radiation Hubble's Law and cosmological abundances of elements.
Timeline of galaxies clusters of galaxies and scale structure
www.freeglossary.com /Astronomy   (1832 words)

  
 Cosmic microwave background radiation Summary
The detection of this radiation and its subsequent verification at other frequencies was taken as confirmation of a central prediction of a cosmology known as the Big Bang.
In the case of the background radiation, the red-shift is significant enough that the visible frequencies are shifted down to the microwave region, indicating that the atoms formed when the universe was about a million to ten million years old (the universe is approximately 10 to 15 billion years years old.)
The cosmic microwave background was predicted by George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Hermann in 1948.
www.bookrags.com /Cosmic_microwave_background_radiation   (5849 words)

  
 His Legacy
Background radiation had been proposed by general relativity as the remaining trace of an early, hot phase of the universe following the big bang.
The gravitational field of the resulting fl hole is so strong that radiation emitted from it becomes infinitely [redshifted], and thus ceases to exist.
This explosion triggers the fission of other uranium-235 atoms, causing a brief, uncontrolled thermonuclear reaction.
library.advanced.org /17508/HisLegacy.html   (1672 words)

  
 World Almanac for Kids
Thermal radiation has been observed to emanate from the surface or atmosphere of all of the planets except Pluto.
Quasars appear to radiate with the luminosity of hundreds of galaxies, but each quasar is smaller than a typical galaxy by a factor of nearly a million.
Because the moving radio source is nearly catching up with the emitted radiation, the observed time interval between successive positions of relativistic jets of material appears shortened, and the velocity appears to be increased by a large factor over the true velocity.
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/space/radioastro.html   (2667 words)

  
 EPA - Envirofacts - RadNet - General User's Guide
It describes the database input fields and output fields, as well as the data normalization quality control that was conducted.
Gross radiation activity in particulate matter contained in the filters is initially measured in the field following a 5-hour period to permit decay of radon daughters that may be attached to collected particles.
Radiation can be expressed in several different types of units, depending on the sample, the analyte, and other factors.
www.epa.gov /enviro/html/erams/users_guide.html   (3330 words)

  
 Physical Review Letters
The flbody nature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum is used in a modern test of the Copernican principle.
Time series of digital video images are acquired in bright field with a fast camera, and image differences are Fourier analyzed as a function of the time delay between the...
We exploit the quantum coherence between pair-produced D0 and [`D]0 in y(3770) decays to study charm mixing, which is characterized by the parameters x and y, and to make a first determination of the relative strong phase d between D0®K+p- and [`D]0® K+p-.
prl.aps.org   (3024 words)

  
 Astro History
Gregory assumed that the other stars were just as bright as the Sun and then calculated how distant they had to be to match their apparent brightnesses.
Pansies and Wilson used a radio telescope to detect the highly redshifted radiation from the early stages in the expansion of the universe.
The pulses were later attributed to beams of radiation emitted by a rotating neutron star.
www.messiermarathon.com /astro_timeline.htm   (3831 words)

  
 Mind Justice - Timeline, EMF
This timeline will demonstrate the US government and the military industrial complex involvement and the state of the technology from several independent unclassified reliable sources.
Among those present at that meeting was Dr. Warren McCulloch of the Medical School of the University of Illinois, who had already been in touch with Dr. Rosenblueth and myself, and who was interested in the study of the organization of the cortex of the brain.
This timeline demonstrates how classified the electromagnetic and mind control technology is. Scientists have been killed for revealing this technology.
www.mindjustice.org /timeline.htm   (4604 words)

  
 Anemaw [Animal Electromagnetism and Waves] : Bioelectricity: History - Timeline . © Elizabeth Gerrow 2002 .
When the same organ is found in several members of the same class, especially if in members having very different habits of life, we may generally attribute its presence to inheritance from a common ancestor; and its absence in some of the members to loss through disuse or natural selection.
He formulates the concept of the "bioelectric field", generated by the sum total of electrical activity of all cells in the organisms and controlled by such activity.
Andrew Llyod Hodgkin, Andrew Fielding Huxley, and Sir John Corew Eccles prove the outlines of the Berstein hypothesis by penetrating the nerve cell membrane with microelectrodes, demonstrating normal transmembrane potential is produced by sodium ions being excluded from the nerve cell interior, permitted only when membrane is stimulated to produce action potential.
members.fortunecity.com /anemaw/nfelechist.htm   (2887 words)

  
 Sketching the History of Classical Electromagnetism   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Maxwell's A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, formulating an electrodynamical formulation of wave propagation using Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques, obtaining the theoretical possibility of generating electromagnetic radiation.
John Henry Poynting (1852-1914) establishes a principle of electromagnetic radiation energy which can be localized and flow (the first such energy localization principle established); not confined to existing only in conductors, but throughout space, independent of matter.
Walter Kaufmann (1871-1947) performs experiments on the deflection of electrons by electric and magnetic fields and a determination of the ration e/m; In a second paper, he concludes that the mass of an electron is purely electromagnetic in origin.
history.hyperjeff.net /electromagnetism   (3147 words)

  
 Quantum Mechanics Timeline   (Site not responding. Last check: )
They had discovered that a graph of the intensity of the radiation versus its frequency made a certain type of bell curve, which had come to be called the "flbody spectrum".
E is the energy transferred, n is an integer running from one to infinity, f is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation, and h is a constant.
Practical to the end, Davisson and Germer spend the other 25 pages on a rather boring exposition of the patterns which form on the surface of single-crystal nickel when it is lightly oxidized.
www.physics.northwestern.edu /Phyx103/web/quantum-timeline.html   (5811 words)

  
 List of themed timelines - Internet-Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Timeline is a 1999 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton
Timeline is a 2003 film based on the novel.
General: List of years in science, Timeline of scientific discoveries, Timeline of scientific experiments
www.internet-encyclopedia.com /ie/l/li/list_of_themed_timelines.html   (356 words)

  
 DOE | HSS | Health and Safety Programs |   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Background: The Department of Energy Office of Health funds studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.
The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) initiated studies on the effects of radiation exposure in survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki within two years of the bombings.
A new cooperative agreement between the National Academy of Sciences' Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board and DOE has been established in FY06, with the current focus of hiring Americans researchers in the fields of statistics and epidemiology to work at RERF.
www.eh.doe.gov /health/hstudies/japan_radiate.html   (492 words)

  
 (Q-4)   Planck's constant: Radiation from Hot Objects   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Many modes of vibration were expected to exist, leading to many frequencies, and this too agreed with the continuous spread of frequencies (or wavelengths--given one, you can calculate the other) coming from a hot object such as a lightbulb filament.
The radiation emitted after the big bang has "cooled" too, which means its photon distribution, which started out very energetic, has by now had slumped to the fl-body spectrum of an object just 3 degrees above absolute zero, with wavelengths in the microwave range.
The existence of this "primordial microwave background" was first confirmed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson of the Bell Labs facility in New Jersey, work which earned them the 1978 Nobel prize.
www.phy6.org /stargaze/Q4.htm   (1767 words)

  
 When will computer hardware match the human brain? by Hans Moravec
The contingency is the other way around: computers are configured to interact at human time scales, and robots interacting with humans seem also to be best at that ratio.
Kasparov, on the other hand, claims to see into opponents' minds during play, intuiting and exploiting their plans, insights and oversights.
In all other chess computers, he reports a mechanical predictability stemming from their undiscriminating but limited lookahead, and absence of long-term strategy.
www.transhumanist.com /volume1/moravec.htm   (6114 words)

  
 Cosmic Rays   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Cosmic ray ions, on the other hand, may be trapped by weak magnetic fields in the galaxy--trapped not forever, because sooner or later they hit an atom of the rarefied gas which fills the void between stars, but for a period of the order of 10 million years.
More likely, they are constantly deflected and scattered by magnetic fields in the galaxy, until any trace of their original motion is lost.
Yet other acceleration modes exist too, in substorms and auroral beams, and similar processes may also occur in the distant universe and on the Sun.
www.phy6.org /Education/wcosray.html   (1989 words)

  
 Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind Control
Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind Control
From Planetary Association for Clean Energy, July 1979, Newsletter by Dr. Andrew Michrowski, "USSR ELF (extremely low frequency) Emissions." "At least five USSR installations are operating simultaneously up to 24 hours daily since July 1976, with an intensity of up to 40 million watts.
The book states, "In 1976, the CIA contracted for an exhaustive review of Soviet parapsychology research by outside experts," The report was titled, "Novel Biological Information Transfer Systems" by Dr. J.W. Eerkens, et al and Dr. Eerkens "now believes 'the Soviets are actually building prototype equipment for psychic warfare'.
www.theforbiddenknowledge.com /hardtruth/timeline_emc.htm   (4585 words)

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