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Topic: Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium


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  Interstellar medium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (or ISM) is the matter (interstellar matter, also abbreviated by ISM) and energy (interstellar radiation field, ISRF) content that exists between the stars within a galaxy.
The medium is also responsible for extinction and reddening, the decreasing light intensity and dominant observable wavelengths of a star as the light travels through the medium.
The interstellar medium is usually divided into three phases, depending on the temperature of the gas: hot (millions of kelvins), warm (thousands of kelvins), and cold (tens of kelvins).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Interstellar_medium   (952 words)

  
 * Interstellar Medium - (Astronomy): Definition
The interstellar medium is the dust and gas (mostly hydrogen) that are between stars in a galaxy.
Interstellar medium: The material between the stars, consisting of gas, dust and cosmic rays (high energy charged particles, moving at nearly the speed of light).
The heliopause is the outermost boundary of the solar wind, where the interstellar medium restricts the outward flow of the solar wind and confines it within a magnetic bubble called the heliosphere.
en.mimi.hu /astronomy/interstellar_medium.html   (784 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The interstellar medium is a term used in astronomy to describe the rarefied gas and dust that exists between the stars (or their immediate "circumstellar" environment) within a galaxy.
The medium is also responsible for cosmic extinction, namely the decreasing light intensity of a star as the light travels through the medium.
The interstellar medium is usually divided into three phases, depending on the temperature of the gas: hot (millions of kelvins), warm, and cold.
www.brujula.net /english/wiki/Interstellar_medium.html   (253 words)

  
 wikien.info: Main_Page : T/TI/TIM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium 1848 - Lord Rosse studies M1 and names it the Crab Nebula1864 - William Huggins studies the spectrum of the Orion Nebula and shows that it is a cloud of gas1927 - Ira Bowen explains unidentified spectral lines from space as forbidden tran..
Timeline of the Kurds 2003Timeline of the Kurds 2002Timeline of the Kurds 2001Timeline of the Kurds 2000Timeline of the Kurds 1999Timeline of the Kurds 1998Timeline of the Kurds 1997Timeline of the Kurds 1996Timeline of the Kurds 1995Timeline of the Kurds 1994..
Timeline of Quebec history 1608 to 1662 1663 to 1759 1760 to 1773 This section of the Timeline of Quebec history concerns the events between the establishment of the Sovereign Council and the fall of Quebec.
www.wikien.info /browse.php?title=T/TI/TIM   (9596 words)

  
 Galaxy - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
In addition to single stars and a tenuous interstellar medium, most galaxies contain a large number of multiple star systems and star clusters as well as various types of nebulae.
Intergalactic space, the space between galaxies, is a near vacuum with an average density of less than one atom per cubic meter of gas or dust.
In 1944, Hendrik van de Hulst predicted microwave radiation at a wave length of 21 centimetres, resulting from interstellar atomic hydrogen gas; this radiation was observed in 1951.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Galaxy   (1445 words)

  
 Interstellar medium - Wikipedia
The interstellar medium (or ISM) is a term used in astronomy to describe the rarefied gas that exists between the stars (or their immediate "circumstellar" environment) within a galaxy.
Generally the gas is roughly 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, with additional elements ("metals", in astronomical parlance) present in trace amounts.
This "three-phase" model of the ISM was initially developed by McKee and Ostriker in a 1977 paper, which has formed the basis for further study over the past quarter-century.
wikipedia.findthelinks.com /in/Interstellar_gas.html   (190 words)

  
 Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium)
1965 - James Gunn and Bruce Peterson use observations of the relatively low absorption of the blue component of the Lyman-alpha line from 3C9 to strongly constrain the density and ionization state of the intergalactic medium
1977 - Christopher McKee and Jeremiah Ostriker propose a three component theory of the interstellar medium
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Timeline_of_the_interstellar_medium_and_intergalactic_medium   (288 words)

  
 ooBdoo
A nebula (Latin: "mist"; pl. nebulae or nebulæ, with ligature) is an interstellar cloud of dust, gas and plasma.
Originally nebula was a general name for any extended astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way (some examples of the older usage survive; for example, the Andromeda Galaxy is sometimes referred to as the Andromeda Nebula).
Novae and supernovae can also create nebulae known as nova remnants and supernova remnants respectively.
www.oobdoo.com /wikipedia/?title=Nebula   (393 words)

  
 [No title]
Interstellar Medium The space between stars is filled with dust and gas, some of which will condense to become future stars and planets.
This interstellar medium is composed chiefly of hydrogen with traces of heavier elements and has a typical density of one atom per thimbleful of space.
For the most part, the interstellar medium is relatively cool, but it includes pockets of hot matter as well.
science.ksc.nasa.gov /shuttle/missions/sts-35/sts-35-press-kit.txt   (11854 words)

  
 This article refers to nebulas in space For the band...
This occasionally survives, but the stricter modern term is used for interstellar cloud interstellar clouds of dust and gas, which are categorized by how they are illuminated.
Some types of nebula have special names, such as dark nebula dark nebulae, emission nebula emission nebulae, planetary nebula planetary nebulae, reflection nebula reflection nebulae, and solar nebula solar nebulae.
Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium Timeline of the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium
www.biodatabase.de /Nebula   (264 words)

  
 STS-67 Day 14 Highlights
HUT was also used to observe Markarian 66, a starburst galaxy, for Guest Investigator Dr. Claus Leitherer of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. Leitherer is using HUT's capacity to detect short ultraviolet wavelengths to study the ionized radiation that escapes from bright, relatively nearby starburst galaxies.
To help scientists study this polarization of interstellar medium, WUPPE was pointed at three stars, which served as background lights to illuminate the interstellar dust.
WUPPE sampled some 20 different views for its study of the interstellar medium, using hot stars located behind interstellar dust clouds to measure the properties of the grains.
science.ksc.nasa.gov /shuttle/missions/sts-67/sts-67-day-14-highlights.html   (3136 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Timeline of galaxies, clusters of 4 galaxies, and large 3 scale structure
Timeline of the interstellar medium 1 and intergalactic medium
Timeline of white dwarfs, 2 neutron stars, and 4 supernovae
www.thecontactlens.net /astronomy_.htm   (1855 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Astronomy
Click on the picture for more information and a larger version.
Timeline of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large scale structure
Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/a/as/astronomy.html   (1522 words)

  
 The NEXUS: Technology Timeline
Jumpgate technology is discovered allowing interstellar travel (100 c using Tachyon drives).
The first interstellar colony that was founded was Proxima 3 Colony in 2464 A.D, followed by her sister world Alpha II colony in 2489 A.D. Magneto-Gravitic technology becomes common: artificial gravity and propulsion.
An example of the interstellar organic starships (White Star class) of the 4th millennium A.D. using magneto-gravitic propulsion.
www.fortunecity.com /tatooine/acegarp/898/tech2.htm   (1847 words)

  
 Origins: Library
These explosions, along with the ejection of novae shells and the slow winds from evolved stars, send newly made heavy elements into the interstellar and intergalactic medium where they become the raw materials for new stars, planetary systems, and perhaps life.
An important alternate way of studying the dust content of interstellar and circumstellar regions is to determine the amount by which gas phase elemental abundances are reduced due to incorporation into dust.
A full understanding of the formation and characteristics of both low mass stars and planetary systems requires observation of interstellar cloud fragmentation, star and planet formation in protostellar and proto-planetary disks, and the spectrum of radiation emitted by binary and single young stars and their newly forming planets.
origins.jpl.nasa.gov /library/roadmap97/science07.html   (4922 words)

  
 [No title]
Subject: The science history timeline Status: OR % ------------------------------------ % Science History Timeline Version 3.0 % ------------------------------------ % % This is a copy of version 3.0 of the science history timeline I % have been working on.
One should only need to edit out the usenet/mail header % information and then the file should be able to be passed through % TEX (you will get some underfull \vbox complaints but these do not % matter).
I would be grateful for suggestions as to how to better % word specific events so as to make their descriptions maximally % illuminating in the available space.
www.ibiblio.org /pub/academic/history/marshall/science/science.history.timeline   (719 words)

  
 Learn more about Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Learn more about Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium in the online encyclopedia.
You are here: Online Encyclopedia > Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium
Hint: Play with putting spaces before and after your words to see the different results you get.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /t/ti/timeline_of_knowledge_about_the_interstellar_and_interga.html   (325 words)

  
 HSC The Cosmic Engine
The necessary outward pressure is produced by the radiation from the nuclear energy generation in the Sun's interior.
During this phase all the elements with atomic weights greater than iron are formed in the expanding shell and are blown out into interstellar space.
A cloud of interstellar gas (the "solar nebula") is disturbed and collapses under its own gravity.
www.phys.unsw.edu.au /hsc/hsc/cosmic.html   (4506 words)

  
 SKA: Defining the Future
The idea of the SKA sprang from the desire to see and map structures forming in the early Universe and the interstellar media of the first galaxies.
The same sensitivity is needed to image the interstellar medium in high-redshift and primordial galaxies.
Using its highest frequencies the SKA will be able to measure redshifted molecular lines in the interstellar medium of early galaxies.
www.skatelescope.org /skaberkeley/main.htm   (1518 words)

  
 Astro-2 Flight Day 11 Status Reports
Claus Leitherer of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. Leitherer is using HUT's capacity to detect short ultraviolet wavelengths to study the ionized radiation that escapes from bright, relatively nearby starburst galaxies.
As astronomers learn more about the polarization of interstellar medium, they can make allowances for this intervening matter when studying other celestial objects.
These astronomical instruments will also observe interstellar medium and young star populations in a galaxy.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /Shuttle/Astro2/log/fd15.html   (2472 words)

  
 HUT Science Program Overview for Astro-2
The goal of this program is grand indeed--to study the vast but exceedingly tenuous regions of space between the galaxies using one or more distant, high redshift quasars as a background source of light, to better understand the conditions in the medium from which all of the structure in the universe subsequently formed.
This intergalactic medium (IGM) is thought to consist almost entirely of hydrogen and helium that was the first material to form in the cooling phase after the Big Bang that created our expanding universe.
This affects the perceived abundances that are derived for interstellar gas.
praxis.pha.jhu.edu /astro2/astro2_science/wpb_science   (5865 words)

  
 Ch. 112, TEKS for Science. Subchapter C. High School
Galaxies - D. Soper, University of Oregon: on-line lecture course which addresses the structure of the galaxy, the interstellar medium, the history of the galaxy, the types of galaxies, how galaxies are moving with respect to us, the distribution of galaxies in space, and the evolution and fate of our universe.
The Interstellar Medium, examines the gas and dust lying between the stars, the recognition of emission nebulae as signs of stellar birth, the radio techniques used to examine the interstellar medium, and the sequence of events that led to the formation of the Sun.
The Formation and Structure of Stars covers the interstellar medium, star formation, nuclear energy, the internal structure of stars, and a case study of the Orion nebula.
www.tenet.edu /teks/web/science/astro.html   (15419 words)

  
 The Johns Hopkins News-Letter
FUSE: A timeline of observations is scheduled on the ground and uplinked to the satellite.
The interstellar medium that exists in our Milky Way galaxy, and further in the distant intergalactic clouds, radiates far ultraviolet light.
This unexplored part of the spectrum will give new insights into not only galaxy and star formation, but also the origins of our Universe and the conditions of what it was like a few minutes after the Big Bang.
www.jhu.edu /~newslett/11-4-99/Science/1.html   (1859 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
COS was designed to study the large-scale structure of the universe, the intergalactic medium, the origin of the elements, the formation and evolution of galaxies, the interstellar medium and the formation of stars and planets.
"So characterizing the state of this intergalactic medium, where most atoms reside, is kind of the father problem for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.
That's why it's called 'cosmic origins.' Because that dilute medium is the medium out of which galaxies and stars eventually collapsed.
www.cbsnews.com /network/news/space/120505_HST_Update.html   (6083 words)

  
 Nebula
This image was taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera2 aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.
A nebula (Latin: "mist"; pl. nebulae) is an interstellar cloud of dust, gas and plasma.
This idea has been published in the following references:
www.bible-study-online.juliantrubin.com /encyclopedia/astronomy/nebula.html   (909 words)

  
 PSIgate - Physical Sciences Information Gateway: Search/Browse Results
The mission website provides resources, both at a general level and at a scientific/technical level, which describe the mission and its underlying science (X-ray astronomy, fl holes, recycling, dark matter, stellar endpoints, galaxy clusters, interstellar and intergalactic media, intracluster medium, stars, supernovae), and instrumentation.
The site describes the construction of the instrument, the underlying technology, the detectors and mirrors, and the background science (hard X-rays, supernovae, synchrotron emissions, intergalactic magnetic fields, cyclotron lines, galactic fl holes, clusters of galaxies, active galactic nuclei, cosmic X-ray background).
In the timeline is provided the following information: date of the event, the name of vehicle/mission, the agency/country, instruments/detectors involved, and highlights of the event.
www.psigate.ac.uk /roads/cgi-bin/psibrowse.pl?limit=0&toplevel=astronomy&subject=522.6863   (1319 words)

  
 Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Cancellation of the Fifth Hubble Servicing Mission
Such a concept represents a challenging undertaking, which could take months or years to develop in order to meet safety and mission assurance standards/requirements.
In the process of addressing the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations and implementing additional improvements to achieve the safest flight possible, NASA has uncovered a number of problems that had previously gone undetected.
HST imaging and spectroscopy have resulted in remarkable scientific achievement, including the determination of the changing rate of expansion of the universe and detailed studies of forming galaxies, fl holes, galaxy hosts of gamma-ray bursts and quasars, active galactic nuclei, protostars, planetary atmospheres, and the interstellar and intergalactic medium.
www.spaceflightnow.com /news/n0403/14hstwhitepaper   (2856 words)

  
 Calculus@Internet
Events In Science Mathematics and Technology - Timelines of events of various fields of scientific research
Event Timeline - Galaxies Clusters of Galaxies and Large Scale Structure
Event Timeline - The Interstellar Medium and Intergalactic Medium
www.calculus.net /ci2/search/?request=category&code=69&off=0&tag=9200438920658   (201 words)

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