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Topic: Tocharian languages


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In the News (Thu 23 Nov 17)

  
  Tocharian languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phonetically, Tocharian is a "Centum" (pronounced [kentum]) Indo-European language, characterized by the merging of palato-velar consonants with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh), which is generally associated with Indo-European languages of the West European area (Italic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek).
Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin.
The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even guessed at, until chance discoveries in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in a then-unknown alphabetic syllabary (abugida) that turned out to belong to a hitherto unknown branch of the Indo-European family of languages, which has been named 'Tocharian'.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tocharian_languages   (741 words)

  
 Tocharian languages
Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group.
Documents written in the two languages with the Brahmi[?] alphabet were found only around the end of the 19th century.
The Tocharian languages are a major geographic exception to the usual pattern of Indo-European branches, being the only one that spread directly east from the theoretical Indo-European starting point in southern Russia.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/to/Tocharian_A.html   (135 words)

  
 Indo-European languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Maltese language and Turkish are two examples of languages spoken in Europe which have definite non-European origins.
Recent theories have been proposed by the linguist John Colarusso that the Caucasian languages, particularly the Northwest Caucasian family, spoken in Georgia and Turkey, may be the closest relatives to the Indo-European stock.
Also, the Northwest Caucasian languages preserve a large number of guttural phonemes which may be the modern equivalents of PIE "laryngeals".
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/i/in/indo_european_languages.html   (686 words)

  
 Pakistan encyclopedia : Cultural Information , Maps, Pakistan politics and officials, Pakistan History. Travel to ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
These languages were spoken roughly from the 6th to 8th centuries, before they became extinct, their speakers being absorbed by the expanding Uighur tribes.
Phonetically, Tocharian belonged to the "Centum" (pronounced [kentum]) branch of Indo-European languages, characterized by the merging of palato-velar consonants with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh), which is generally associated with Indo-European languages of the European area (Italic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek).
Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 7th and 8th centuries (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin.
www.pakistaneworld.com /wiki-Tocharian_languages   (676 words)

  
 Tocharian languages - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The alphabet the Tocharians were using is derived from the North Indian Brahmi alphabetic syllabary and is referred to as slanting Brahmi.
The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even guessed at, until chance discoveries in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in a then-unknown alphabetic syllabary that turned out to belong to a hitherto unknown branch of the Indo-European family of languages, which has been named 'Tocharian'.
Tocharian languages, Phonetics, Vowels, Consonants, Writing system, Cultural significance, See also, References, External links, Indo-European languages, Languages of China and Central Asia.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Kuchean_language   (710 words)

  
 Indo-European languages - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Anatolian languages — earliest attested branch, from the 18th century BC; extinct, most notable was the language of the Hittites.
Tocharian languages — extinct tongues of the Tocharians, extant in two dialects, attested from roughly the 6th century.
The Basque language is unusual in that it does not appear to be related to any known living languages.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Indo-European_languages   (1072 words)

  
 Everything You Wanted to Know about Tocharian
Tocharian is an extinct Indo-European language which stands by itself as one of the eleven major groups in the IE language family.
Tocharian maintains the PIE grammatical gender system of masculine, feminine, and neutral with nouns, pronouns, and adjectives (although the neutral is absent in the case of adjectives).
As the Tocharians began to move east, the last contacts that they had with other Indo-Europeans (before their much later interaction with the Indians and Iranians) was with the Slavs, resulting in some Slavic influence in the lexicon, but no impact on the essential structure of the language.
www.oxuscom.com /eyawtkat.htm   (4307 words)

  
 Tocharians - Free net encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Tocharian A of the eastern regions seems to have declined in use as a popular language or mother tongue faster than did Tocharian B of the west.
Tocharian A speakers probably yielded their original language to Turkic languages of immigrating Turkic peoples, while Tocharian B speakers were more insulated from outside linguistic influences.
It appears that Tocharian A ultimately became a liturgical language, no longer a living one, at the same time that Tocharian B was still widely spoken in daily life.
www.netipedia.com /index.php/Tocharians   (2397 words)

  
 Tocharic languages   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
It consists of two dead languages, Tocharian A (or Agnean) and Tocharian B (or Kuchanian), spoken in the first millennium AD in East Turkestan, in several oasises where inscriptions and texts written in them were found.
Tocharian phonetics has some significant features, such as the counteropposition of firm and soft consonants, plenty of palatal and palatalized sounds like ts, c, ly, tsy and others; the reduction of unstressed vowels, especially in final syllables of the word, where both consonants and vowels could easily disappear.
Tocharian texts written in Brahmi (or one of its varieties) were found in the beginning of this century, and already in 1908 linguists stated the language was a separate Indo-European group.
indoeuro.bizland.com /tree/balk/tocharic.html   (386 words)

  
 Indo-European languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Indo-European is the largest family of languages in the world today, with its languages spoken by approximately 3 billion native speakers; the second largest family of tongues is Sino-Tibetan.
Albanian language — attested from the 15th century (1462); relations with Illyrian, Dacian, or Thracian proposed.
Satem languages lost the distinction between labiovelar and pure velar sounds, and at the same time assibilated the palatal velars.
www.educhy.com /index.php/Indo-European_languages   (1855 words)

  
 Languages of the World
The label language isolate is used for a language that is the only representative of a language family, as Basque or the extinct Sumerian language; the presumptive but unknown sister languages of isolates are dead and unrecorded.
The languages of seven of the nine extant branches of the Indo-European language family are spoken in Europe.
Dialects of two languages in the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European also are or were spoken in Europe: the Jassic dialect of Ossetic, an Iranian language, formerly spoken in Hungary; and the European dialects of Romany, which was spread by Gypsies throughout Europe and into America.
www.ling.hawaii.edu /faculty/stampe/Linguistics/lgsworld.html   (1332 words)

  
 Tocharians   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Tocharians, (also spelled Tokharians) were nomads who lived in today's Xinjiang who spoke the Tocharian languages (q.v.
The Kushan Tocharians may have played a part in the transmission of Buddhism to China.
Tocharians, living along the Silk Road, had contacts with the Chinese and Persians, and Turkic, Indian and Iranian tribes.
bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/t/to/tocharians.html   (286 words)

  
 Tocharian languages: Facts and details from Encyclopedia Topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European The family of languages that by 1000 BC were spoken throughout Europe and in parts of southwestern and southern Asia
The name of the language is taken from the Tokharoi The tocharians were an indo-european people who inhabited the tarim basin in what is now xinjiang uyghur autonomous region, northwestern peoples republic of china from the 1st millennium bce to...
Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 7th (6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries)...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /t/tocharian_languages   (1406 words)

  
 IELan2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
When the languages were discovered around the turn of the last century, they were first thought to be a form of Iranian, and were mistakenly associated with an Iranian group known in Greek as the Tokharoi.
Tocharian was important in the spread of Buddhism into China, and the evidence of Chinese historical chronicles suggests that Tocharian speakers were in the Tarim Basin by around 200 BCE.
Tocharian belongs to the centum branch of Indo-European, and its discovery in the distant East had considerable ramifications for discussions of the proto-Indo-European homeland and the dispersal of Indo-European languages.
www.unlv.edu /faculty/jmstitt/Eng480/IndoEuropean/IEL2/IEL2.html   (159 words)

  
 Tocharian languages - TheBestLinks.com - Tocharian B, Buddhism, Central Asia, Indo-European, ...
The languages themselves bear a closer relationship to the Celtic or early Germanic languages than to other Indo-European languages.
The speakers of these languages have been identified with the 'Tocharoi' mentioned in Greek sources.
Tocharian probably died out under Uighur rule, which commenced after the Arab conquest of Tokharestan in the 9th century.
www.thebestlinks.com /Tocharian_B.html   (500 words)

  
 The Indo European Diaspora
They certainly weren't aware that some day their tribal language would splinter into over a hundred languages, circle the globe, and be spoken and read by people in places they couldn't possibly imagine -- people like us, right now.
Tocharian is one of the more recently discovered Indo-European languages, first recognized in the early decades of the 20th century in texts from Chinese Turkestan.
There are loan words in the ancient European languages from the Finno-Ugric language family (which includes modern Finnish and Hungarian) and words that are clearly borrowed from the Altaic (Turkish) language family.
www.corzak.com /IE/IE_HOMEE.HTM   (1186 words)

  
 European Languages
You may have noticed that a few languages spoken on the European continent are not included in the Indo-European family of languages.
The western languages generally use /s/ as a plural marker, though it is silent in spoken French, while the eastern languages use vowels.
The Slavic languages are spoken in Eastern Europe and Russia and are the harder of the three language groups analyzed to learn.
www.ielanguages.com /eurolang.html   (1517 words)

  
 João Sedycias: História da Língua Espanhola   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Iranian languages were spoken in the 1st millennium BCE in present-day Iran and Afghanistan and also in the steppes to the north, from modern Hungary to East (Chinese) Turkistan.
The principal language of the Italic group is Latin, originally the speech of the city of Rome and the ancestor of the modern Romance languages: Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and so on.
Albanian, the language of the present-day republic of Albania, is known from the 15th century CE.
home.yawl.com.br /hp/sedycias/historia2_02a.htm   (2500 words)

  
 Mysteries Of The Taklamakan Desert
They spoke Tocharian, which is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group.
The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even guessed at, until chance discoveries in the mid 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in a then-unknown alphabetic syllabary that turned out to belong to a hitherto unknown branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Tocharian texts and many frescoes from the Tarim Basin have been found and attribute to a high standard of the civilization.
www.theculturedtraveler.com /ARCHIVES/FEB2006/Print/Takla_Makan.htm   (808 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Indo-European languages
Most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia belong to one superfamily, referred to as Indo-European.
In the past it has been proposed that Indo-European languages were part of the Nostratic language superfamily, but this theory is treated with skepticism by most linguists.
Recent theories have been proposed by the linguist John Colarusso that the Caucasian languages, particularly the Northwest and South Caucasian families, spoken in Georgia and Turkey, may be the closest relatives to the Indo-European stock.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Indo-European   (665 words)

  
 Tocharstan - IBWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
During the years of SNOR rule, the Tocharians had a hard time like anyone else in Russia who was not a member of the party, partly because their native religion (Buddhism) was suppressed in favour of Orthodoxy.
Furthermore, the language must have been influenced both by Russian, Turkic/Mongolian languages, and the local languages of the region they dwelt in.
Except for the Tocharian Republic, there is also a small Buddhist Tocharian enclave in Western China with strong ties with northern Buddhist India [Asoka?].
ib.frath.net /w/Tocharstan   (442 words)

  
 Euskal Herria Journal | Basque Language and Culture   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Basque is the sole surviving non-Indo-European language in Western Europe, it is classified as a language isolate.
Estonian, Finnish and Saami (Lapp) are languages belonging to the Finnic branch of Finno-Ugric, Hungarian represents Ugric.
The existence of loanwords from Basque and/or „Proto-Basque“ in languages of the Iberian peninsula is beyond doubt and beyond dispute.
www.ehj-navarre.org /blessons/mowstr.html   (6025 words)

  
 Tocharian alphabet
The existence of the Tocharian language and alphabet only came to light in the early 20th century, when fragments of manuscripts in a then unknown alphabet were discovered in Xinjiang in north-western China.
Tocharian is a syllabic alphabet in which each consonant has an inherent vowel /a/.
Tocharian, an extinct Indo-European language which was spoken between the 6th and 8th centuries AD, and probably earlier, in what is now north-western China.
www.omniglot.com /writing/tocharian.htm   (132 words)

  
 Indo-European languages - UniLang Wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A major family of nearly 400 languages which spread throughout Europe and Southern Asia in the fourth millennium BCE, and which is now found, as a result of colonialism, all over the world.
The parent language, Proto-Indo-European, is traditionally thought to have been spoken in many dialects by a seminomadic population living in the steppe region to the north of the Black Sea.
The family has 10 branches, though in the case of Albanian, Armenian, Greek and Tocharian, the branches are represented by a single language.
home.unilang.org /main/wiki2/wiki.phtml?title=Indo-European_languages   (201 words)

  
 Maps of Indo-European Languages-Tocharian   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This language appears in two forms, which linguists unimaginatively call "Tocharian A" and "Tocharian B," which split from each other about 700 CE.
Their language is clearly most similar to those of the Centum branch of Indo-European, but from their geographic position we would expect the language to be most similar to that of the Satem branch of Indo-European.
Somewhere in the Tocharians' lost past, this people must have engaged in a race-wide exodus to the far east.
web.cn.edu /kwheeler/IE_Centum_Tocharian.html   (246 words)

  
 What languages are most closely related to English?
It has been suggested that all of these branches were spoken as dialects of a proto-language, but the exact area and time of existence of the Indo-Europeans has not been identified with any archaeologically attested culture.
The Indo-European languages are the descendants of a single unrecorded language that is believed to have been spoken more than 5,000 years ago in the steppe regions north of the Black Sea and then split into a number of dialects by the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC.
These dialects, carried by migrating tribes to Europe and Asia, developed into separate languages, a number of which have left written records of their various stages.
dictionary.reference.com /help/faq/language/w27.html   (169 words)

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