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Topic: Toxicity


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In the News (Sun 12 Nov 17)

  
  Toxicity of Pesticides
Toxicity is usually divided into two types, acute or chronic, based on the number of exposures to a poison and the time it takes for toxic symptoms to develop.
Acute toxicity is due to short-term exposure and happens within a relatively short period of time, whereas chronic exposure is due to repeated or long-term exposure and happens over a longer period.
The commonly used term to describe acute toxicity is LD LD means lethal dose (deadly amount) and the subscript 50 means that the dose was acutely lethal to 50% of the animals to whom the chemical was administered under controlled laboratory conditions.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /PI008   (3136 words)

  
 amiodarone toxicity - Quality Drugs & Best Online Pharmacy
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home.dongguk.edu /user/bypass/lec1/upload20/files/amiodarone-toxicity.html   (747 words)

  
  Amazon.com: Toxicity: Music: System of a Down   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Toxicity is a masterful, unusual, and forceful opus.
As a whole work, Toxicity succeeds on EVERY level, the music is raw and hits you like a blast of adrenaline.
Toxicity will hit you like a scud missile quick and deadly, but the remains will be with you for a lifetime.
www.amazon.com /Toxicity-System-Down/dp/B000021YQV   (1030 words)

  
  Toxicity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Toxicity (from Greek τοξικότητα – poisonousness) is a measure to the degree to which something is toxic or poisonous.
Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as a human or a bacterium or a plant, or to a substructure, such as the liver.
Physically toxic entities include things not usually thought of as such by the lay person: direct blows, concussion, sound and vibration, heat and cold, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation such as infrared and visible light, ionizing non-particulate radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, and particulate radiation such as alpha rays, beta rays, and cosmic rays.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Toxic   (679 words)

  
 Mineral Toxicity: Encyclopedia of Children's Health
The term mineral toxicity refers to a condition in which the concentration in the body of any one of the minerals necessary for life is abnormally high, and which has an adverse effect on health.
Iron poisoning is the most common form of mineral toxicity in children in the United States and is one of the leading causes of fatal poisoning in children younger than six years of age.
Iron toxicity is treated by efforts to remove the remaining iron from the stomach by administering a solution of 5 percent sodium bicarbonate.
health.enotes.com /childrens-health-encyclopedia/mineral-toxicity   (2896 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 22, Ch. 302, Drug Toxicity
Initial acute toxicity studies are conducted to determine the lethal dose (LD or LD --the dose required to kill 50% or 90%, respectively, of the laboratory animals), toxic symptoms, and the time symptoms appear.
Chronic toxicity studies, conducted in at least two species (including one nonrodent), usually last the lifetime of the animal (up to 2 yr in a rodent or longer in a nonrodent), but duration may depend on the intended duration of drug administration to humans.
In vitro toxicity tests are not substitutes for animal studies and provide only supportive information in the regulatory process; pharmaceutical companies use them to focus on specific chemicals for additional in vivo studies and for pharmacologic development.
www.merck.com /mrkshared/mmanual/section22/chapter302/302a.jsp   (1565 words)

  
 Toxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: )
He considered that toxicity interfered with the body's natural ability to provide sustenance and repair and as a consequence ill health, in one form or another, was likely to result.
Cayce had a threefold approach to toxicity; release it from the tissues, eliminate it from the body and prevent it from arising further.
It appears Cayce considered that if the toxicity could be removed, in most cases the body would be able to provide for itself the energies needed for the final stage of healing.
spiritualpath.co.uk /html/toxicity.html   (695 words)

  
 Mineral toxicity
The term mineral toxicity means a condition where the concentration in the body of any one of the minerals is abnormally high, and where there is an adverse effect on health.
In general, mineral toxicity results when there is an accidental consumption of too much of any mineral, as with drinking ocean water (sodium toxicity) or with overexposure to industrial pollutants, household chemicals, or certain drugs.
Iron toxicity is treated by efforts to remove remaining iron from the stomach, by use of a solution of 5% sodium bicarbonate.
www.healthatoz.com /healthatoz/Atoz/ency/mineral_toxicity.jsp   (1792 words)

  
 Molecular property explorer - toxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: )
While drawing a structure the toxicity risk predictor will start looking for potential toxicity risks as long as the currently drawn structure is a valid chemical entity.
Toxicity risk alerts are an indication that the drawn structure may be harmful concerning the risk category specified.
Based on the assumption that traded drugs are largely free of toxic effects, any fragment was considered a risk factor if it occured often as substructure of harmful compounds but never or rarely in traded drugs.
www.chemexper.com /tools/propertyExplorer/tox.html   (339 words)

  
 Vitamin toxicity
In infants, a single dose of 15 mg or greater may be toxic, but it is also the case that daily doses of 1.0 mg over a prolonged period may be toxic.
Toxic doses of vitamin D taken over a prolonged period of time result in irreversible deposits of calcium crystals in the soft tissues of the body that may damage the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
toxicity is not an issue for patients being treated for pernicious anemia, treatment of these patients with folic acid may cause problems.
www.healthatoz.com /healthatoz/Atoz/ency/vitamin_toxicity.jsp   (2246 words)

  
 Toxicity of Pesticides   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The acute toxicity of a pesticide is used as the basis for the warning statements on the label.
The effects of both acute toxicity and chronic toxicity are dose-related; the greater the dose, the greater the effect.
Toxicity categories are based on the acute oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, as well as eye and skin irritation effects of each pesticide.
pmep.cce.cornell.edu /facts-slides-self/core-tutorial/module04/index.html   (3749 words)

  
 Toxicity - Encyclopedia of Earth
Lipid-soluble toxicants are reabsorbed and concentrated in kidney cells.
Hepatotoxicity is toxicity to the liver, bile duct, and gall bladder.
Thus it is exposed to high doses of the toxicant or its toxic metabolites.
www.eoearth.org /article/Toxicity   (2143 words)

  
 Toxicity
Mercury(2+) compounds are more toxic than the mercury(1+) compounds by all routes of admin (except mercuric nitrate by way of ip route); no species resistance to oral LD was observed; the order of toxicity by ip admin practically repeated oral admin.
Toxicity of mercury(2+) compounds was less uniform than of mercury(1+) compounds; and solubility of the compounds had no effect on the toxicity.
When potentially toxic doses have been taken, peritoneal dialysis (with 5% salt-poor albumin added) or hemodialysis established early in the course concurrent with BAL administration may remove 10 to 15% of the ingested mercury and, even more importantly, relieve the kidneys and treat any uremia caused by the reversible kidney damage.
www.nomercury.org /atsdr.htm   (8995 words)

  
 wslh Biomonitoring - Whole Effluent Toxicity
In whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, organisms are exposed to various effluent concentrations for a specific time period in order to estimate the effluent's toxicity.
The IC is a statistical calculation used to estimate effects on growth or reproduction of an effluent in chronic toxicity tests.
The objective of a TIE is to characterize and identify the compound(s) causing toxicity.
www.slh.wisc.edu /ehd/biomonitoring/wet.php   (657 words)

  
 Wastewater Toxicity Testing Frequently Asked Questions
In these tests, carefully chosen indicator organisms are exposed to whole effluent and/or effluent dilutions for a pre-determined time period in order to observe the effluent’s effect on the organisms, and thereby, approximate it’s potential to effect organisms within the receiving water.
Toxicity can be caused by chemical, physical, or biological factors or a combination thereof.
Toxic response, notably when accompanied by erratic or inverted data, may also be a by-product of poor test organism health or poor laboratory techniques.
www.toxicitylab.com /content/services/toxicity_testing_faq.php   (1445 words)

  
 Toxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Toxicity (from Greek П„ОїОѕО№ОєПЊП„О·П„О± - poisonousness) is a measure to the degree to which something is toxic or poisonous.
In toxicology, however, the subject of such study is the effect of an external substance or condition and its deleterious effects on living things:organisms, organ systems, individual organs, tissues, cells, subcellular units.
But since individuals have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic exposure, there have also been devised various ways to measure the inherent toxicity of a thing by its measured effects on a whole population, such as LD50 (the dosage at which 50% of the exposed population dies).
www.mrsci.com /Toxicology/Toxicity.php   (928 words)

  
 Vitamin A toxicity
Normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is also required to ensure proper absorption of vitamin A. Other factors that influence vitamin A toxic reactions include age, state of nutrition, type of vitamin A preparation and route of administration.
Excessive vitamin A intake results in a toxic syndrome known as hypervitaminosis A. Vitamin A toxicities in humans may be generally categorised as either acute or chronic.
It is considered less toxic than pre-formed vitamin A. Beta-carotene is converted to retinol in the wall of small intestine and is further oxidised to retinoic acid and retinol.
www.prn2.usm.my /mainsite/bulletin/sun/1996/sun43.html   (1693 words)

  
 RAIS: Arsenic (7440-38-2)
The toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) depends on its valence state (-3, +3, or +5), and also on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in which it occurs.
The relative toxicity of the trivalent and pentavalent forms may also be affected by factors such as the water solubility of the compound.
Squibb, K.S.; Fowler, B.A. The toxicity of arsenic and its compounds.
risk.lsd.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/arsenic.shtml   (7393 words)

  
 RAIS: Cyanide (57-12-5)
The toxicity of thiocyanate is significantly less than that of cyanide, but chronically elevated levels of blood thiocyanate can inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland, thereby reducing the formation of thyroxine (Hartung, 1982).
Sandberg (1967) described symptoms of cyanide toxicity in a goldsmith apprentice who polished gold 5-10 times/day for 4 years and was exposed to cyanide by both inhalation and dermal contact.
Although the CNS is a primary target organ, the toxic effects of cyanide are due to blockage of electron transport by cytochrome oxidase, thereby causing cytotoxic hypoxia in all tissues.
risk.lsd.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/cyanide_f_V1.shtml   (4637 words)

  
 THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 1, Ch. 3, Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, And Toxicity
Vitamin D 1000 µg (40,000 IU)/day produces toxicity within 1 to 4 mo in infants, and as little as 75 µg (3000 IU)/day can produce toxicity over years.
Toxic effects have occurred in adults receiving 2500 µg (100,000 IU)/day for several months.
Vitamin D toxicity occurs commonly during the treatment of hypoparathyroidism (see Hypocalcemia under Disorders of Calcium Metabolism in Ch.
www.merck.com /pubs/mmanual/section1/chapter3/3e.htm   (319 words)

  
 Assessing Toxicity in Ambient Water and Sediment in Seven Texas Water Bodies - Texas Commission on Environmental ...
Toxicity in water and sediment are conditions that are measured to determine if a water body can support a healthy aquatic community.
To determine the potential of water bodies to be toxic to aquatic life, sensitive aquatic organisms are exposed to water and sediment samples under laboratory conditions.
The goal of this project was to confirm the presence of toxicity and to determine its causes, where present.
www.tceq.state.tx.us /implementation/water/tmdl/30-toxicity_project.html   (361 words)

  
 RAIS: Cyanide (57-12-5)
The toxicity of thiocyanate is significantly less than that of cyanide, but chronically elevated levels of blood thiocyanate can inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland, thereby reducing the formation of thyroxine (Hartung, 1982).
According to NIOSH (1976), chronic cyanide toxicity bears a striking similarity to thiocyanate intoxication, and it has been suggested that the symptoms ascribed to chronic cyanide poisoning may, in fact, be due to the toxicity of its metabolic product, thiocyanate.
Although the CNS is a primary target organ, the toxic effects of cyanide are due to blockage of electron transport by cytochrome oxidase, thereby causing cytotoxic hypoxia in all tissues.
rais.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/cyanide_f_V1.shtml   (4637 words)

  
 eMedicine - Toxicity, Vitamin : Article by Mark Rosenbloom, MD, MBA, FACEP
This particular toxicity is typically associated with formula-fed infants or those receiving synthetic vitamin K-3 (menadione) injections.
Acute toxicity effects are prostaglandin-mediated and include flushing, pruritus, wheezing, vasodilation, headache, increased intracranial blood flow, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Chronic toxicity effects include jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, signs and symptoms of liver toxicity (most common with sustained-release preparations), and acanthosis nigricans (rare).
www.emedicine.com /emerg/topic638.htm   (2722 words)

  
 RAIS: Arsenic (7440-38-2)
The toxicity of inorganic arsenic (As) depends on its valence state (-3, +3, or +5), and also on the physical and chemical properties of the compound in which it occurs.
The relative toxicity of the trivalent and pentavalent forms may also be affected by factors such as the water solubility of the compound.
Squibb, K.S.; Fowler, B.A. The toxicity of arsenic and its compounds.
rais.ornl.gov /tox/profiles/arsenic.shtml   (7393 words)

  
 Digitalis toxicity   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Digitalis toxicity is a complication of digitalis therapy, or it may be caused by an acute ingestion of digitalis.
Digitalis toxicity can be caused by high levels of digitalis in the body, or a decreased tolerance to the drug.
Digitalis toxicity can occur from a single exposure or chronic overmedication, or it may occur in patients with normal blood levels of digitalis if other risks are present.
www.healthcentral.com /ency/408/000165.html   (369 words)

  
 Toxicity by System Of A Down CD
Make no mistake, the thrash quotient on TOXICITY is high enough to satiate even the hungriest headbanger, but System of a Down understands the power of dynamics, often moving from a whisper to a scream over the course of the album (though they obviously spend far more time on the scream end of the spectrum).
I loved prison, toxicity, areial and chop suey is the greatisted song they sang.
Toxicity is one of the best rock or metal albums to hit in 2001!A breath of fresh air!The best tracks include: Prison song, Deer Dance, Chop Suey!, Forest, Science, Shimmy, and Toxicity.
www.cduniverse.com /search/xx/music/pid/2070120/a/Toxicity.htm   (530 words)

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