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Topic: Toxic megacolon


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In the News (Sat 16 Dec 17)

  
  Megacolon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Megacolon is an abnormal dilatation of the colon (a part of the large intestines) that is not caused by mechanical obstruction.
Toxic megacolon is mainly seen in ulcerative colitis and pseudomembranous colitis, two chronic inflammations of the colon.
There are several surgical approaches to treat megacolon, such as a total abdominal colectomy (removal of the entire colon) with ileorectal anastomosis (ligation of the remaining ileus and rectum segments), or a total proctocolectomy (removal of colon, sigmoid and rectum) followed by ileostomy or followed by ileoanal anastomosis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Megacolon   (773 words)

  
 Toxic megacolon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It is characterized by a very dilated colon (megacolon), accompanied by abdominal distention (bloating), and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.
Toxic megacolon is most usually a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, and some other infections of the colon.
Other forms of megacolon exist and can be congenital (present since birth, such as Hirschsprung's disease) or associated with some forms of constipation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Toxic_megacolon   (316 words)

  
 Toxic megacolon : survival without colectomy (a case report). Chaudhary AA, Jain SK, Gupta NM J Postgrad Med
Toxic megacolon, an uncommon presentation of various types of acute colitis, is a potentially lethal complication.
The term "toxic megacolon" was coined by Roth et al,[4] and the condition was first reported in ulcerative colitis.
The exact aetiology and pathogenesis of toxic megacolon continue to be obscure, but is currently believed to be due to transmural extension of the inflammatory process to all coats of the colonic wall.' The clinical and radiological features of this serious complication have been well established.
www.jpgmonline.com /article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=1984;volume=30;issue=3;spage=191;epage=2;aulast=Chaudhary   (930 words)

  
 Gastroenterology Chapter 10 Ulcerative Colitis - Part 2
Toxic megacolon is characterized by an acute dilation of all or part of the colon to a diameter greater than 6 cm (measured in the mid-transverse colon) and is associated with severe systemic toxicity.
Toxic megacolon occurs in 1– 2% of patients with ulcerative colitis.
If toxic megacolon is the presenting symptom of ulcerative colitis, diagnosis may be difficult, since a history of rectal bleeding and diarrhea is sometimes obscured by toxic megacolon.
gastroresource.com /GITextbook/en/chapter10/10-2b-pr.htm   (3304 words)

  
 Gastroenterology Grand Rounds
Toxic megacolon is defined as a severe attack of colitis involving the large bowel and accompanied by total or segmental dilatation of the colon.
Thus, even though a maximum colonic diameter signifies megacolon, the overall clinical condition of the patient is more important in diagnosis of toxic megacolon than the absolute width of the dilated segment.
The goals of treatment of toxic megacolon are to reduce the severity of colitis, to restore normal colonic motility, and to decrease the likelihood of perforation.
www.bcm.edu /gastro/VGICC/GI-D0117/09-DISC.HTM   (901 words)

  
 eMedicine - Megacolon, Toxic : Article by Lisa M Rossi, MD
Background: Toxic megacolon is the clinical term for an acute toxic colitis with dilatation of the colon.
Toxic megacolon was recognized in 1950 by Marschak et al.
The incidence of toxic megacolon is expected to increase due to the rising prevalence of pseudomembranous colitis.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic1418.htm   (3702 words)

  
 eMedicine - Toxic Megacolon : Article by Ali Nawaz Khan, MBBS, FRCP, FRCR
Once toxic megacolon is diagnosed, the patient must be immediately admitted to an intensive care unit where he or she can be monitored by intensivists and a team of physicians and surgeons.
Toxic megacolon is associated with an acute transmural fulminant colitis with the neurogenic loss of motor tone.
Toxic megacolon in the setting of Crohn disease is less common, but the plain radiographic findings of toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis and those of Crohn disease overlap.
www.emedicine.com /radio/topic702.htm   (2642 words)

  
 Toxic Bowel - HBOT : Hyperbaric Medicine : Melbourne - Australia
The frequency of toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis is reported to be 1.6-8.0%.2 79% of patients undergo surgery with a mortality rate of 16%.3 Surgical texts recommend colectomy after 48-72 h if there is persistent colonic distension.4 In our case, hyperbaric oxygen given within 48 h resulted in marked improvement without any side-effects.
Mechanisms of action of hyperbaric oxygen may be compression of intestinal gas with reduction of colonic dilatation and as a consequence improvement of circulation to the mucosa.5 Hyperbaric oxygen may also improve the diffusion gradient for nitrogen and thereby decrease the diameter of the colon.
Outcome of toxic dilatation in ulcerative and Crohn's colitis.
www.spinalrehab.com.au /updates/toxicmegacolonhbot.htm   (502 words)

  
 Tropical Medicine Central Resource   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
A toxic megacolon is a definite contraindication for barium enema examination.
Toxic megacolon in acute amebic colitis, similar radiographically to that seen in ulcerative colitis.
Toxic megacolon is an ominous finding in severe amebiasis and is a contraindication for barium enema examination because of the fragile nature of the severely ulcerated and often paper-thin bowel wall.
tmcr.usuhs.mil /tmcr/chapter1/imaging2.htm   (355 words)

  
 UpToDate Toxic megacolon
Colonic dilatation is also observed in patients with congenital megacolon (Hirshsprung's disease), idiopathic or acquired megacolon occurring with chronic constipation of any etiology, and intestinal pseudoobstruction, a manifestation of diffuse gastrointestinal dysmotility of various causes.
— The precise incidence of toxic megacolon is unknown.
In contrast to typical ulcerative colitis in which the inflammatory response is limited to the mucosa, toxic megacolon is characterized by severe inflammation of the smooth muscle layer which paralyzes the colonic smooth muscle, thereby leading to dilatation.
patients.uptodate.com /print.asp?print=true&file=inflambd/2539   (637 words)

  
 ASCRS
in toxic colitis, the patient is acutely ill with fever, tachycardia, and leukocytosis and exhibits abdominal tenderness and distention, dehydration, and hypotension.
Toxic colitis mandates aggressive medical management, including intravenous fluids and systemic parenteral steroids and antibiotics; parenteral nutrition may also be indicated.
Colonic dilation (toxic megacolon) predicts imminent colonic perforation, and both dilation and perforation are absolute indications for emergency operation.
www.fascrs.org /displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=155   (4801 words)

  
 Toxic megacolon and inflammatory bowel disease - Health Topics - Medical Encyclopedia - MSN Health & Fitness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Toxic megacolon occurs when the colon swells to many times its normal size.
It is most commonly caused by severe inflammation and ulceration from ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, which weaken muscles in the colon.
Toxic megacolon is an emergency situation requiring immediate medical and surgical treatment.
health.msn.com /encyclopedia/healthtopics/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100066949   (169 words)

  
 Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Intestinal Problems — Complete medical information regarding intestinal complications on ...
Toxic megacolon is a widened (dilated) segment of the colon in a patient with severe inflammation of the colon (colitis).
Patients with toxic megacolon usually are very ill, with abdominal pain, bloating (distention), and fever.
Toxic megacolon typically occurs when inflammation of the colon is severe.
www.medicinenet.com /inflammatory_bowel_disease_intestinal_problems/page8.htm   (450 words)

  
 Terminology of the Intestine
Toxic colitis: Damage to the intestinal wall that extends throughout the entire thickness of the wall and inhibits the mobility action.
Toxic megacolon: Inflammation or infection of the colon, which results in an enlarged colon and puts the patient at risk for perforations in the intestinal wall.
Rapid heartbeat, fever, pain, blood in the stools and abdominal cramping are symptoms of toxic megacolon.
www.gitract.info /intestinal-disorders/terminology.php   (614 words)

  
 Toxic megacolon Surgery
It is characterized by a very dilated colon(megacolon, accompanied by abdominal distention (bloating), and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.
Toxic megacolon is most usually a complicationof inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitisand Crohn?s disease, and some other infectionsof the colon.
Other forms of megacolon exist and can be congenital(present since birth, such as Hirschsprung's disease) or associated with some forms of constipation.
www.lumrix.com /medical/surgery/toxic_megacolon.html   (305 words)

  
 Bombay Hospital Journal - Symptoms / Sign / Obsolete / Evergreen / New   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Toxic megacolon is an acute toxic colitis characterised by total or segmental non obstructive colonic dilatation of atleast 6 cm with systemic toxicity.
Toxic megacolon accounts for 5% of severe attacks of ulcerative colitis and common in the western world.
Among various causes of toxic megacolon ulcerative colitis is the commonest.
www.bhj.org /journal/2005_4703_july/html/case_toxic_279.htm   (861 words)

  
 Toxic Megacolon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Toxic megacolon is defined as dilation of the colon with fulminant colitis.
CT is useful for follow-up of treatment of toxic megacolon and diagnosis of complications.
Toxic megacolon is one of the most important complications of ulcerative colitis.
brighamrad.harvard.edu /Cases/bwh/hcache/178/full.html   (316 words)

  
 Bartell Drugs | Health Encyclopedia
Toxic megacolon is a life-threatening complication of other intestinal conditions, characterized by a very dilated colon, abdominal distention, and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock.
Other forms of megacolon exist and can be congenital (from birth) or associated with some forms of constipation.
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if severe abdominal pain develops -- particularly if it is accompanied by fever, rapid pulse (heart rate), tenderness when the abdomen is gently pressed, or other symptoms, such as bloody diarrhea, frequent diarrhea, or painful bowel movements.
www.bartelldrugs.com /ency/document.jsp?ID=000248   (382 words)

  
 WPXI.com - Health Encyclopedia - Toxic Megacolon
Other forms of megacolon exist and can be congenital (present since birth) or associated with some forms of constipation.
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if severe abdominal pain develops -- particularly if it is accompanied by fever, rapid heart rate, tenderness when the abdomen is pressed, bloody diarrhea, frequent diarrhea, or painful bowel movements.
Treatment of the underlying disease is important in preventing toxic megacolon.
www.wpxi.com /encyclopedia/6859711/detail.html   (467 words)

  
 Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis: a sixth of patients with toxic megacolon died.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis: a sixth of patients with toxic megacolon died.
Roughly a tenth of patients with ulcerative colitis developed toxic dilatation of the colon.
Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Gibas A, et al: Outcome of toxic dilatation in ulcerative and Crohn's colitis.
www.eboncall.org /CATs/2355.htm   (148 words)

  
 Ulcerative Colitis Symptoms and Complications
Two of the more serious risks of ulcerative colitis are toxic colitis and toxic megacolon.
Toxic colitis results from a severe inflammation of the colon, which causes abnormal colon function and, if ulceration is severe enough, peritonitis.
Toxic megacolon is a result of excessive dilation of the colon.
www.gitract.info /intestinal-disorders/ulcerative-colitis-symptoms.php   (478 words)

  
 Ulcerative colitis: a tenth developed toxic megacolon.
A tenth of patients with severe acute ulcerative colitis developed toxic megacolon.
Patients with toxic megacolon had total parenteral nutrition, iv hydrocortisone and nil-by-mouth.
No factors were found to clearly increase the risk of toxic megacolon.
www.eboncall.org /CATs/2377.htm   (126 words)

  
 Intestinal Perforation From Toxic Megacolon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Seventy-five children with a proved diagnosis of salmonella (non typhi) were evaluated to define the risk factors resulting in intestinal perforation from toxic megacolon (TM).
Patients with TM were defined as those having toxic appearance, diarrhea, high fever (>39 degrees), marked colon dilatation with a maximum diameter >1.5 times the width of L1 vertebral body.
Factors associated with intestinal perforation in children’s non typhi salmonella toxic megacolon.
www.indegene.com /Ped/Jour/indJour_PIDJ_Sum_01-12-2000_4.asp   (347 words)

  
 Medical Dictionary: Megacolon - WrongDiagnosis.com
Megacolon: Dilation and sometimes lengthening of the colon.
Megacolon: an abnormal enlargement of the colon; can be congenital (as in Hirschsprung's disease) or acquired (as when children refuse to defecate)
Megacolon: Megacolon is listed as a type of (or associated with) the following medical conditions in our database: Digestive Diseases, Bowel conditions, Colon conditions
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/megacolon.htm   (237 words)

  
 SRS-X, The SRS Educational Resource for Radiology, Crohn's colitis with toxic megacolon
SRS-X, The SRS Educational Resource for Radiology, Crohn's colitis with toxic megacolon
The transverse colon measures more than 5.5cm across, which in the presence of colitis indicates a toxic megacolon, with the risk of imminent perforation.
Toxic megacolon is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease.
www.radiology.co.uk /srs-x/cases/011/d.htm   (202 words)

  
 Toxic megacolon complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia -- Wodzinski et al. 70 (830): 921 -- Postgraduate ...
Toxic megacolon complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia -- Wodzinski et al.
Toxic megacolon complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia
Subsequently, serial abdominal X-rays showed a progressive toxic megacolon.
pmj.bmjjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/70/830/921   (154 words)

  
 Healthopedia.com - Toxic Megacolon (Toxic Dilation of the Colon)
Toxic megacolon is a serious complication that can follow inflammation or infection of the large bowel, or colon.
Toxic megacolon describes a dangerous enlargement of the colon.
This may result in a life-threatening tear, or perforation, of the colon.
www.healthopedia.com /toxic-megacolon   (295 words)

  
 Google Search: toxic medication
However, it can cause toxic liver reactions in a few dogs.
chaparral has proven to cause toxic hepatitis, including the case of a...
JW: "Occupational" exposure of infant to toxic chemicals via breast milk.
www.uoc.edu /humfil/articles/cat/vossen/Google_toxic_medication.htm   (154 words)

  
 Lifespan's A - Z Health Information Library - Toxic megacolon   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Lifespan's A - Z Health Information Library - Toxic megacolon
Toxic megacolon is characterized by extreme inflammation and distention of the colon.
Common symptoms are pain, distention of the abdomen, fever, rapid heart rate, and dehydration.
www.lifespan.org /adam/healthillustratedencyclopedia/2/17189.html   (150 words)

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