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Topic: Toxin

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  Toxin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Toxins are nearly always proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact or absorption with body tissues by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors.
Toxins vary greatly in their severity, ranging from usually minor and acute (as in a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (as in botulinum toxin).
The toxins may be produced either in the living body during infection (for instance, by tetanus) or by bacteria in dead biological material.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Toxin   (423 words)

 Botulin toxin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The toxins incorporate an enzyme (a protease) that attacks one of the fusion proteins at a neuromuscular junction, preventing vesicles from anchoring to the membrane to release acetylcholine.
Botulin toxin has always been considered an inferior agent for chemical warfare since it degrades rapidly on exposure to air, and therefore an area attacked with the toxic aerosol would be safe to enter within a day or so.
Other uses of botulinum toxin type A that are widely known but not approved by FDA include urinary incontinence, anal fissure, spastic disorders associated with injury or disease of the central nervous system including trauma, stroke, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral palsy and focal dystonias affecting the limbs, face, jaw, or vocal cords.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Botulin_toxin   (1567 words)

 Toxin definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
The term "toxin" is frequently used to refer specifically to a particular protein produced by some higher plants, animals and pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria.
A toxin typically has a high molecular weight (as compared to a simple chemical poison), is antigenic (elicits an antibody response), and is highly poisonous to living creatures.
Tetanus - Tetanus (lockjaw) is a toxin produced by the bacteria affects the function of the nerves and leads to severe muscle spasms in the abdomen, neck, stomach, and extremities.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5828   (288 words)

 Bacterial Toxins: Friends or Foes?
Since diphtheria toxin was isolated by Roux and Yersin in 1888 (1), microbial toxins have been recognized as the primary virulence factor(s) for a variety of pathogenic bacteria.
The toxin is synthesized as a hydrophilic polypeptide of approximately 115 kDa that remains primarily cytoplasmic because of the lack of a signal sequence (33).
The toxin is synthesized as a precursor molecule of 234 residues with the first 40 amino acids acting as a signal sequence that is cleaved to generate the mature 22 kDa toxin (49).
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol5no2/schmitt.htm   (5506 words)

 Medmicro Chapter 18
Toxin is usually detected by its lethal effect in mice coupled with neutralization of this effect by specific antisera.
Toxin A is an enterotoxin that causes fluid accumulation in the bowel, and it is a weak cytotoxin for most mammalian cells; toxin B is a potent cytotoxin.
Toxin A is a chemotactic factor for granulocytes; both toxins A and B have effects on leukocytes that include alterations in actin cytoskeletal microfilaments, and induction of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch018.htm   (9599 words)

 AllRefer.com - toxin (Biochemistry) - Encyclopedia
Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins.
In sufficiently low doses toxins stimulate the production of antibodies, or antitoxins, in the host, and toxins of a specific bacterial species have been injected to elicit formation of antibodies against the disease caused by the bacteria.
Toxoids are protein toxins that have been heated or chemically treated to deprive them of their toxicity but not of the ability to induce the formation of antibodies.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/T/toxin.html   (256 words)

A toxin, in a scientific context, is a biologically produced substance that causes injury to the health of a living thing on contact or absorption, typically by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes and receptors.
Toxicity may be acute (as in a bee sting), chronic (as in the Guam cycad toxin), or both.
Many publishers of non-technical material, such as the BBC, also follow this usage to refer to toxic substances in general, though some such as The Guardian maintain the distinction that toxins are only those produced by living organisms.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Toxin   (385 words)

 Toxin Gene Expression by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli: the Role of Antibiotics and the Bacterial SOS Response
Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene.
Shiga toxins are key virulence factors in the pathogenesis of STEC disease (3).
Another potent SOS inducer, mitomycin C, which is known to increase toxin levels in vitro (24,25), tests positive in agar and broth induction tests with our reporter strain (results not shown).
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol6no5/kimmett.htm   (3558 words)

 Botulinum Toxin: A Poison That Can Heal
The bacterial toxin that can paralyze and kill if consumed in contaminated food is now safely used, in a purified form, as a medicine to control certain conditions marked by involuntary muscle contractions.
Toxin that may have formed can readily be destroyed by boiling the food for 10 minutes.
There are seven different types of botulinum toxin, and the currently marketed therapeutic toxin is type A. NIH is studying whether patients who have become immune to injections of type A toxin can successfully be treated by toxins of other types.
www.fda.gov /fdac/features/095_bot.html   (2239 words)

 AB5 bacterial toxin project
As with many other bacterial toxins the catalytic activity resides in the `A' fragment, in this case a separate subunit, while receptor binding and delivery of the toxin to the target cell is mediated by a separate `B' fragment, in this case a pentamer.
Because these toxins stimulate the mucosal immune system, there is great interest in using an engineered form of the toxin as a basis for the design of vaccines against a wide range of diseases.
In order to use the toxin as a vaccine component it is obviously desirable to reduce or abolish the cytotoxicity while retaining the toxins ability to stimulate the immune system.
www.bmsc.washington.edu /projects/toxins.html   (847 words)

 Disease Listing, Botulism, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases
Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum.
The most direct way to confirm the diagnosis is to demonstrate the botulinum toxin in the patient's serum or stool by injecting serum or stool into mice and looking for signs of botulism.
Because the botulism toxin is destroyed by high temperatures, persons who eat home-canned foods should consider boiling the food for 10 minutes before eating it to ensure safety.
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/botulism_g.htm   (1084 words)

 eMedicine - Botulinum Toxin : Article by Zoltan Trizna, MD, PhD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The reader should note that the dermatologic use of botulinum toxin requires an in-depth knowledge of the anatomy and function of the areas treated (eg, in the case of the face, facial muscles, and their relations with the orbit).
Myobloc Injectable Solution (botulinum toxin type B) in the United States and Canada and Neurobloc in Europe is indicated for the treatment of patients with cervical dystonia to reduce the severity of abnormal head position and pain associated with cervical dystonia.
Antibody development is described in patients receiving high doses of botulinum toxin (eg, for the treatment of torticollis or dysphonia); as a result, their muscles become resistant to further therapy.
www.emedicine.com /derm/topic779.htm   (3512 words)

 Structure of Anthrax Toxin - chime animated molecular models
Lethal factor is a protease causing the lysis of macrophages.
The next step is an endocytosis: the cellular membrane containing the receptor bound toxin complex is tilted inward to eventually form a vesicle with the toxin bound to the inner surface.
Cleavage of a 29 residues signal sequence releases the mature PA In this state PA is inactive except for its binding affinity for a receptor.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /lehre/bza/molnews/anthrax/anthrax.htm   (1032 words)

 Anthrax Toxin Receptor
When added to cells growing in a petri dish, the ATR fragment blocks toxin binding to the cell surface, a finding that may have important repercussions for treatment, since by blocking the binding, the fragment interrupts the fatal sequence of events whereby the toxin does its killing.
An effective antidote to toxin is crucial because once the flulike symptoms of inhalation anthrax become apparent, it is generally too late for medical intervention.
This is because antibiotic-insensitive toxin is already circulating and once in the cell, causing irreparable damage.
www.hms.harvard.edu /news/releases/1001collier.html   (656 words)

 Botulinum toxin, BOTOX®, Dysport®. DermNet NZ   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Botulinum toxin is a neuromuscular blocking agent, which means it causes paralysis of the injected muscle by preventing the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals.
Botulinum toxin treatment was originally introduced to treat muscle spasms, including blepharospasm (spasms of the eyelids), strabismus (squint), cervical dystonia (torticollis of the neck) and spasticity due to cerebral palsy or other muscular diseases.
Botulinum toxin is very successful at reducing excessive localised sweating (hyperhidrosis), especially in the armpits.
www.dermnetnz.org /procedures/botox.html   (759 words)

 Botulinum Toxin Injections: A treatment for muscle spasms -- familydoctor.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Botulinum toxin is made by the same bacterium that causes food poisoning.
Botulinum toxin is a standard treatment for spasmodic torticollis, a muscle spasm that causes the head and neck to pull in one direction.
Botulinum toxin is mixed with saline (salt water) and injected into the muscle with a tiny needle.
familydoctor.org /handouts/017.html   (378 words)

 JAMA -- Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management, February 28, 2001, Arnon et al. ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
toxin is used as a biological weapon against a civilian population.
potency of botulinum toxin is enzymatic; the toxin is a zinc
B, Botulinum toxin binds to the neuronal cell membrane at the nerve terminus and enters the neuron by endocytosis.
jama.ama-assn.org /cgi/content/full/285/8/1059   (4104 words)

 MedlinePlus Drug Information: Botulinum Toxin Type A (Parenteral-Local )   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Botulinum toxin type A is injected into the surrounding muscle or tissue of the eye, but not into the eye itself.
Botulinum toxin type A is also used to treat muscle spasms of the neck (cervical dystonia) and some types of severe sweating of the armpits (hyperhidrosis).
Weakness in the muscles where botulinum toxin type A is to be injected—Your doctor may decrease your dose or not inject the botulinum toxin type A until these problems are better.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202608.html   (1248 words)

 Public - Botulinum Toxin Poisoning - Prevention
Note that immunization against botulinum toxin is not recommended for the general population.
Understand that physical containment by removing the materials containing the botulinum toxin and limiting the number of people who may eat or inhale the toxin are key to preventing the spread of the disease in the population.
Reserve immunization with a serotype-specific botulinum toxin for at-risk military personnel and workers exposed directly to botulinum toxin in research and the pharmaceutical industry.
pier.acponline.org /physicians/public/d995/primary.prevention/d995-s1.html   (553 words)

 Botulinum Toxin Treatment - Children's Hemiplegia and Stroke Association
Spasticity associated with cerebral palsy in children: guidelines for the use of botulinum a toxin.
Botulinum toxin type A injections in the spastic upper extremity of children with hemiplegia: child characteristics that predict a positive outcome
Botulinum toxin A in the management of spastic gait disorders in children and young adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized, double-blind study of "high-dose" versus "low-dose" treatment
www.chasa.org /botulinum_toxin.htm   (603 words)

 DMRF: Botulinum Toxin Injections   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Botulinum toxin is a complex protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
Botulinum toxin type-A was developed as a therapeutic agent for this disorder along with blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, and other disorders characterized by inappropriate muscle spasms.
Especially when first beginning treatment with botulinum toxin, there may be a short "trial" phase during which the physician and patient work together to find the right combination of location and dosage for that person.
www.dystonia-foundation.org /treatment/botox.asp   (1269 words)

 Botulinum Toxin
Botulinum toxin is the most poisonous substance known to man. Even a small amount is lethal.
As a weapon, the toxin might be released in the air or placed in the food supply.
In tiny doses, the toxin is injected as a treatment for eyelid muscle spasms, migraine headaches, and other conditions.
healthlibrary.epnet.com /GetContent.aspx?token=af362d97-4f80-4453-a175-02cc6220a387&chunkiid=12006   (831 words)

 Toxin (Peacekeepers, Blackwulf character)
Sparrow was determined to have revenge, but Toxin knocked her out with a sedative for her own good.
Toxin then joined the Underground in their mission to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, to prevent the Peacekeepers from obtaining the corpses of two Skrulls held there.
Toxin battled his one-time allies in the Underground, and following the death of Tantalus, he returned to earth alongside the Peacekeepers and Khult.
www.marvunapp.com /Appendix/toxinwulf.htm   (572 words)

 Botulism; Botulinum toxin
Sequence homology (30% to 40%) to tetanus toxin
Botulinum toxin may be absorbed from respiratory system
Alkaline pH of intestine dissociates toxin from associated proteins
www.neuro.wustl.edu /neuromuscular/nother/bot.htm   (870 words)

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