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Topic: Trade liberalization


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In the News (Mon 23 Oct 17)

  
  SICE - Trade Liberalization in the Caribbean   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
After trade barriers among countries in the region were removed in the 1970s, the reductions in the CET were expected to lead mainly to increased imports from countries outside the region and—as trade liberalization led to a more efficient allocation of resources—increased exports.
Trade liberalization led to a reduction in the overall ratio of import duties to the value of imports, as measured by the collected tariff, to 61/4 percent in 1998 from about 81/4 percent in 1994.
Trade liberalization has provided the Caribbean countries with increased opportunities, but their progress has to be assessed in the context of the trade liberalization that has occurred elsewhere.
www.sice.oas.org /geograph/caribbean/stotsky.asp   (2222 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Trade liberalization
Free trade is the absence of artificial (government-imposed) barriers to trade among individuals and firms in different nations.
A strong line of reasoning against free trade is that trade barriers as quotas and agricultural subsidies prevent farmers in the third world from competing in local and export markets, thereby creating third world poverty.
Historically, the free trade movement was skeptical and even hostile to the notion of intellectual property, regarded as monopolistic and harmful to a free, competitive economy.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Trade-liberalization   (1326 words)

  
 Liberalization -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In the arena of social policy it may refer to a relaxation of laws restricting for example (The legal dissolution of a marriage) divorce, (Termination of pregnancy) abortion, (A sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the same sex) homosexuality or (A substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic) drugs.
Most often, the term is used to refer to economic liberalization, especially (additional info and facts about trade liberalization) trade liberalization or capital market liberalization, policies often referred to as (A political orientation originating in the 1960s; blends liberal political views with an emphasis on economic growth) neoliberalism.
Liberalized and privatized (Employment within a government system (especially in the civil service)) public services may be (additional info and facts about dominated by just a few big companies) dominated by just a few big companies, particularly in sectors with high capital costs.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/l/li/liberalization.htm   (251 words)

  
 CRS Report: 94-291 - GATT Trade Liberalization, and the Environment: An Economic Analysis - NLE
Trade liberalization could also benefit the environment by eliminating restrictive trade policies, such as agricultural subsidies, that have contributed to higher pollution levels.
In the early postwar period, trade liberalization was a major factor in the economic growth of the industrial countries.
This is because, since trade is already quite free in most developed countries, additional trade liberalization has a relatively small effect on economic growth, and consequently on the environment.
www.ncseonline.org /NLE/CRSreports/Economics/econ-3.cfm?&CFID=8491330&CFTOKEN=80926621   (5606 words)

  
 [No title]
As different types of trade policies and agreements will have different types and levels of environmental impacts, and as it is not evident that all trade policies and agreements should be subject to environmental reviews, guidance is offered on the potential candidates for environmental reviews.
Trade liberalization agreements, commodity agreements, preferential trade agreements and sectoral trade agreements are identified as multilateral candidates.
Conversely, in China’s cotton sector, trade liberalization is expected to bring about positive effects on the environment because of reduction in the use of cultivated land and the consequent reduction in the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
www.biodiv.org /doc/meetings/cop/cop-07/information/cop-07-inf-15-en.doc   (8798 words)

  
 Global Trade Liberalization and the Developing Countries -- An IMF Issues Brief   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The growth in trade is in turn the result of both technological developments and concerted efforts to reduce trade barriers.
Moreover, developing countries would gain more from global trade liberalization as a percentage of their GDP than industrial countries, because their economies are more highly protected and because they face higher barriers.
In this way, the packages of trade liberalization measures that result for these negotiations are assured of benefiting all of the participating countries.
www.imf.org /external/np/exr/ib/2001/110801.htm   (2204 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Though research results are inconclusive as to the impact of trade liberalization on women, trade liberalisation has been associated with rising female employment in many countries and it may also promote the expansion of women owned and operated businesses.
Trade liberalisation may also reinforce gender segregation and gender-typing of occupations and industries in which “women’s jobs” have lower pay and less secure tenure than “men’s jobs.” Many of these jobs are linked to traditional areas of unpaid domestic work (Beneria and Lind 1995).
Regionally, the operations of trade blocks that liberalizes trade may lead to trade diversion from one country or region to another resulting in loss of income in the country from which the business entity has shifted operations from.
www.dawn.org.fj /global/unconferences/ffd/ffddocs/cartegena1.doc   (4113 words)

  
 Poor Country Gains from Trade Greatly Overstated, Press Release
Third, calculating the combined impact of the economic growth projected for a period in which any trade liberalization process takes place and trade liberalization itself, shows that the impact of trade liberalization on poverty reduction is approximately 20 percent as large as the corrected Cline projections.
Trade liberalization is projected to raise their income just above this $2 per day poverty level.
Though any reduction in poverty is desirable, since poor countries are being forced to make concessions in exchange for trade liberalization in rich countries, it is important that they approach trade negotiations with a clear assessment of the size of the potential benefits.
www.cepr.net /pressreleases/poor_country_gains_cline.htm   (625 words)

  
 Agricultural Trade Liberalization in China   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
In the fourth section, the effects of the trade liberalization on China’s agriculture are projected using a agricultural sector wise general equilibrium model.
Under the free trade scenario, both import tariff and trade barriers for agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and pesticide will also be reduced and eventually be phased out in 2005, therefore the fertilizer and pesticide prices are assumed to decline by 20 percent from 2000 to 2005.
Our simulation results on the trade liberalization conclude that the producers of most crops (except for rice and horticulture) will loss their income from the farming activities not only because of the decline in the price the farmer will received, but also the reduction in the production.
aic.ucdavis.edu /research/rozelle.htm   (10564 words)

  
 The World Factbook 2004 -- Field Listing - Economy - overview
Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe.
Trade deficits are offset by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid, overwhelmingly from New Zealand.
Reexport trade normally constitutes a major segment of economic activity, but a 1999 government-imposed preshipment inspection plan, and instability of the Gambian dalasi (currency) have drawn some of the reexport trade away from Banjul.
www.brainyatlas.com /fields/2116.html   (16452 words)

  
 Paper: Evaluating the Success of Trade Liberalization in Bangladesh
Economic theory suggests that the primary impact of trade liberalization will be on the overall level of trade, with a roughly parallel increase in exports and imports as a percentage of GDP.
After liberalization, some succeeded in modernizing under the stimulus of competition, but some were out-competed by imports, as we know must happen if exports and imports are to expand in parallel.
The charge that trade liberalization is responsible for the smuggling from India is, as I have already implied, absurd.
www.iie.com /publications/papers/williamson0999-2.htm   (1208 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Monetarism Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Liberal economist Robert Solow of MIT suggested that the 2001-2003 failure of the expected economic recovery should be attributed not to monetary policy failure, but to the breakdown in productivity growth in crucial sectors of the economy, most particularly retail trade.
He noted that five sectors produced all of the productivity gains of the 1990s, and that while the growth of retail and wholesale trade produced the smallest growth, they were by far the largest sectors of the economy experiencing net increase of productivity.
These disagreements, as well as the role of monetary policy in trade liberalization, international investment, and central bank policy, remain lively topics of investigation and argument - proving that monetarist theory remains a central area of study in market economics.
www.ipedia.com /monetarism.html   (2492 words)

  
 Trade Liberalization, Exchange Rate Changes, and Tax Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa
Empirical evidence on the relationship between trade liberalization, exchange rates, and tax revenue is mixed.
We find evidence that the relationship between trade liberalization and tax revenue is sensitive to the measure used to proxy trade liberalization, but that, in general, trade liberalization is not strongly linked to aggregate tax revenue or its components—though with one measure, it is linked to higher income tax revenue.
These results show some partial consistency with previous findings, and support the notion that trade liberalization accompanied by appropriate macroeconomic policies can be undertaken in a way that preserves overall revenue yield.
ideas.repec.org /p/htr/hcecon/403.html   (587 words)

  
 Archived Articles - Globalization: Economic Liberalization - Global Policy Forum
The broad consensus among trade ministers at the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) meeting in Quito was that “more trade is better than less.” Outside the meeting, however, indigenous peoples argued that the FTAA would thrust open the Amazon rain forest to oil and mining corporations and destroy small-scale farming.
Shiva argues that “free” trade often produces deepening poverty and inequality in developing countries, and she proposes a model for “fair” trade as an alternative.
Andrew Berg and Anne Krueger of the IMF attempt to respond to the argument that trade liberalization leads to a “race to the bottom” or a “global sweatshop economy.” Unfortunately, they provide few new insights or strategies, insisting that trade openness is “a good idea” for developing countries.
www.globalpolicy.org /globaliz/econ/archindex.htm   (12734 words)

  
 IMF urges Tunisia to speed trade liberalization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
But while prudent economic policies, gradual trade liberalization and progressive social policies have improved the economy, resulting in improved credit ratings and access to global capital markets, the IMF said more could be done.
The lender urged Tunisia to complement ongoing trade liberalization with the European Union with comprehensive trade and price liberalization measures, as well as sustained structural reforms.
The IMF noted that, while Tunisia began cutting tariffs against EU manufactured goods in 1996, overall trade restrictions remain high and significant challenges remain to meet the challenge of free trade with Europe.
www.tunisiaonline.com /pressbook/imf130201.html   (395 words)

  
 Future Visions for U.S. Trade Policy - Council on Foreign Relations
It appears that you are using either an older, classic Web browser or a hand-held device that allows you to view our content but may not work with every feature of our site.
With fast-track trade authority sidetracked, at least for now, experts believe it is time to take a hard look at the alternatives in order to sustain momentum for increasing world trade.
In 1989 he coedited Dollars, Deficits and Trade, and his volume Reaganomics: An Insider's Account of the Policies and the People was named one of the ten best business books of 1988.
www.cfr.org /pub177/bruce_stokes/future_visions_for_us_trade_policy.php   (804 words)

  
 Unionized Oligopoly, Trade Liberalization and Location Choice
In a two-country reciprocal-dumping model, with one country unionized, we analyse how wage setting and firm location are influenced by trade liberalization.
Trade liberalization has a non-monotonic effect on wages.
For a given location choice, trade liberalization increases national welfare in the unionized country.
ideas.repec.org /p/cpr/ceprdp/2990.html   (349 words)

  
 Trade Liberalization, Corruption, And Environmental Policy Formation: Theory And Evidence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Trade Liberalization, Corruption, And Environmental Policy Formation: Theory And Evidence
We begin by presenting a theoretical model that produces several testable predictions, including: (i) the effect of trade liberalization on the stringency of environmental policy depends on the level of corruption; and (ii) corruption reduces environmental policy stringency.
Using panel data from a mix of developed and developing countries from 1982 to 1992, we find evidence that supports these conjectures.
www.comdig.org /send_article.php?id_article=13792   (182 words)

  
 Factor Endowments, Trade Liberalization And The Future Of APEC Trade Patterns (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Factor Endowments, Trade Liberalization And The Future Of APEC Trade Patterns
Abstract: INTRODUCTION The main means of achieving trade liberalization have been (1) multilateral agreements within the framework of GATT and more recently the WTO and (2) discriminatory regional agreements which attempt to liberalize trade among members of the regional agreement but not with respect to non-members.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of countries in or bordering on the Pacific which since November, 1989 has chosen to take a rather different approach to trade...
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /316953.html   (442 words)

  
 Finance & Development, June 2000 - Trade Liberalization in the Caribbean
Finance and Development, June 2000 - Trade Liberalization in the Caribbean
Although investment as a share of GDP varied considerably among countries, total investment for the region rose to 28
Trade liberalization led to a reduction in the overall ratio of import duties to the value of imports, as measured by the collected tariff, to 6
www.imf.org /external/pubs/ft/fandd/2000/06/stotsky.htm   (2226 words)

  
 Trade Liberalization, Market Reforms and Competitiveness of Indian Dairy Sector   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Until 1991, the Indian dairy industry was highly regulated and protected through quantitative restrictions (QRs) and stringent licensing provisions.
Since early 1990s, India embarked upon liberal policy framework, which got reinforced with the signing of Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) in 1994.
This opening-up increasingly exposed the Indian dairy sector to the global markets, which in-turn are distorted by export subsidies, domestic support and prohibitive tariffs in developed countries.
www.ifpri.org /divs/mtid/dp/mtidp61.htm   (298 words)

  
 Trade Liberalization, Corruption, And Environmental Policy Formation: Theory And Evidence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Trade Liberalization, Corruption, And Environmental Policy Formation: Theory And Evidence, J.
Abstract: This study explores the linkages between trade policy, corruption, and environmental policy.
Source: Trade Liberalization, Corruption, And Environmental Policy Formation: Theory And Evidence
www.comdig.org /print_article.php?id_article=13792   (137 words)

  
 trade   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Trading Beyond the Mountains The British Fur Trade on the Pacific 17931843
Trade Theory and Economic Reform North, South, and East Essays in Honor of Bela Balassa
King Guezo of Dahomey 185052 The Abolition of the Slave Trade on the West Coast of Africa
www.haematit.com /hae_bo_edart   (2671 words)

  
 Implications of Trade Liberalization on Food Security of Low-Income Countries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Implications of Trade Liberalization on Food Security of Low-Income Countries
This issue paper discusses how agricultural trade liberalization will affect low-income, food-insecure countries.
Most countries and regions show modest reductions in food insecurity from liberalization due to domestic supply response that reacts to high prices.
www.ers.usda.gov /publications/aib7655   (96 words)

  
 BusinessPundit: Trade Liberalization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Robert Prather has a good post on trade liberalization.
I hope, too, that the discord in the United Nations and NATO doesn't spill over and affect multilateral trade agreements.
Posted by Rob at March 24, 2003 07:02 AM
www.businesspundit.com /archives/000050.html   (38 words)

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