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Topic: Tragedy

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  The Tragedy of the Commons, by Garrett Hardin (1968)
[6] We may well call it "the tragedy of the commons," using the word "tragedy" as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: "The essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness.
But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated.
The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way.
www.dieoff.com /page95.htm   (7136 words)

  Introduction to Greek Tragedy
Tragedy stresses the vulnerability of human beings whose suffering is brought on by a combination of human and divine actions, but is generally undeserved with regard to its harshness.
Tragedy was a public genre from its earliest beginnings at Athens; that is, it was intended to be presented in a theater before an audience.
The chorus is not one of the conventions of modern tragedy.
ablemedia.com /ctcweb/netshots/tragedy.htm   (2250 words)

Tragedy is a form of drama which can be traced as far back as the Greek theatre.
One of the greatest specialist writers of tragedy in modern times was Jean Racine, who towered over his greatest rival, Pierre Corneille, in terms of talent, and brought a new face to the genre.
The rarity of tragedy in the American theater is probably due to the American ideal, that man is captain of his fate and that justice inevitably rules the affairs of men.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/t/tr/tragedy.html   (395 words)

 Tragedy - MSN Encarta
Tragedy, dramatic genre that presents the heroic or moral struggle of an individual, culminating in his or her ultimate defeat.
For Aristotle, tragedy's primary goal had to be therapeutic, stimulating in the viewer an emotional release and purification known as catharsis.
Euripides, Greeceā€™s third great tragic dramatist, wrote the most provocative tragedies yet known, although he was not as popular as Aeschylus or Sophocles because he worked against the expectations of his audiences.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761551901   (1094 words)

 Tragedy at AllExperts
The one tragedy came from the prelude to the dithyramb and the other comedy from the prelude to the phallic songs which still survive as institutions in many cities.
Humanist writers recommended that tragedy should be in five acts and have three main characters of noble rank; the play should begin in the middle of the action (in medias res), use noble language and not show scenes of horror on the stage.
Jean Racine's tragedies condensed their plot into a tight set of passionate and duty-bound conflicts between a small group of noble characters, and concentrated on these characters' double-binds and the geometry of their unfulfilled desires and hatreds.
en.allexperts.com /e/t/tr/tragedy.htm   (2439 words)

The medieval tagedy is a prose or poetic narrative, not a drama.
This view of tragedy derives from the Medieval concept of fortune, which was personified as Dame Fortune, a blindfolded woman who turned a wheel at whim; men were stationed at various places on the wheel--the top of the wheel represented the best fortune, being under the wheel the worst fortune.
Christopher Marlowe's tragedies showed the resources of the English language with his magnificent blank verse, as in the Tragedy of Dr. Faustus, and the powerful effects that could be achieved by focusing on a towering protagonist, as in Tamburlaine.
academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu /english/melani/cs6/tragedy.html   (722 words)

 tragedy. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The earliest tragedies were part of the Attic religious festivals held in honor of the god Dionysus (5th cent.
The tradition of the tragic hero was to continue for the next 300 years, reinforced not only by English dramatists but by such European playwrights as the Spaniards Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca; the Frenchmen Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine; and the Germans G. Lessing, Goethe, and Schiller.
Tragedy can also be a vision of life, one shared by most Western cultures and having its roots in the Judeo-Christian tradition.
www.bartleby.com /65/tr/tragedy.html   (783 words)

 Tragedy - LitWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A tragedy must not be a spectacle of a perfectly good man brought from prosperity to adversity.
There remains, then, as the only proper subject for tragedy, the spectacle of a man not absolutely or eminently good or wise, who is brought to disaster not by sheer depravity, but by some error or frailty.
Tragedy should be used to describe the situation in which a divided human being faces basic conflicts, perhaps rationally insolvable, of obligations and passion; makes choices, for good or for evil; errs knowingly or involuntarily; accepts consequences; comes to a new, larger awareness; suffers or dies, yet with a larger wisdom.
litmuse.maconstate.edu /litwiki/index.php/Tragedy   (1145 words)

 Greek tragedy
The great tragedies of Aeschylus*, Sophocles*, and Euripides* were performed annually at the spring festival of Dionysus, god of wine, and inspiration.
Tragedy (the Greek word "tragoidia" means goat-song) began with the introduction of an actor, who played various roles by changing masks, whose actions the chorus commented upon in song, and who exchanged dialogue with the leader of the chorus.
Aeschylean tragedy deals with the Fates and the justice of the gods, focusing on the dilemmas faced by leaders in society whose success or downfall affects the lives of many.
ise.uvic.ca /Library/SLT/drama/greektragedy.html   (685 words)

 IGDA Forums - Tragedy?
Tragedy is always marked by great chances (external and internal) on the character life, most time unbeareble.
However, I think that tragedies in general are meant to be participated in by the viewer/player, which is why I mentioned the cathartic intentions of the old Greek plays.
I think that most tragedies eventually have a resolution of some kind, but the degree to which the emotions of the story are resolved may dictate whether the story is really a tragic one or not.
www.igda.org /Forums/showthread.php?threadid=21433   (1954 words)

 The UVic Writer's Guide: Tragedy   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Tragedy (like epic) depicts serious incidents in which protagonists undergo a change from happiness to suffering, often involving the death of others as well as the main characters, and resulting from both the protagonists' actions and the inescapable limits of the human condition.
In the Middle Ages, tragedy was associated with the downfall of eminent people through the inevitable turning of Fortune's wheel; their fall exemplifies the inconstancy of Fortune and the folly of placing trust in worldly goods rather than God's will (Chaucer's "The Monk's Tale" [ca.
Renaissance tragedy in England was flexible both in its willingness to combine tragic and comic modes, and in the attributes of the tragic protagonist.
web.uvic.ca /wguide/Pages/LTTragedy.html   (336 words)

The tragedies of English dramatist William Shakespeare and his contemporaries tend to involve wasted potential, for example in a man's power (Macbeth, 1605–06, King Lear, 1605–06), or in love (Romeo and Juliet, 1594–95, Othello, 1604–05).
The Greek view of tragedy was developed by the philosopher Aristotle, but it was the Roman Seneca (whose works were probably intended to be read rather than acted) who influenced the Elizabethan tragedies of the English dramatists Marlowe and Shakespeare.
French classical tragedy developed under the influence of both Seneca and an interpretation of Aristotle which gave rise to the theory of unities of time, place, and action, as observed by Racine, one of its greatest exponents.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0018583.html   (600 words)

 Tragedy at Theatre with Anatoly
tragedy presents a complete story (an action) that is serious and important (has magnitude and bulk) and is dramatized for presentation on the stage rather than recounted by a narrator.
He defines tragedy as "an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in a language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament.
Some of the features that separate tragedy from serious plays that are merely sad or pathetic are that the hero is ultimately responsible for his own problems, is aware of the flaw but has chosen to disregard it, and persists against overwhelming odds.
filmplus.org /thr/tragedy.html   (3554 words)

 Shakespearean Tragedy
The genre of tragedy is rooted in the Greek dramas of Aeschylus (525-456 B.C., e.g.
Classical Tragedy: According to Aristotle's Poetics, tragedy involves a protagonist of high estate ("better than we") who falls from prosperity to misery through a series of reversals and discoveries as a result of a "tragic flaw," generally an error caused by human frailty.
Renaissance tragedy derives less from medieval tragedy (which randomly occurs as Fortune spins her wheel) than from the Aristotelian notion of the tragic flaw, a moral weakness or human error that causes the protagonist's downfall.
cla.calpoly.edu /~dschwart/engl339/tragedy.html   (936 words)

 Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy
Tragedy, however, is rooted in the fundamental order of the universe; it creates a cause-and-effect chain that clearly reveals what may happen at any time or place because that is the way the world operates.
According to Aristotle, tragedies where the outcome depends on a tightly constructed cause-and-effect chain of actions are superior to those that depend primarily on the character and personality of the protagonist.
The end of the tragedy is a katharsis (purgation, cleansing) of the tragic emotions of pity and fear.
www.cnr.edu /home/bmcmanus/poetics.html   (1462 words)

 Greek Theater
Whether tragedy has, then, fully realized its possible forms or has not yet done so is a question the answer to which both in the abstract and in relation to the audience [or the theater] may be left for another discussion.
Attending a tragedy or comedy in 5th century BC Athens was in many ways a different experience than attending a play in the United States in the 20th century.
Tragedies almost exclusively dealt with stories from the mythic past (there was no "contemporary" tragedy), comedies almost exclusively with contemporary figures and problems.
academic.reed.edu /humanities/110Tech/Theater.html   (3005 words)

 tragedy. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. 2002
Tragedy originated in ancient Greece in the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
Twentieth-century tragedies include Death of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller, and Murder in the Cathedral, by T.
‡ Aristotle argued that the proper effect of tragedy is catharsis—the purging of the emotions.
www.bartleby.com /59/7/tragedy.html   (213 words)

 What is Tragedy?
In tragedy, the question leads to what is often called the "tragic dilemma"; that is, a situation in which the protagonist faces two equally difficult or unacceptable choices, either one of which leads to disaster.
Tragedy arises when…a people fully aware of the calamities of life is nevertheless serenely confident of the greatness of man, whose mighty passions and supreme fortitude are revealed when one of these calamities overtakes him.
Whereas Shakespearean tragedy showed an "irregular" construction in the variety of its scenes, structure, and characters, the classical French tragedy of the seventeenth century is modeled more closely on Aristotle’s observations, notably in its observance of the unities of time, place, and action.
www.calvertonschool.org /waldspurger/pages/whatis.htm   (2141 words)

 Tragedy at Theatre with Anatoly
tragedy presents a complete story (an action) that is serious and important (has magnitude and bulk) and is dramatized for presentation on the stage rather than recounted by a narrator.
He defines tragedy as "an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in a language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament.
Some of the features that separate tragedy from serious plays that are merely sad or pathetic are that the hero is ultimately responsible for his own problems, is aware of the flaw but has chosen to disregard it, and persists against overwhelming odds.
members.tripod.com /~afronord/thr/tragedy.html   (3660 words)

 Tragedy Links
Tragedy, like comedy, first began in ancient Greece at play festivals in honour of the god Dionysus.
Aristotle demanded the tragedy must be formal, complete with resolution at the end of the play and be of great moral significance for the people of Greece.
Aristotle saw tragedy in drama as an important benefit to society, as was catharsis, the release of human emotions that occurs when witnessing such action on stage.
www.theatrelinks.com /tragedy.htm   (502 words)

The Center of the tragedy, therefore, may be said with equal truth to lie in action issuing from character, of flawed perceptions, and human frailty for which the hero is ultimately responsible.
It is therefore inherent in Shakespearean tragedy that the tragic hero or protagonist is responsible through his own behavior or action, for the exceptional nature of the catastrophe itself.
Tragedy is the typical form of this mystery because the greatness of soul which it shows oppressed, conflicting, and destroyed is the highest existence in our minds.
global.cscc.edu /engl/264/TragedyLex.htm   (3284 words)

Tragedy developed in Attica out of call-and-response singing between choruses and the chorus leader.
In Athens, tragedies were performed during the City Dionysia during the month of Elaphebolion (roughly, March-April), in the Theater of Dionysus, set into the slope of the Acropolis.
Three playwrights were picked to compete, and each put on three tragedies plus a satyr play.
www.uark.edu /campus-resources/achilles/tragedy/tragedy.html   (934 words)

 The Origin of Tragedy: Introduction
It was patent that Greek Tragedy in the fifth century before Christ contained two widely different elements--true Tragedy concerned soley with the sufferings and sorrows of heroes and historical personages, and the Satyric drama termed by the Greeks "Sportive Tragedy", concerned solely with Dionysus and his Silens and Satyrs.
For as the Greek term Tragoedia included both serious Tragedy and 'sportive Tragedy' (the Satyric drama), so long as the truly tragic trilogy was followed by a coarse Satyric drama, Tragedy had not freed itself from 'ludicrous diction' and attained to her full dignity.
Aristotle, therefore, is not referring to the first beginnings of Tragedy in the sixth century, but to the state in which Aeschylus found it and from which he lifted it.
www.theatrehistory.com /origins/ridgeway001.html   (814 words)

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