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Topic: Transcendental idealism


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  KENNETH R. WESTPHAL - Kant's Transcendental Proof of Realism
62.2 The Cognitive Transcendence of the Transcendental Causal Thesis.
Kant's own transcendental analysis of the necessary a priori conditions for the possibility of unified self-conscious human experience ultimately provides a sound version of the standard objection to Kant's arguments for transcendental idealism, the so-called "neglected alternative." Hence I use Kant's own transcendental analyses to show that Kant's own transcendental idealism is untenable.
Transcendental idealism holds that such conditions do not hold independently of human subjects; those conditions are satisfied because they are generated or fulfilled by the structure or functioning of our cognitive capacities.
www.uea.ac.uk /~j018/ktpr-bl.htm   (3959 words)

  
  Transcendental idealism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Transcendental idealism is occasionally identified with formalistic idealism on the basis of passages from Kant's Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, although recent research has tended to dispute this identification.
Transcendental idealism was also adopted as a label by Fichte and Schelling and reclaimed in the 20th century in a different manner by Husserl.
Transcendental is the philosophy that makes us aware of the fact that the first and essential laws of this world that are presented to us are rooted in our brain and are therefore known a priori.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Transcendental_idealism   (1477 words)

  
 Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism
Idealism is a philosophy that the nature of reality is mental or spiritual, and that the world consists of ideas.
Thus, Schelling’s transcendental idealism affirms that a transcendental unity of the self and nature, of subject and object, of the conscious and the unconscious is a condition for knowledge.
Transcendental philosophy affirms the identity of conscious and unconscious activity in the self.
www.angelfire.com /md2/timewarp/schelling.html   (1193 words)

  
 Kant and the Subjectivity of Nature
The doctrines of transcendental idealism, and the associated picture of the receiving and ordering apparatus of the mind producing Nature as we know it out of the unknowable reality of things as they are in themselves, are undoubtedly the chief obstacles to a sympathetic understanding of the Critique.
Transcendental idealism will not solve every problem, and is not without difficulties of its own, but the alternative of relying on transcendental arguments turns out to be much more disappointing than its proponents expect....
Kant's transcendental idealism is a metaphysical theory that affirms the unknowability of the "real" (things in themselves) and relegates knowledge to the purely subjective realm of representations (appearances).
www.geocities.com /markgssite   (7267 words)

  
 Transcendental Idealism and the Fact/Value Dichotomy
More specifically, what this passage makes clear is that transcendental realism (i.e., the doctrine that we know things as they are apart from being experienced) directly forces empirical idealism (i.e., skepticism about or denial of the reality of things experienced as in space), while transcendental idealism is consistent with empirical realism.
In order to establish the intelligibility of transcendental idealism, it is not incumbent upon me to determine which map is the intended one, but only to establish that there is nothing incoherent in the claim that there is some such map.
That is, just as space and time can be both transcendentally ideal and yet empirically real, the fact that we have granted that values are transcendentally dependent upon (human or other) consciousness does not thereby force us to admit that they are also empirically dependent.
ejap.louisiana.edu /EJAP/1995.spring/baldner.1995.spring.html   (6296 words)

  
 Henry E. Allison - Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense, Revised and Enlarged Edition - ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Whereas originally Allison introduced his interpretation of transcendental idealism by means of relatively few contrasts, principally H. Prichard and Strawson, the present horizon of Kantian studies includes also, among others, Paul Guyer, Rae Langton, and Karl Ameriks, all of whom have criticised Allison and formulated opposing positions on the nature of transcendental idealism.
Allison intends his revised interpretation of transcendental idealism also to counter what he believes to be the increased Strawsonian tendency to regard Kant's transcendental idealism as separable from the other main components of his theoretical philosophy.
One final observation concerns the impact of Allison's new anti-realist theory of transcendental illusion on the issue of the alleged anodynity of his interpretation of transcendental idealism.
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=3761   (1925 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Idealism
Idealism in life is the characteristic of those who regard the ideas of truth and right, goodness and beauty, as standards and directive forces.
It is usual to place in contrast Plato's idealism and Aristotle's realism; the latter in fact denies that ideas are originals and that things are mere copies; he holds that the essence is intelligible, but that it is immanent in the things of nature, whereas it is put into the products of art.
Kant claims that his critical philosophy is both a "transcendental idealism" and an "empirical realism"; but he declares ideas are "illusions of reason", and such ideal principles as cause and purpose are simply devices of thought which can be employed only in reference to phenomena.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/07634a.htm   (1338 words)

  
 Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
He also distinguishes between transcendental and transcendent principles, by saying that principles of pure understanding may be transcendental in their mode of a priori cognition or may be transcendent in their application beyond the limits of possible experience.
The ideals of pure reason propose that, given the totality of conditions for all objects of thought, there is an absolute (unconditioned) unity of all objects of thought.
According to Kant, Transcendental Idealism is a philosophy that the world is real insofar as it is an object of possible experience, and that therefore the reality of the world cannot be separated from the world’s existence as an object of mind.
www.angelfire.com /md2/timewarp/purereason.html   (2172 words)

  
 German Idealism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
For the philosopher German idealism usually means the philosophy of Kant and his immediate followers, while for the historian of literature it may seem little more than the personality of Goethe; and it is not usual to characterize the literary aspect of the movement as neo-humanism.
Idealism in the sense in which the word is here used became even more effective in the work of Herder.
In his view the ideal society would be one based on the insight and activity of the educated, and on the rational education of youth, and realizing in its organization the natural and fundamental ethical ideas.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/g/germidea.htm   (3619 words)

  
 [No title]
Idealism is a metaphysical theory about the nature of reality which asserts that the external world does not exist independently of the human mind.
Immanuel Kant held to a form of idealism called “transcendental idealism.” This perspective asserts that knowledge of the world is dependent on the conceptual processes of the human mind.
What all forms of idealism agree upon is that there is no access to reality apart from the mind and what the mind provides us.
www.theologicalstudies.org /Idealism.html   (226 words)

  
 On Philosophy Transcendental Idealism «
Transcendental idealism is a lot like normal idealism with some subtle differences (differences that make a world of difference when we are considering taking it seriously).
Transcendental idealism is certainly preferable to plain old idealism; regular idealism would have us abandon the notion of objectivity, and perhaps slide into solipsism, which is not a problem with transcendental idealism.
Let me address specifically a Husserlian kind of transcendental idealism, where objects in the world are said to exist as a harmonious synthesis of perceptions (that means that the perceptions about the object are in some kind of agreement and that they present themselves as perceptions of the same object).
onphilosophy.wordpress.com /2006/11/08/transcendental-idealism   (2349 words)

  
 idealism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
In modern times idealism has largely come to refer the source of ideas to man’s consciousness, whereas in the earlier period ideas were assigned a reality outside and independent of man’s existence.
The post-Kantian German idealism of J. Fichte and Friedrich von Schelling, which culminated in the absolute or objective idealism of G. Hegel, began with a denial of the unknowable thing-in-itself, thereby enabling these philosophers to treat all reality as the creation of mind or spirit.
Forms of post-Kantian idealism were developed in Germany by Arthur Schopenhauer and Hermann Lotze and in England by Samuel Coleridge; forms of post-Hegelian idealism were developed in England and France by T. Green, Victor Cousin, and C. Renouvier.
www.bartleby.com /65/id/idealism.html   (413 words)

  
 Immanuel Kant
"Transcendental idealism" is thus profoundly different from other forms of "idealism," like the "subjective idealism" of Berkeley (what Kant called "empirical idealism") or the "objective idealism" of Hegel, both of which offer speculative certainties about the ultimate nature of things, which Kant does not do.
Hegel denied the first, by taking the equivalent of Kant's Transcendental Deduction as itself a part of metaphysics and a proof, by means of novel principles of "dialectical" logic, of moral and metaphysical truths.
If "transcendental" means, epistemically, "independent of experience," but "idealism" means, ontologically, "dependent on subjective (my) existence," then "transcendental idealism" would have to mean knowledge of objects that are dependent on my existence but independent of my experience.
www.friesian.com /kant.htm   (9858 words)

  
 Transcendental Arguments [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Often, the purpose of a transcendental argument is to answer a variety of epistemic skepticism by showing that the skeptical position itself (or its expression) implies or presupposes the possibility of the very knowledge in question.
Transcendental arguments can be characterized as demonstrations that the skeptic’s articulation of her own position is self-defeating in some way.
Another important general objection to transcendental arguments concerns the hidden assumption requiring the uniqueness of the conceptual scheme that is held to be a precondition of experience in any given transcendental argument.
www.iep.utm.edu /t/trans-ar.htm   (4428 words)

  
 20th WCP: On the Possibility of Transcendental Materialism
The concept of transcendentality, as we know, was introduced by Immanuel Kant in Section VII of his Introduction to his chef d'oeuvre, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, where he said that cognition is transcendental when it is occupied not so much with objects as with the mode of our knowledge of objects.
Kant's idealism is therefore neither immanent (subjective) nor transcendent (objective)-it is a transcendental idealism that seeks the potential and the limitations of cognition.
This concept of transcendentality, although with certain modifications, remains unchanged in the subsequent development of German idealism, having in general preserved the formula 'transcendental idealism'.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Valu/ValuLend.htm   (2457 words)

  
 Friedrich Schelling's System of Transcendental Philosophy
Thus nature-philosophy and transcendental philosophy have divided into the two directions possible to philosophy, and if all philosophy must go about either to make an intelligence out of nature, or a nature out of intelligence, then transcendental philosophy, which has the latter task, is thus the other necessary basic science of philosophy.
Transcendental philosophy has to explain how knowledge as such is possible, it being presupposed that the subjective element therein is to be taken as dominant or primary.
The ideal world of art and the real world of objects are therefore products of one and the same activity; the concurrence of the two (the conscious and the non-conscious) without consciousness yields the real, and with consciousness the aesthetic world.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/schellin.htm   (3801 words)

  
 Kenneth R. Westphal - Kant's Transcendental Proof of Realism - Reviewed by Brigitte Sassen, McMaster University - ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
The distinction between transcendental and epistemic reflection is a dense one, but it suffices to say that it is in virtue of transcendental/epistemic, and not empirical, reflection that Kant can delineate the a priori conditions and capacities.
Although there is supposed to be a third line of criticism establishing the untenability of transcendental idealism, it is not clear what this third line of criticism is, unless chapters five and six respectively constitute the second and third lines of criticism.
That is to say, transcendental affinity "is a formal condition concerning relations among the matter of sensation, and is also a material condition that must depend upon or derive from the matter of sensation (and whatever its source may be)" (87).
ndpr.nd.edu /review.cfm?id=5601   (2106 words)

  
 German Idealism
That our moral datum does not lead to direct, positive knowledge of things that we are able to conceive, like God, leads Kant to characterize his system as transcendental idealism, that we have a subjective representation of such things, without the real intuition that we have of physical objects.
"Transcendental idealism" is thus profoundly different from other forms of "idealism," like the "subjective idealism" of Berkeley (what Kant called "empirical idealism") or the "objective idealism" of Hegel, both of which offer speculative certainties about the ultimate nature of things, which Kant does not do.
A transcendental realism clearly contradicts Kant's transcendental idealism, but we can still be left thinking that what we really have is an empirical (subjective) idealism with a kind of transcendental agnosticism -- we don't know transcendent Cartesian objects, but they are the real objects (the Greek ontôs ónta, "beingly beings").
somd.tripod.com /Idealism1.html   (2476 words)

  
 SECTION VI. Transcendental Idealism as the Key to the Solution of Pure Cosmological Dialectic
In the transcendental aesthetic we proved that everything intuited in space and time, all objects of a possible experience, are nothing but phenomena, that is, mere representations; and that these, as presented to us- as extended bodies, or as series of changes- have no self-subsistent existence apart from human thought.
Transcendental idealism allows that the objects of external intuition- as intuited in space, and all changes in time- as represented by the internal sense, are real.
To this transcendental object we may attribute the whole connection and extent of our possible perceptions, and say that it is given and exists in itself prior to all experience.
www.rbjones.com /rbjpub/philos/classics/kant/kant112.htm   (1123 words)

  
 The Critique of Pure Reason (71)
In the transcendental aesthetic we proved that everything intuited in space and time, all objects of a possible experience, are nothing but phenomena, that is, mere representations; and that these, as presented to us—as extended bodies, or as series of changes—have no self-subsistent existence apart from human thought.
Transcendental idealism allows that the objects of external intuition—as intuited in space, and all changes in time—as represented by the internal sense, are real.
To this transcendental object we may attribute the whole connection and extent of our possible perceptions, and say that it is given and exists in itself prior to all experience.
etext.library.adelaide.edu.au /k/kant/immanuel/k16p/k16p71.html   (1109 words)

  
 Idealism
Idealism is, to a large extent, an opposite view to scientific and material viewpoints that asserts the importance of internal individual perceptions.
Idealism is opposed to many philosophies that stress material matter, including Empiricism, Positivism, Skepticism, Atheism and Materialism.
Logical Positivism particularly criticizes Idealism for the lack of verifiability of its ideas and hence questions the usefulness of the whole approach.
changingminds.org /explanations/research/philosophies/idealism.htm   (426 words)

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