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Topic: Transcription (genetics)

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

 Botany online: Molecular Genetics - Transcription
Transcription is the process during which the genetic information is transcribed from DNA into RNA.
Transcription is similar to DNA replication in that one of the two DNA strands acts as a template on which the base-pairing abilities of the incoming RNA nucleotide are tested.
Transcription is finished as soon as the polymerase reaches a termination sequence.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e21/21b.htm   (2301 words)

 biology - Transcription (genetics)
In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately leads to the translation of the genetic code (via the RNA intermediate), into a functional peptide or protein.
Transcription has some proofreading mechanisms, but they are fewer and less effective than the controls for DNA; therefore, transcription has a lower copying fidelity than DNA replication.
For instance, in eukaryotes the genetic material (DNA), and therefore transcription, is localized to the nucleus, where it is separated from the cytoplasm (where translation occurs) by the nuclear membrane.
www.biologydaily.com /biology/Transcription_(genetics)   (1066 words)

 Medmicro Chapter 5
The circularity of the genetic map of E coli was originally deduced from the overlapping, circularly permuted groups of linked genes that were transferred early by individual donor strains in which the F factor was integrated at different chromosomal locations.
Transposons are important genetic elements because they cause mutations, mediate genomic rearrangements, function as portable regions of genetic homology, and acquire new genes and contribute to their dissemination within bacterial populations.
Transcription initiation is controlled at the promoter-operator (p-o) locus, and signals within the 162 nucleotide trp mRNA leader sequence control termination of transcription by attenuation.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch005.htm   (14969 words)

 University of the Incarnate Word - Genetics
Gene action is induced (i.e., transcription activated) only when the repressor is bound by the inducer (lactose in this case) and this binding alters the repressor proteins shape so that it no longer binds to the operator.
Transcription is activated, however, when a regulatory complex of cAMP and CAP assist the RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter.
The complex is needed to activate transcription (facilitates binding of RNA polymerase), and thus is a type of positive control.
www.uiw.edu /genetics/chap_11.htm   (1321 words)

 Genetics Society - Initiation of genetic transcription, and its termination   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Transcriptional regulation is all about getting RNA polymerase to the right place on the gene at the right time and making sure that it is competent to conduct transcription.
We usually imagine a promoter-bound transcriptional activator (or a collection of activators) recruiting components of the basal transcriptional machinery to the DNA, eventually leading to the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and the onset of gene transcription.
The ability of the basal transcriptional apparatus to mark activators provides an efficient way to limit activator function and ensures that continuing transcription initiation at a promoter is coupled to the continuing synthesis and activation of transcriptional activators.
www.genetics.org.uk /initiation_of_genetic_transcription   (444 words)

 Glossary of terms used in molecular genetics
Amniocentesis A procedure used in antenatal diagnosis of genetic abnormality in which a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the foetus is removed, and either DNA is prepared directly from the amniocytes suspended in it or these cells may be cultured and their chromosomes examined.
Genetic disease A disorder, which may or may not be apparent at birth, which is a consequence of a mutation present in one or more of the patient's genes.
Genetic map A map showing the distances between markers in terms of the frequency of genetic recombination between them.
www.ucl.ac.uk /~ucbhjow/b241/glossary.html   (7151 words)

 Transcription Research in the Hahn lab
Since the transcription machinery is the ultimate target of many signal transduction and developmental pathways, understanding of these fundamental mechanisms is a key to understanding the mechanism of gene regulation.
Transcription activators stimulate transcription by recruitment of chromatin modifying factors and the general transcription machinery.
To investigate the influence of chromatin on the assembly of the transcription machinery at a promoter and its influence on the interactions made by transcription activators, we have reconstituted chromatin on our promoter templates and are using these templates to investigate the role of chromatin on initiation, reinitiation, and activation.
www.fhcrc.org /labs/hahn/polii_res.html   (820 words)

 ☞ research - Transcription   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing.
Transcription is the manual act of typing the spoken word, whether live or...
the recognition of the transcription termination sequence and the release of RNA polymerase...
www.research123.info /transcription   (399 words)

 Winston Lab
Hongay C, Jia N, Bard M, Winston F. Mot3 is a transcriptional repressor of ergosterol biosynthetic genes and is required for normal vacuolar function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Mutations that suppress the deletion of an upstream activating sequence in yeast: involvement of a protein kinase and histone H3 in repressing transcription in vivo.
Arndt, K.M., Ricupero, S.L., Eisenmann, D.M., and Winston, F. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a yeast TFIID mutant that alters transcription in vivo and DNA binding in vitro.
genetics.med.harvard.edu /~winston/pubs.html   (2150 words)

The transmission rules of genetic material are of fundamental importance to the theory of natural selection and to all components of population genetics.
The Central Dogma describes the general view that information transfer in genetics is unidirectional from DNA to RNA to protein, and has come to refer to the general mechanisms by which this information is retrieved.
Transcription is the polymerization of a strand of RNA from DNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BIO48/3.Basic.Genetics.HTML   (1455 words)

 Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA - Nature Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
We therefore examined transcription with different combinations of pure TFAM, POLRMT and TFB2M and found that all three factors are needed for promoter-specific initiation of transcription (Fig.
It is thus possible that both the mitochondrial transcription and replication machineries evolved by recruiting two different enzymes that were originally involved in RNA modification and used the sequence recognition features of these proteins for other purposes.
Clayton, D.A. Transcription of the mammalian mitochondrial genome.
www.nature.com /ng/journal/v31/n3/full/ng909.html   (4168 words)

 Gene Expression [M.Tevfik DORAK]
An exception is the reverse transcription, which allows DNA to be made from RNA (another exception may be the prions).
The general transcription factors include proteins that are involved in the assembly of the basal transcription apparatus.
Reverse transcription and PCR are performed using a poly-T primer, which will anneal to the poly-A tail of mRNA, and a set of primers with random hexamers, which by chance will anneal to sequences upstream of the poly-A tail in mRNA.
members.tripod.com /~dorakmt/genetics/notes04.html   (6181 words)

 Transcription Summary
The genetic information that is passed on from parent to offspring is carried by the DNA of a cell.
The primary transcript that is formed at the end of the transcription is actually known as hnRNA and is an exact copy of the gene with both introns and exons.
This tail helps to guard the RNA transcript against degradation and enables the transcript to exit from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it can be translated into proteins.
www.bookrags.com /research/transcription-wog   (600 words)

 Genetics Research of Hunter O'Reilly
A gene is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that encodes for a segment of RNA (ribonucleic acid).
Transcription from the SV40 late genes is repressed by the binding of host steroid/thyroid hormone receptors to the SV40 late promoter.
Abstract from a Genetics Colloquium at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
www.artbyhunter.com /geneticsresearch   (573 words)

 Genetics Department | Dartmouth Medical School   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The goal of this project is to screen the genome-wide C. elegans RNAi library to identify all the genes that act to inhibit cell-cycle progression since these may be homologs to tumor suppressor genes in humans.
Victor Ambros, Ph.D., Professor of Genetics, has received the 2006 GSA Medal in recognition of his outstanding research contributions in the field of genetics in the last 15 years.
Victor is most recognized for his seminal discovery of microRNA’s, a discovery that started with the study of interesting mutants in C. elegans.Victor was presented with his Medal at the GSA Model Organism/Human Biology meeting in San Diego, California, January 5-7, 2006.
www.dartmouth.edu /~genetics/news.html   (1016 words)

 Lecture Notes, Genetics, Emporia State Univ.
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.
In prokaryotes, RNA transcription is controlled by RNA polymerase and DNA is used as the template.
As this region is transcribes a loop is formed in the newly synthesized RNA that signals the termination of transcription (figure 13.15).
www.emporia.edu /biosci/genetics/note13.htm   (1749 words)

 Genetics Lecture notes (20-Mar-1998)
It is directed to the start site of transcription by one of its subunits' affinity to a particular DNA sequence that appears at the beginning of genes.
DNA transcription of the genes for mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA produces large precursor molecules ("primary transcripts") that must be processed within the nucleus to produce the functional molecules for export to the cytosol.
Thus a set of exons in the genome may be the genetic equivalent of the various modular pieces in a box of "Lego" for children to assemble in whatever forms they wish.
www.cbs.dtu.dk /staff/dave/roanoke/genetics980320f.htm   (2497 words)

 Botany online: Molecular Genetics: Genetic Code - Transcription - Protein Biosynthesis - Replication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Transcription, translation and replication are central topics of molecular biology.
The mechanisms of regulation of transcription and translation are unlike.
Transcription and translation occur in eucaryotic cells usually in separate compartments (nucleus, cytosol).
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e21/21.htm   (293 words)

 Microbial Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Quite a bit of microbial research involves a study of microbial genetics (including, for whatever it is worth, my own research).
Microbial genetics is covered in our text over two chapters (7 and 8).
Genetic engineering and molecular techniques (which represent significant aspects of the future of medicine as well as just about everything else)
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/black07.htm   (781 words)

 The Human Transcript Map   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
When genes are expressed, their sequences are first converted into messenger RNA transcripts, which can be isolated in the form of complementary DNAs (cDNAs).
To construct a transcript map, cDNA sequences from a master catalog of human genes were distributed to mapping laboratories in North America, Europe, and Japan.
This mapping data was integrated relative to the human genetic map and then cross-referenced to cytogenetic band maps of the chromosomes.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /SCIENCE96   (315 words)

You should understand and be able to use the terminology and concepts of basic population genetics.
Because Genetics is so “terminology rich”, knowing the definitions of words goes a long way towards learning the material.
In one case, they produced two calves that were both genetically identical to their “mother”.
faculty.stonehill.edu /rdenome/Genetics/genetics.htm   (6471 words)

 Genetics Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Stimulation of transcription factor binding and histone displacement by nucleosome assembly
In evolution, nature clearly selects for organisms whose genetic variations deem them the most fit.
Technical summaries of all known human genes and genetic disorders.
campus.queens.edu /faculty/jannr/Genetics   (1099 words)

 TFIID and Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase Functions Probed by Genome-wide Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis Using a ...
Genes for transcription factors are classified into three major groups: Mediator, chromatin-modifying complexes, and regulators of transcription elongation.
A role for SAGA in transcription elongation may not be unwarranted.
, M. and J., 2004 Chromatin disassembly mediated by the histone chaperone Asf1 is essential for transcriptional activation of the yeast PHO5 and PHO8 genes.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/171/3/959   (6906 words)

 Southwestern Graduate School Genetics and Development
Topics that may be covered include the nucleoprotein complex of the core transcriptional promoter, regulation of the core promoter by upstream elements, transcription factors, transcriptional modulation, cell-specific transcription and the transcriptional regulation of development.
Identification of genetic factors contributing to interindividual differences in the concentration of lipoproteins in the blood.
Molecular genetics of stem-cell biology and germ-cell differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis.
www3.utsouthwestern.edu /home_pages/publish/sgs_catalog/genetics.html   (1481 words)

 Transcription   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
As with all polymerization processes (replication, transcription, translation), transcription can be divided into 3 parts: intitiation, elongation and termination.
Transcription events that require signalling are initiation and termination.
To recognize signals that specify the correct initiation site, it is important to find where the 5' end of the RNA is relative to the DNA.
opbs.okstate.edu /~melcher/MG/MGW2/MG22.html   (193 words)

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