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Topic: Transduction (genetics)

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  Transduction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In biophysics, transduction is the conveyance of energy from one electron (a donor) to another (a receptor), at the same time that the class of energy changes.
In genetics, transduction is the transfer of viral, bacterial, or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage.
In semiotics, transduction is the translation from a sign or concept from one field of knowledge to a different one.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Transduction   (246 words)

 Medmicro Chapter 5
Transduction mediated by populations of such phages is called generalized transduction, because each part of the bacterial genome has approximately the same probability of being transferred from donor to recipient bacteria.
The circularity of the genetic map of E coli was originally deduced from the overlapping, circularly permuted groups of linked genes that were transferred early by individual donor strains in which the F factor was integrated at different chromosomal locations.
Transposons are important genetic elements because they cause mutations, mediate genomic rearrangements, function as portable regions of genetic homology, and acquire new genes and contribute to their dissemination within bacterial populations.
gsbs.utmb.edu /microbook/ch005.htm   (14969 words)

 The Program in Biomedical Sciences (PIBS) - Genetics
Genetic mapping of complex human diseases and traits with an emphasis on the development, application, and evaluation of statistical methods.
Patrick Hu, MD, Ph.D. We use the nematode C. elegans to study the biology of conserved signal transduction pathways that are mutated in cancer and diabetes.
Noah Rosenberg, Ph.D. Mathematical models in genetics and evolution, human population genetics, statistical methods for inference of human genetic history, role of human genetic variation in disease-gene mapping, human statistical genetics, genetic variation in pathogens, gene trees and species trees, phylogenetics.
www.med.umich.edu /pibs/faculty/genetics.htm   (1555 words)

 Vertices Fall94: Genetics
Each year the University Program in Genetics sponsored a seminar series in the fall and a symposium in the spring to complement the genetics research and to allow the faculty to interact.
To remedy this, the Section of Genetics was created in 1990 as a trial for the possible development of a genetics department.
Although the Section of Genetics was not a subset of any other department at Duke, it did not have full departmental status, so that formal mechanisms for graduate programs did not exist, and recruited faculty were required to have joint appointments in an existing department.
www.duke.edu /vertices/update/fall94/genetics.html   (2896 words)

 Transduction (genetics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus.
This type of recombination is random and the amount recombined depends on the size of the virus being used.
Alternatively, transduction can be shorthand for Signal transduction or longhand for trans.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Transduction_(genetics)   (662 words)

 Genetics Program Homepage - Stony Brook University   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The future of genetics will involve increasing communication between different areas of genetics (such as molecular genetics, developmental genetics, population genetics and evolutionary genetics) as well as other disciplines such as biochemistry and cell biology.
One of the lessons of genetic research in the last thirty years is that a broad scientific background will better prepare you to make significant discoveries and contributions to the field.
As a result, the Genetics Program at Stony Brook was created as an inter-institutional program, focusing and combining the strengths in genetics at the State University Of New York at Stony Brook, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory.
life.bio.sunysb.edu /gen   (405 words)

 Department of Genetics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Transduction of 3’ flanking sequences is common in L1 retrotransposition
To determine the frequency of L1-mediated transduction in the human genome, we selected 66 previously uncharacterized L1 sequences from the GenBank database.
Fifteen (23%) of these L1s had transposed flanking DNA with an average transduction length of 207 nts.
www.med.upenn.edu /genetics/labs/kazazian/kazazian_index.html   (333 words)

 transduction - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Signal Transduction Therapeutics Conference; 2nd & 3rd October 2002 The Hatton, London; www.smi-online.co.uk/sigtrans.asp.
Metamorphic-signal transduction in Hydroides elegans (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) is not mediated by a G protein.
Activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell signal transduction pathway in atrial fibrillation *.(laboratory and animal investigations)
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-x-transduct.html   (231 words)

 Columbia University in the City of New York   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Topics include an introduction to mouse genetics; X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting; genetic manipulation of the mouse; genetics of mouse coat color; genetics of sex determination; the mouse T-complex; human linkage analysis; somatic cell genetics; physical mapping of the human genome; cytogenetics; Huntington's disease; muscular dystrophy and Alzheimer's disease and gene therapy.
Regulation of gene expression, molecular genetics of bacterial viruses, plasmids and transposable elements.
Topics discussed include: natural history and epidemiology of cancer; morphology and behavior of cancer cells; DNA and RNA tumor viruses; oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; signal transduction; the genetics of cancer; cancer and cellular differentiation; cancer causation: physical and chemical agents; multistage carcinogenesis; hormones, nutrients, and growth factors in cancer.
cpmcnet.columbia.edu /dept/genetics/genetics-courses.html   (1107 words)

 Wu Formula   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
The cotransduction frequency is the ratio of transductants that co-inherited both markers divided by the total number of transductants.
Because there are hot spots and cold spots for genetic recombination, the physical distance predicted by the Wu formula is not precise, but it is often quite close to the true physical distance determined by DNA sequencing.
The Wu formula assumes that the genetic markers are point mutations and that the region transduced is the same size in the donor and recipient.
www.sci.sdsu.edu /~smaloy/MicrobialGenetics/topics/phage/Wu.html   (393 words)

 The Joshua Lederberg Papers: The Development of Bacterial Genetics
By showing that certain strains of bacteria reproduce by mating--combining their genetic material--he overturned prevailing assumptions among scientists that bacteria were primitive organisms not suitable for genetic analysis.
Beadle and Tatum had used nutritional mutants of Neurospora, mutants that were genetically blocked in the synthesis of growth factors such as a particular amino acid or vitamin, to reach their famous "one gene, one enzyme" hypothesis.
He conceived of the possibility of using the prototrophic recovery technique to look for genetic recombination in bacteria, to test whether bacteria mated and were thus susceptible to genetic study.
profiles.nlm.nih.gov /BB/Views/Exhibit/narrative/bacgen1.html   (1908 words)

 Specialized transduction
Specialized phage are derivatives of temperate phage where some portion of the phage genome has been replaced by a portion of other genetic material, typically the bacterial chromosome.
In the case of transduction, this means that the incoming DNA must (generally) integrate into a replicon in the recipient (either the chromosome or a plasmid).
Transferred DNA in generalized transduction can only do this by homologous recombination while DNA associated with specialized phage also has the phage int system as a means of association with the replicon.
www.bact.wisc.edu /Bact370/transduct3.html   (677 words)

 Overview of the Intramural Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics (Dr. John W. Drake, Chief) studies basic mechanisms of mutagenesis, fundamental aspects of genomic structure and stability, and the impact of environmental agents on the genetic apparatus.
Genetic and enzymological determinants of spontaneous mutation and DNA repair in bacteriophage T4; frequencies and kinds of spontaneous mutation in all organisms.
Studies genetic polymorphisms of human cytochrome P450s; functional assessment using cDNA expression systems and other techniques, development of genetic tests, assessment of the functional consequences of the genetic variations both in vitro and in vivo in clinical populations.
dir.niehs.nih.gov /dirover   (5907 words)

 LSUHSC School of Medicine - Genetics
The Department of Genetics, established in 2000, is one of six basic science departments in the School of Medicine.
In addition, research to enhance and evaluate approaches to genetics and gene therapy education, as well as studies of methodologies for genetic and genomic analyses of complex traits, are important areas in which the Department has expertise.
In addition to being the Chair of the Department of Genetics, I am also the Director of the Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, which is funded solely from extramural grant sources.
www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu /genetics   (657 words)

 Signal Transduction
This has allowed biologists to use fruit flies, nematodes, and yeast as model genetic organisms for studying signal transduction.
At the same time, these discoveries have medical implications, since human diseases such as cancer and diabetes involve errors in signal transduction, often as a result of mutations in the genes that control signal transduction.
The convergence of biochemical and molecular genetic data from cancer research with genetic data from simple animal models has focused attention on conserved signaling modules that regulate cell behavior.
www.pitt.edu /~biohome/Dept/Frame/signaltransduction.htm   (450 words)

 Faculty of the Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology Graduate Education CLuster
Bohmann, Dirk (Professor of Genetics), Mechanisms and functions of signal transduction and gene regulation in higher organisms.
Mayer-Proschel, Margot (Associate Professor of Genetics), Biological and molecular mechanisms governing precursor cell division, differentiation and survival in the brain.
Noble, Mark (Professor of Genetics), Stem cell biology, regeneration in the central nervous system, redox modulation of precursor cell function, developmental disorders, brain tumor biology and adverse effects of chemotherapy of neural stem cell populations.
dbb.urmc.rochester.edu /bmcb/faculty.htm   (957 words)

VI C. Transduction is defined as the transfer of genetic information between cells through the mediation of a virus (phage) particle.
In order to understand transduction it is necessary to understand a bit of the biology of bacteriophage.
These phage can be broken down into two classes, both of which are useful for genetic analysis, and these are termed lytic and temperate (or lysogenic).
www.bact.wisc.edu /Microtextbook/bactgenetics/transduct1.html   (651 words)

 Brigham and Women's Division of Genetics - Jobs
Areas of interest are broad, and include genetic and systems level analyses of pathways involved in disease and development, stem cells, tissue and organ regeneration, and proteomics.
The lab is in the Division of Genetics at Brigham and Women's Hospital, part of the Harvard Medical School research community.
The lab is in the Division of Genetics at Brigham and Women's Hospital, part of the Harvard Medical School research community at the Longwood Medical Area in Boston, and is located in the Harvard Medical School New Research Building.
genetics.bwh.harvard.edu /genetics/jobs.html   (875 words)

 A Drosophila protein related to the human zinc finger transcription factor PRDII/MBPI/HIV-EP1 is required for dpp ...
Little is known about the signal transduction pathways by which cells respond to mammalian TGF-beta s or to decapentaplegic (dpp), a Drosophila TGF-beta-related factor.
Absence of shn function blocks the expanded expression of the homeodomain protein bagpipe in the embryonic mesoderm caused by ectopic dpp expression, illustrating a requirement for shn function downstream of dpp action.
We conclude that shn function is critical for cells to respond properly to dpp and propose that shn protein is the first identified downstream component of the signal transduction pathway used by dpp and its receptors.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/1996/feb/M9620670.html   (494 words)

 Yale Department of Genetics, Graduate Program, Introduction
Lifton, Richard Genetic and molecular determinants of cardiovascular and kidney disease.
Somlo, Stefan Genetic causes of liver and kidney disease.
State, Matthew Identifying and characterizing genes and genetic mechanisms involved in neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood.
info.med.yale.edu /genetics/fac/faculty.php   (403 words)

 GEBS: Biochemistry, Molecular and Cell Biology at URMC
Frelinger, John (Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and of Oncology), Molecular genetics of immune response, tumor immunotherapy.
Mayer-Proschel, Margot (Assistant Professor of Genetics), Biological and molecular mechanisms governing precursor cell division, differentiation and survival in the brain.
Sherman, Fred (Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics), Yeast molecular biology and genetics; gene expression; cytochrome c biosynthesis and degradation.
www.urmc.rochester.edu /GEBS/bmcb/FACULTY.HTM   (943 words)

 Faculty Research Interests - Molecular Biology and Genetics
Molecular genetics; signal transduction and regulation of gene expression.
Our research focuses on how genetic information is used and regulated at the molecular, cellular and, in some cases, whole-animal level.
Experimental approaches include classical genetic screens for phenotypic markers; molecular analyses of gene structure and function; gene identification, cloning, construction, and mapping; and assessment of molecular evolution, signal transduction, and gene activity.
www.bio.fsu.edu /research-mbg.php   (487 words)

 Signal transduction - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference
In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel.
Examples of signal transduction systems are the gamma-aminobutyric acid-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases.
Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
ghr.nlm.nih.gov /ghr/glossary/signaltransduction   (200 words)

 Multiple Genetic Pathways for Restarting DNA Replication Forks in Escherichia coli K-12 -- Sandler 155 (2): 487 -- ...
analysis from 16 of the 32 transductants is shown in Fig 2B).
Genetic pathways for assembly of a replication fork at a recombinational intermediate.
The starting point of the pathways is a set of demised replication forks that have been fixed by recombination or other processes yet to be described.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/155/2/487   (5695 words)

 Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics | Faculty
Genetic analysis of bacterial surfaces; prokaryotic molecular biology; evolution.
Molecular genetics; virulence mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria; Characterization of DNA Restriction and Modification Systems.
Cell biology: cell motility; mechanisms of chromosome movement during mitosis; signal transduction in the regulation of mitotic progression.
www.cbmg.umd.edu /faculty/atoz.html   (648 words)

 Charles S. Zuker
We use a combined molecular, genetic, and physiological approach to investigate the biology of sensory transduction mechanisms in photoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, and taste receptors.
Drosophila phototransduction is a G protein–coupled, phosphoinositide-mediated, and calcium-regulated signaling cascade that serves as a model system for a genetic and physiological dissection of G protein–coupled signaling in vivo.
The nompC gene encodes a novel ion channel essential for mechanosensory transduction; it is a 1,619–amino acid polypeptide with homology to TRP channels.
www.hhmi.org /research/investigators/zuker.html   (1389 words)

The Biomedicine and Molecular Genetics group uses model systems, ranging from microbes to mammalian, for analysis of cell cycle control, DNA repair, and the mechanisms of susceptibility and mutation in human disease.
The Signal Transduction group studies ligand-mediated signaling pathways that regulate cellular responses and consequences in the context of living cells.
Specific research areas include the development and genetic control of neural pathways and synapse formation, involvement of hormones and neuropeptides in prenatal development, reorganizational and plastic responses to injury, drugs, or environmental changes, learning and behavior in neonates, central visual pathway organization, and the development of sensorimotor coordination.
www.umass.edu /iled/ResearchLifeSci.htm   (1144 words)

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