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# Topic: Transfer principle

 Transfer principle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics particularly in non-standard analysis, the transfer principle is a rule which transforms assertions about standard sets, mappings etc., into one about internal sets, mappings etc. For the precise context of this principle as discussed here, see the article non-standard analysis. In its most general form, transfer has the properties of an elementary embedding between structures. However, the formulation at this level of generality is false for the superstructure approach to non-standard analysis, where it is replaced by formulas with bounded quantification. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Transfer_principle   (271 words)

 Hyperreal number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The application of hyperreal numbers and in particular the transfer principle to problems of analysis is called nonstandard analysis; some find it more intuitive than standard real analysis. The transfer principle however doesn't mean that R and *R have identical behavior. The essence of the axiomatic approach is to assert (1) the existence of at least one infinitesimal number, and (2) the validity of the transfer principle. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hyperreal_number   (3067 words)

 Article Template Transfer is the "ability to learn in one situation and then use that learning, possibly in a modified or generalized form, in other situations. Transfer can be thought of as a two-part continuous process in which past learning affects new learning, which in turn will be applied to novel learning situations in the future. When the principle of transfer is understood and considered in planning lessons, students will solve diverse problems and create products that demonstrate they can transfer what they learned last week and apply it to their work this week. coe.sdsu.edu /eet/articles/transferprin/start.htm   (274 words)

 Global Principles for Arms Transfers - FCNL Issues All international transfers of arms shall be authorised by a recognized state and carried out in accordance with national laws and procedures that reflect, as a minimum, states’ obligations under international law. Prohibitions on arms transfers that arise in particular treaties which a state is party to, such as the 1980 UN Convention Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects, and its three protocols, and the 1997 Anti-personnel Mines Convention. Principle 6 will help ensure that states enact national laws and regulations according to common standards, and ensure that the principles are implemented consistently. www.fcnl.org /issues/item.php?item_id=1415&issue_id=47   (865 words)

 transfer orbit - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about transfer orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The orbit is chosen to minimize the fuel needed by the spacecraft; the craft is in free fall for most of the journey. Geostationary transfer orbit is the highly elliptical path followed by satellites to be placed in geostationary orbit around the Earth (an orbit coincident with Earth's rotation). A small rocket is fired at the transfer orbit's apogee to place the satellite in geostationary orbit. encyclopedia.farlex.com /transfer+orbit   (245 words)

 Adopting Standards for the Intercampus Transfer of Students Among the Three General Campuses   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) If a transfer agreement does not exist for a given undergraduate degree program offered by a campus, a transferring student shall have the opportunity to appeal the resolution of course acceptability or applicability to the dean of the college/school and the vice chancellor for academic affairs of the receiving campus. The general principle for transfer of general education requirements is that the integrity of the core curriculum requirements of each campus is recognized by the other campuses. The fundamental principle is that the approach to general education courses shall be designed to facilitate transfer and minimize duplication of courses. www.cu.edu /policies/Academic/intertransfer.html   (1134 words)

 Foreknowledge and Free Will A crucial premise of the basic argument for theological fatalism is premise (2), the principle of the necessity of the past. Principle Beta has been disputed in the literature on free will and determinism, and there are many suggested counterexamples and emendations to the principle. The reason essential omniscience conflicts with temporal modality and the transfer principle is that the existence of an EOF requires that a proposition about the past entails a proposition about the future. plato.stanford.edu /entries/free-will-foreknowledge   (8516 words)

 Classics in the History of Psychology -- Hull (1934b) The principle of the habit-family hierarchy furnishes a clear basis for a definite frustration, and the results from conditioned reflex experiments furnish a principle by which this frustration could be converted into an inhibition without which repetition could hardly produce the elimination. In making the application of the principle to the particular problems of maze learning in the rat, it is assumed that a great number of habit families of the locomotor variety have been established by the locomotion of the animal in free space during its early life. The action of the Lepley principle and the present one are thus in opposite directions, with the evidence favoring the dominance of the former. psychclassics.yorku.ca /Hull/Hierarchy/part2.htm   (5791 words)

 Law Abstracts Nakayama On the other hand, while multinational corporations have been using transfer pricing as vehicles to maximize their overall after-tax profits as a group, they have been suffering intolerable administrative burdens and double taxation caused by enforcement of countermeasures by tax authorities. The basic principle for transfer pricing taxation legislation is the "arm's length principle", that transactions between parties that are not dealing at arm's length should be carried out for tax purposes under terms and at a price that one could reasonably have expected in similar circumstance had the parties been dealing at arm's length. This principle has been endorsed by the OECD, Canada, the U.S. and other developed countries, however, common specific guidelines under this principle have not been established among tax authorities and even multinational corporations themselves cannot always find an arm's length price acceptable to tax authorities. www.library.ubc.ca /law/abstracts/nakayama.html   (416 words)

 RUBENSHOL: TRANSFER BIDS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The primary reason for this accuracy is that transfers allows us to bid slowly and descriptively with good hands, while still allowing us to reach a sensible low level contract with poor hands. With transfers over notrump openings now widely accepted, it is curious that more pairs have not expanded their use of these useful tools. The underlying principle of Lebensohl is that with unbalanced hands we show our strength immediately -- a forcing bid at the three level with a game-going hand and the 2 NT relay with competitive values only. www.bridge-forum.com /Archives/Rubenshol-_part_one_revised.htm   (1027 words)

 SOAS: Data Protection Policy: Transferring Data Outside the EEA The eighth Data Protection Principle requires that personal data must not be transferred outside the European Economic Area (the European Union member states plus Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein), unless the country or territory to which the data are to be transferred provides an adequate level of protection for personal data. The transfer is necessary for the performance of a contract between the data controller and the data subject; or a contract between the data controller and a third party which has been entered into at the request of the data subject, or is in the interests of the data subject. The transfer is necessary to protect the vital interests of the data subject. www.soas.ac.uk /about/index.cfm?navid=2535   (480 words)

 Pacific Association of Tax Administrators (PATA) Transfer Pricing Documentation Package The second principle is that taxpayers need to reasonably and contemporaneously document their efforts to comply with the arm’s length principle. An analysis under the arm’s length principle is generally based on information about the associated enterprises involved in the controlled transactions, the transactions at issue, the relevant functions, assets and risks, and information derived from independent enterprises engaged in similar transactions or businesses. The third general principle is that taxpayers need to timely produce the foregoing documentation upon request by a PATA member tax administration in order to benefit from the penalty protection afforded by this Package. www.ato.gov.au /print.asp?doc=/content/30275.htm   (2373 words)

 [No title] The principle of justice in transfer is alleged to be “justice preserving”, thus, any voluntary transfer made from a legitimate set of holdings is itself legitimate. It is simply another instance of the justice in transfer principle. Nozick’s principle of justice in original acquisition appears to allow for any original acquisition of an unowned resource as long as one satisfies the “Lockean proviso”. www.csus.edu /indiv/a/andersonc/NozickpartII.doc   (476 words)

 Non-residents trading in the UK: profits of the PE Prior to the introduction (for companies only) of the separate entity principle attribution provisions to UK law in FA2003, the arms length principle and transfer pricing methodology had always been the means by which the corporate or individual non-resident’s profits chargeable in the UK have been determined whether a treaty applied or not. The rationale for the arms length principle approach was recognised as far back as the attribution case of Pommery and Greno v Apthorpe (2TC182) with the dicta of Denman J being taken as an approximate description of the arms length principle. Subject to some important distinctions, transfer pricing within a single entity and transfer pricing between two separate but connected entities is an exercise that uses the same principles and techniques to a significant extent. www.hmrc.gov.uk /manuals/intmanual/intm267040.htm   (869 words)

 Concept Golf - Backspin Newsletter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The focus of the five principles is never on the mechanics of the five principles; it is always on the understanding of the total idea of the athletic motion or, in this case, the golf swing. If you are still convinced that weight transfer is not for you because it breaks too many "rules," let's examine a swing with the body turning and one that uses the proper lateral motion of weight transfer. Weight transfer is one of the five fundamental principles which form the foundation of an effective golf swing. www.conceptgolf.com /newsletter08_19_03.html   (2026 words)

 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math: A Mathematical Essay This condition is satisfied by something called the transfer principle, a very powerful result of mathematical logic that is in turn a consequence of another theorem by a Polish mathematician, Los's theorem. So powerful is this principle that sometimes nonstandard analysis is considered a branch of mathematical logic, because it is possible to bypass practically all of the ultrafilter construction of the hyperreals and instead jump in with transfer. The reason the transfer principle holds is largely due to the method we used to construct the hyperreal numbers, our "almost-all" criterion with ultrafilters. mathforum.org /dr.math/faq/analysis_hyperreals.html   (9036 words)

 Heat Transfer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) However, the cardinal principle of "voluntariness" is seldom satisfied, regardless of the objective of the transfer. The final report of the Sub-Commission (1997) invoked a large number of legal conventions and treaties to support the position that population transfers contravene international law unless they have the consent of both the moved population and the host population; moreover, that consent must be given free of direct or indirect negative pressure. Hypertext Transfer Protocol In the 1830's, the policy known as Indian Removal relocated many nations living east of the Mississippi River to the Indian Territory in the west, a process that resulted in the "Trail of Tears" for the Cherokees. www.transfer-area.com /heat-transfer_6.html   (1188 words)

 NozickExcerpt This principle uses historical information about previous situations and injustices done in them (as defined by the first two principles of justice and rights against interference), and information about the actual course of events that flowed from these injustices, until the present, and it yields a description (or descriptions) of holdings in the society. The entitlement principles of justice in holdings that we have sketched are historical principles of justice. These principles specify how an initial distribution may arise (the principle of acquisition of holdings) and how distributions may be transformed into others (the principle of transfer of holdings). academic2.american.edu /~dfagel/NozickExcerpt.html   (11433 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) This commitment strongly supports the concept of seamless transfer that embraces the principle that transfer students should not be required to repeat competencies already achieved. The participating institutions understand and agree that transfer articulation is with the Maricopa Community Colleges as a whole and not with individual colleges within the district. The AGEC can be transferred and accepted as a component of an Associate Degree or as a stand alone general education block not affiliated with an Associate Degree. www.maricopa.edu /academic/artic/pdfs/MOU.doc   (954 words)

 Government of Canada and Farmer Rail Car Coalition reach agreement-in-principle for hopper car transfer : ArriveNet ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) "This agreement in principle is a tribute to the hard work of Canadian farmers," said Reg Alcock, President of the Treasury Board and Minister responsible for the Canadian Wheat Board. These principles were aimed at encouraging system efficiency, competition, commercial discipline and accountability, minimizing risk of trade challenges, optimizing value for taxpayers, reducing the financial impact on western producers, and ensuring an orderly transition. - The transfer price will be \$205 million, consisting of \$65 million in lease payments during the five year lease term, a credit for \$35 million in refurbishment work on the cars to be undertaken by the FRCC during the lease period, and a final payment of \$105 million over a further eight-year period. press.arrivenet.com /business/article.php/724099.html   (1172 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) The energy transfer method The second (energy transfer) method is based on using a mechanism of energy transfer from high TPA dyes, to the photochromic molecules. The scheme of the, energy transfer principle from the high TPA dye (donor) to the photochromic material (acceptor). From the principle of disk structure it is clear that there is practically no limit for layer number except only the geometric considerations. www.wipo.int /cgi-pct/guest/getbykey5?KEY=00/05624.000203&ELEMENT_SET=DECL   (2243 words)

 Ask a lawyer--Power of Attorney--Question 10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Response: I find this comment in your question unusual: "It feels awkward to be both the signer and receiver of this property." The POA principle is said to be "competent" yet you contemplate using your POA power to transfer the principle's property to yourself. A power of attorney shall not be construed to authorize the attorney-in-fact to gratuitously transfer property of the principal to the attorney-in-fact or to others except to the extent that the power of attorney expressly and specifically so authorizes. Also, as an attorney-in-fact under a POA, you have a fiduciary duty to the principle "to act within the powers delegated by the power of attorney and solely for the benefit of the principal." New Jersey Statute Section 46:2B-8.13. www.medlawplus.com /askalawyer/poa/index.tpl?qq=10   (412 words)

 May 14, 1999 Viacom Inc. (Viacom) is pleased to have the opportunity to respond to your April 19, 1999 letter requesting comments on the revised safe harbor principles, frequently asked questions and answers (FAQs) and the draft paper on complaint procedures for organizations within the safe harbor. It is unclear from this language what level of due diligence an organization must engage in to comply with the Onward Transfer principle. Therefore, Viacom urges the DOC to press for the inclusion of the "reasonable" modifier bracketed in the first sentence, as well as the inclusion of the description of "reasonableness" contained in the bracketed sentence. www.export.gov /safeharbor/viacom599.htm   (1181 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) Arguments for incompatibility of freedom and determinism are typically based on “transfer principles” for practical modalities, ability or inability to perform a certain action. According to transfer of inability the consequences of what is beyond one’s control (distant past, laws of nature) are themselves beyond one’s control. So, given the principle of transfer (from 2 and 3): 4 Agent S has at t2 no choice about the fact that q is true. www2.arnes.si /~surdsust/Transfer_ActaFinal.doc   (2411 words)

 Concept Golf - Backspin Newsletter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13) This principle and the weight transfer principle are completely intertwined. Relaxation seems to be the principle that golfers are the least receptive to. But once the trust and understanding of what the principle is and how to accomplish it are in place, the resulting shots are breathtaking. www.conceptgolf.com /newsletter09_02_03.html   (2645 words)

 [No title] The principle does not apply [74] only when the property in the goods sold is transferred after the levering. [116] is based on the principle res perit domino and, therefore, the risk of loss is transferred to the buyer at the time of the conclusion of the contract. But if this principle is adopted as the uniform rule with respect to the transfer of property pursuant to international sales contracts, the problem would be avoided, because the CISG risk passes at the time of delivery. www.cisg.law.pace.edu /cisg/biblio/Visser1.html   (7637 words)

 Inequality Measurement The Pigou-Dalton Transfer Principle (Dalton, 1920, Pigou, 1912). Most measures in the literature, including the Generalized Entropy class, the Atkinson class and the Gini coefficient, satisfy this principle, with the main exception of the logarithmic variance and the variance of logarithms (see Cowell, 1995). The population principle requires inequality measures to be invariant to replications of the population: merging two identical distributions should not alter inequality. www1.worldbank.org /prem/poverty/inequal/methods/measure.htm   (1758 words)

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