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Topic: Transformation (genetics)


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GMO

In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  
  Transformation (genetics) Summary
Transformation may be either a natural process—that is, one that has evolved in certain bacteria—or it may be an artificial process whereby the recipient cells are forced to take up DNA by a physical, chemical, or enzymatic treatment.
Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA).
In bacteria the term transformation is not normally applied to genetic changes arising by Transduction or Conjugation, in which transfer of DNA is mediated by genetic parasites (phages and conjugative plasmids respectively).
www.bookrags.com /Transformation_(genetics)   (3588 words)

  
 Genetics in Medicine - Vol 1
Genetics is relevant in the areas of identification of suspects and victims, identification of illegal goods (for example, items that involve the killing of endangered animals), environmental monitoring for harmful microorganisms, parent…
Medical genetics is the application of genetics to the study of human health and diseases.
The other primary mechanisms are transformation, in which free DNA is transported across the cell membrane, and transduction, in which DNA is carried into the recipient cell by a bacterial virus.
medicine.jrank.org /collection/5/Genetics.html   (5013 words)

  
  2. Canid Genetics
It is a myth that female (or male) genetics are stronger.
Molecular genetic tools have been used to dissect the evolutionary relationships of the dog-like carnivores, revealing their place in the order Carnivora, the relationships of species within the Family Canidae, and the genetic exchange that occurs among conspecific populations.
Wayne's recent papers on the genetics of dogs and wolves show, quite clearly, that "[d]ogs are gray wolves, despite their diversity in size and proportion" (Wayne, 1993).
www.fiu.edu /~milesk/Genetics.htm   (2775 words)

  
 Search Results for "Genetics"
genetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity.
genetics The study of heredity, or how the characteristics of living things are transmitted from one generation to the next.
...The study of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes such as eating or mating activity, substance abuse, social attitudes, violence, and mental abilities....
www.bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?query=Genetics&filter=colReference   (220 words)

  
 Fungi Mapping Projects - North America
Genetic mapping indicates normal patterns of segregation on this chromosome despite the absence of an obvious homolog in other strains.
The specific objectives of this project are: 1) develop a genetic and physical map of Puccinia graminis; 2) determine the location of avirulence genes on the genetic and physical map; 3) develop a transformation system for rust fungi; 4) clone and characterize avirulence genes.
Transformation of three strains of Magnaporthe grisea to hygromycin resistance was achieved.
www.nal.usda.gov /pgdic/Map_proj/fungi.html   (7376 words)

  
 UMBC Biological Sciences: Courses: Undergraduate
Some of these issues include: cloning, genetic engineering of plants and animals, DNA analysis as a means of determining parentage or involvement in criminal events, development of new medicines and vaccines, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, the human and other species' genome project, the origin and genealogy of human groups, etc.
The research literature is used to describe the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of microbial gene expression and the genetic biochemistry of chromosome structure, DNA replication, repair and recombination.
The foundations in Mendelian and population genetics are described, followed by a comprehensive treatment of the field of quantitative genetics and then by a discussion of the place of quantitative genetics in behavioral genetics, physiological ecology, and in population biology in general.
www.umbc.edu /biosci/general/underGradCourses.php   (3991 words)

  
 [No title]
Genetic transformation is a phenomenon which was first discovered with bacteria in the 1930's and 1940's and was instrumental in demonstrating that DNA was the genetic material.
The modern definition of transformation would be something like "the permanent (or nearly permanent) acquisition of a novel phenotypic trait as a result of the uptake of exogenous DNA molecules carrying the gene(s) for that trait".
Transformation is more frequent when special DNA molecules called plasmids are used to carry the genetic information to be introduced into the cell.
www.phys.ksu.edu /gene/f_2.html   (823 words)

  
 ARS | Publication request: Genetic Transformation of Ascochyta Rabiei Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Studies of the genetic mechanisms of the pathogen are hampered by a lack of suitable genetic tools to transform the pathogen.
All hygromycin B-resistant transformants carried T-DNA as determined by PCR and the insertions appeared to be random and in single copy as detected by Southern hybridization.
Transformants remained resistant to hygromycin B in the absence selection, however variations in colony morphology were observed in the presence of hygromycin B under different culture conditions.
www.ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=188860   (375 words)

  
 Transformation   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The ability to transform organisms with extracted DNA is important to the molecular analysis of chromosomes.
The experiments of Avery, MacLeod and MacCarty (3) demonstrated that the transforming principle was not protein or RNA and strongly suggested that it was DNA.
Genetic transformation is one of several tools in bacterial genetics.
opbs.okstate.edu /~melcher/MG/MGW1/MG11211.html   (248 words)

  
 Genetics
Genetics of the macronucleus DNA rearrangements during macronuclear differentiation Phenotypic assortment Coassortment Mapping genetically and molecularly the MAC genome 4.
As in other eukaryotes, genetic linkage maps of loci in individual chromosomes are constructed by exploiting the fact that meiotic crossing over generates recombinant genotypes with a frequency which, in the linear portion of the range, is roughly proportional to physical distance [see any genetics textbook, e.g.
For certain natural genetic polymorphisms in surface antigen (serotype), extremely biased initial amplification of one particular allele (in the absence of differential vegetative replication) is sufficient to explain the observed appearance of lack of assortment [27]
lifesci.ucsb.edu /~genome/Tetrahymena/genetics.htm   (7567 words)

  
 Genetics in Medicine - Vol 4
In genetics, statistical tests are crucial for determining if a particular chromosomal region is likely to contain a disease gene, for instance, or for expressing the certainty with which a treatment can be said to be effective.
Tay-Sachs disease is a severe genetic disease of the nervous system that is nearly always fatal, usually by three to four years of age.
A transgenic microorganism is a microbe, usually a bacterium, into which genetic information has been introduced from the outside and which possesses the ability to pass that information on to subsequent generations in a stable manner.
medicine.jrank.org /collection/8/Genetics.html   (3767 words)

  
 Genetics in Medicine - Vol 3
One concern is that genetic information derived from someone's DNA sequences could be used to deny insurance coverage to people whose genes indicate that they have a disease or that they are at risk of contracting one.
Genetic mapping is the process of measuring the distance between two or more loci on a chromosome.
Population genetics is the study of the genetic structure of populations, the frequencies of alleles and genotypes.
medicine.jrank.org /collection/7/Genetics.html   (4616 words)

  
 Microarray data normalization and transformation - Nature Genetics
Finding a useful and satisfactory answer relies on careful experimental design and the use of a variety of data-mining tools to explore the relationships between genes or reveal patterns of expression.
While other sections of this issue deal with these lofty issues, this review focuses on the much more mundane but indispensable tasks of 'normalizing' data from individual hybridizations to make meaningful comparisons of expression levels, and of 'transforming' them to select genes for further analysis and data mining.
Mathematical modeling of noise and discovery of genetic expression classes in gliomas
www.nature.com /doifinder/10.1038/ng1032   (179 words)

  
 Basic and applied research at IMG
For each of these objects primary emphasis is placed upon the problems which, on the one hand, are of general molecular genetic importance and, on the other hand, are easier to be studied with the given object.
Molecular genetic mechanisms of malignant cell transformation are being studied by subtractive hybridization on HIV-associated lymphomas (V.Z. Tarantul).
Genetic basis of the position effect (V.A. Gvozdev), which is fundamental in gene regulation, and the role of transposable elements in the genome (V.A. Gvozdev and E.G. Pasyukova) are being studied on Drosophila..
www.img.ras.ru /fields_e.htm   (755 words)

  
 Border Collies - Coat colour genetics
Although no publication provides a conclusive and thorough overview of the genetics of coat colours in Border Collies, various sources such as books, web sites, experiences of breeders and the knowledge of people who have studied the inheritance of coat colours have built a picture that is rather complete.
A number of genetic defects of the sensory organs is connected to certain colours and patterns, because of problems with this migration.
A couple of enzymes catalyse the chemical transformation from tyrosine to the resulting pigment.
www.bordercollies.nl /egenkl.shtml   (1026 words)

  
 Lecture Notes, Genetics, Emporia State Univ.
They are not designed to explain all aspects of the material in great detail; that is what class time and the textbook is for.
The purpose was to relate the physical exchange between homologous chromosomes (as seen by microscopy) to the genetic recombination as seen in the phenotypes.
This is also used for other genetic traits such as Huntington's chorea, though this trait occurs on an autosome and the process is somewhat more complicated.
www.emporia.edu /biosci/genetics/note7.htm   (1670 words)

  
 Genetic Engineering, methods
Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors.
Transformants contained one or two copies of chromosomally integrated, intact ry1 that were stably inherited in subsequent generations.
These transformed flies had wild-type eye color indicating that the visible genetic defect in the host strain could be fully and permanently corrected by the transferred gene.
lib.bioinfo.pl /meid:1719   (1621 words)

  
 Legacies - Transformation and DNA
Bacteria can exchange genetic material in a variety of ways, the most amazing being transformation - the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another through the liquid in which the bacteria live.
The experiments that actually revealed that DNA is the material responsible for transformation were carried out during the 1940s in Oswald Avery's laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute in New York.
MacLeod showed that the substance responsible for transformation was heat sensitive - extracts of S cells heated to over 80 degree centigrade couldn't transform R cells, but extracts that had been frozen and defrosted were still active.
www.accessexcellence.org /AB/BC/Transformation_and_DNA.html   (693 words)

  
 Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
The first demonstration of bacterial transformation was done with Streptococcus pneumoniae and led to the discovery that DNA is the substance of the genes.
Transformation, conjugation, and transduction were discovered in the laboratory.
The recent completion of the sequence of the entire genome of a variety of different bacteria (and archaea) suggest that genes have in the past moved from one species to another.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/A/Avery.html   (1381 words)

  
 Transgenic Maize
To investigate the genetic mechanisms that contributed to the variation among b alleles multiple b alleles in teosinte, the closest related species to maize, will be analyzed, and the relationship of the 5' sequences of several maize b alleles examined by PCR and sequence analyses.
BITTEL, D.C., SHAVER, J.M., GENGENBACH, B.G., AND SOMERS, D.A. Increasing lysine synthesis in maize by transformation with lysine insensitive maize dihydrodipicolinate synthase.
BITTEL, D.C., SHAVER, J.M., GENGENBACH, B.G., AND SOMERS, D.A. Increasing lysine synthesis in maize by transformation with lysine insensitive maize dihydroipiciolinate synthase.
www.nal.usda.gov /pgdic/cris-icar/maize.html   (14931 words)

  
 Impact of mutS Inactivation on Foreign DNA Acquisition by Natural Transformation in Pseudomonas stutzeri -- Meier and ...
DNA of strain 19smn4 the transformation decreased to 20% of
The transforming DNA was the 1.5-kb autogamic rpoB fragment of the mutant described in line 1 of Table 4 (A), the 3.1% divergent 1.5-kbp heterogamic rpoB fragment of the mutant described in line 4 of Table 4 (B), or autogamic chromosomal DNA (C).
DNA in transformants 1, 3, 4, 5, and 8.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/187/1/143   (6820 words)

  
 Finley Lab LiOAc Yeast Transformation
For each transformation aliquot 50 µl of cells to a sterile eppendorf tube.
Note: Ideally one should try transforming yeast at different OD from 0.7 to 1.5 to see which is best.
For routine transformations, 5-10 µl of miniprep DNA or 0.1-0.5 µg maxiprep DNA is sufficient.
proteome.wayne.edu /transform.html   (478 words)

  
 SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF HEPATIC STEM CELLS
Current data indicates that precursor cells are important targets during hepatocarcinogenesis, and transformed derivatives of WB-F344 cells produce a variety of phenotypes, including hepatocellular carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, hepatoblastomas, and undifferentiated spindle-cell tumors.
He predicts that the genomic instability that occurs during transformation causes aberrations in gene expression that allow the transformed cell to avoid cell cycle control and acquire autonomous replication potential, ultimately culminating in the formation of a tumor.
The first goal of this proposal is to identify the mechanisms of genomic instability leading to fluctuations in DNA content in the WB-F344 cells during spontaneous transformation, and to identify the minimal genetic-epigenetic changes that are needed for malignant transformation.
www.med.unc.edu /wrkunits/1dean/research/Smith366.html   (293 words)

  
 A Generalization of Theory on the Evolution of Modifier Genes   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Transformation is any process that results in offspring being of different types from their parents.
Phenomena such as genetic load in populations at equilibrium, gene frequency cycling, and decreasing mean fitness, are shown to result from the presence of transformation.
Finally, a new principle is offered to explain the evolution of transformations through modifier genes: rather than evolving to increase the mean fitness, modifiers that are not themselves undergoing transformation appear to evolve to decrease the genetic load.
dynamics.org /~altenber/PAPERS/GTEMG   (424 words)

  
 DNA-mediated transformation
Tondravi,MM; Yao,M-C (1986): Transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila by microinjection of ribosomal RNA genes.
BGg, germline transformation with the biolistic gun; BGc, conjugant transformation of macronuclei with the biolistic gun; CET, conjugant electrotransformation of developing macronuclei; BGv, vegetative macronuclei transformation with the biolistic gun; INJc, microinjection of developing macronuclei; INJv, microinjection of vegetative macronuclei.
These cells retain their old (macronuclear) phenotype and are mature (can be immediately re-mated) but can have new micronuclear genotypes, depending on the genetic make-up of the normal parent and which meiotic product was (randomly) selected to form gametic nuclei.
www.lifesci.ucsb.edu /~genome/Tetrahymena/transformation.htm   (815 words)

  
 VPR Home Purdue University - Office of the Vice Provost for Research   (Site not responding. Last check: )
After several years investigating the molecular and genetic mechanisms of Agrobacterium virulence gene induction, Gelvin turned approximately 10 years ago to his current line of investigation, the identification and characterization of plant genes and proteins involved in Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation.
The molecular mechanism by which Agrobacterium transforms cells involves the transfer of a segment of DNA, the T-(transferred) DNA, from a resident plasmid to the host genome.
Although Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation has provided a mainstay for plant biotechnology and plant molecular biology studies, many agriculturally important plant species, including corn, soybeans, cotton, fruit trees, trees used for lumber and pulp production, and ornamentals, remain highly recalcitrant to this method of transformation.
www.purdue.edu /research/vpr/funding/gelvins.html   (1880 words)

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