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Topic: Transformational grammar


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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  
  Linguistics: Methods of synchronic linguistic analysis: TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE GRAMMAR: Chomsky's grammar.
The statement that the grammar generates a particular sentence means that the sentence is one of the totality of sentences that the grammar defines to be grammatical or well formed.
It has been noted that, whereas a phrase-structure grammar is one that consists entirely of phrase-structure rules, a transformational grammar (as formalized by Chomsky) includes both phrase-structure and transformational rules (as well as morphophonemic rules).
The manner in which the transformational rules assign derived constituent structure to their input strings is one of the major theoretical problems in the formalization of transformational grammar.
www.ifi.unizh.ch /groups/CL/volk/SyntaxVorl/Chomsky.html   (1522 words)

  
 Transformational grammar
Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskyan tradition.
A descriptively adequate grammar for a particular language defines the (infinite) set of grammatical sentences in that language, whereas a grammar which achieves explanatory adequacy gives an insight into the universal properties of language which result from the innate linguistic structures in the human mind.
Therefore, if a grammar has explanatory adequacy, it must be able to explain the various grammatical nuances of the languages of the world as relatively minor variations in the universal pattern of human language.
publicliterature.org /en/wikipedia/t/tr/transformational_grammar.html   (2053 words)

  
 UH CogSci Lexicon: Transformational Grammar
The transformational grammar was a theory of how grammatical knowledge is represented and processed in the brain.
Deep structure is represented in the form of a heirarchical tree diagram, or "phrase structure tree,"* depicting the abstract grammatical relationships between the words and phrases within a sentence.
The transformational grammar formed the basis for many subsequent theories of human grammatical knowledge.
www.hfac.uh.edu /COGSCI/lang/Entries/transformational_grammar.html   (255 words)

  
 Springer Online Reference Works   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
A transformational grammar is used for the transformation of syntactic structures (cf.
Syntactic structure); this renders them better suited for the description of natural language than formal grammars of other types, which generate or recognize syntactic structures only together with the generation (recognition) of strings, since a separate recognition of syntactic and linear relations between speech units is in better agreement with the nature of language.
Transformational grammars are much more cumbersome than grammars which operate by transformation of  "strings" , as a result of which the development of the formal concept of a transformational grammar only began in the late 1960s, even though its fundamentals had been laid by N.
eom.springer.de /g/g044850.htm   (418 words)

  
 Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Structural Grammar, the second type of grammar, defines the structures of the kernel sentence (noun-verb, noun-verb-noun).
Transformational grammarians attempt to explain not only the structure of language (surface structure) but also the cognitive process (deep structure).
Transformation Grammar exercises will illustrate how the parts of a sentence or sentences can be combined, rearranged, substituted.
cps.uwsp.edu /Courses/EDUC310/Grammar   (416 words)

  
 TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. 1993   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
It assumes that all sentences begin with deep structures of brief syntactic patterns of a sort that may be common to all languages.
Transformational grammar then states the strings of rules that transform phrase structures into finished surface structures—sentences either spoken or written.
Applying a negative transformation adds a negative at the proper place in the string—Barking dogs never bite people—and finally the rules for the syntactic reordering and morphological changes required for a passive transformation produce the surface structure, People are never bitten by barking dogs.
www.bartleby.com /68/22/6122.html   (259 words)

  
 English Grammar Questions
Can you use right all the Grammar tenses and constructions with your borning.
Does English Grammar occasionally allow an adjective be treated as if it were a noun?
Is there any english grammar for english parser?
faq.cooldictionary.com /english-grammar-questions.php   (1499 words)

  
 Nativism
Transformational grammar is essentially Chomsky's own contribution to a general theory of grammar.
The logic behind transformational grammar is that if every utterance implied a unique rule as a condition of its acceptability, there would be too many rules to deal with.
Grammar is considered important, and rules are presented either deductively or inductively depending on the preferences of the learners.
www.vobs.at /ludescher/Grammar/nativism.htm   (858 words)

  
 grammar
Grammar involves rules of phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics that are all internalized, usually by the age of 5.
Transformational grammar, then, is a means of explaining the deep structure of a language.
Grammar studies were considered a means of honing the mind and the classical trivium of grammar, rhetoric, and logic were considered the foundation of all knowledge and were prerequisites for later studies in theology, philosophy, and literature (Weaver 1996).
www.npatterson.net /grammar.html   (6418 words)

  
 transformational-generative grammar - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Generative grammar attempts to define rules that can generate the infinite number of grammatical (well-formed) sentences possible in a language.
Transformational grammar seeks to identify rules (transformations) that govern relations between parts of a sentence, on the assumption that beneath such aspects as word order a fundamental structure exists.
Transformational and generative grammar together were the starting point for the tremendous growth in linguistics studies since the 1950s.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-trnsfrmgnrtv.html   (252 words)

  
 Linguistics 61, Introduction to transformational grammar, Notes 2   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
First, the architecture of a grammar that is based on phrase structure rules and subcategorization frames requires the information in each subcategorization frame to duplicate information in some phrase structure rule.
Theorizing in generative grammar has been driven by the assumption that such redundancy indicates a failure of insight, and that more insight will be achieved by finding a way to eliminate the redundancy.
Although the terminology of traditional grammar and generative grammar often coincides, this is not always the case.
www.unc.edu /courses/pre2000fall/ling030/hendrick/notes2.htm   (2893 words)

  
 SIL Bibliography: Transformational grammar
An outline of the grammar of Busa (Nigeria).
Russell, Robert L. A transformational grammar of Amahuaca (Pano).
Olson, Michael L. Barai syntax: a comparative study of tagmemic and transformational analyses.
www.ethnologue.com /show_subject.asp?code=TGR   (368 words)

  
 EdRefWiki: ChomskyReference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Chomsky (1957) suggested that a grammar should describe a native speaker's intuitive understanding of the language he or she uses.
Transformational grammar is a means of dealing with constituent structures like active and passive forms.
The power of Transformational Grammar and those that came after it, is the fact that it attempts to describe language in use, language that is used by real speakers and listeners.
www.edreform.net /wiki?ChomskyReference   (506 words)

  
 Written by ASUMAN BİRDAL
rule of substitution for all possible instances of sentences with a particular structural pattern...’ ;and ‘transformational’ is interpreted by John Lyons (1968:248) as the ‘two analyses of deep structure and surface structure’.
Moreover, Harsh(1975:8) claims that generative grammar provides us with a system for explaining the ambiguity in sentences such as ‘visiting relatives can be tiresome’ and allows us to see the underlying structures of such constructions.
Transformational grammar only gives schematic representation of the sentences and focuses on the linguistic features only although it provides us with some innovations by reacting the early structuralists who have more strict ideas than Chomsky’s.
www.ingilish.com /tgg.htm   (1090 words)

  
 Generative grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A generative grammar is a set of rules that recursively "specify" or "generate" the well-formed expressions of a natural language.
Generative grammar should be distinguished from traditional grammar, which is often strongly prescriptive rather than purely descriptive, is not mathematically explicit, and has historically investigated a relatively narrow set of syntactic phenomena.
When generative grammar was first proposed, it was widely hailed as a way of formalizing the implicit set of rules a person "knows" when they know their native language and produce grammatical utterances in it.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Generative_grammar   (813 words)

  
 grammar
Theoretical grammars like Functional Systemic Grammar are useful for such studies as Discourse Analysis, and language arts teachers may find these helpful in developing their own knowledge about the structure of the English language.
His book Grammar and the Teaching of Writing (1991) suggests that teachers limit the use of grammatical terminology to those elements or features that are necessary in helping students create fewer errors in their writing and to write more effective sentences.
In essence she asks “whose grammar are we teaching?” If the goal of grammar teaching (whether within the context of writing or not) is to help students speak and write the language of power, we must ask ourselves if this is a noble goal.
www.msu.edu /user/patter90/grammar.htm   (6384 words)

  
 Using Transformational Grammar as an Editing Tool   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Some recent graduates of technical communication programs may have studied linguistics enough to understand transformational theory, but those of us of a certain age learned only "traditional" grammar, and (if my own students are any indication) many younger people get no exposure to grammar at all.
"Grammar," for most, means "the rules I'm supposed to follow to avoid looking like a dolt in print." Many of these rules, as Finegan (1980) and Baron (1982) have shown, were made up by verbal critics and prescriptive grammarians who, as experts, were usually self-appointed.
Transformations of canonical sentences produce other surface structures, such as questions, commands, and passive sentences.
infohost.nmt.edu /~cpc/trangram.html   (2123 words)

  
 Discovering English Grammar: To the Instructor
Transformational grammar is unquestionably the dominant school of modern linguistics.
Many textbooks, particularly those that teach transformational syntax, focus principally on the methodology of their approach, while examining a relatively few "interesting" constructions.
Although the approach of this book is transformational, readers will be prepared to teach with whatever materials and methods are mandated by their school systems.
people.uncw.edu /veit/DEG/tothe.htm   (1035 words)

  
 linguistics: Transformational-Generative Grammar
The end result of a transformational-generative grammar is a surface structure that, after the addition of words and pronunciations, is identical to an actual sentence of a language.
Another important distinction made in transformational-generative grammar is the difference between language competence (the subconscious control of a linguistic system) and language performance (the speaker's actual use of language).
Although the first work done in transformational-generative grammar was syntactic, later studies have applied the theory to the phonological and semantic components of language.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/society/A0859302.html   (248 words)

  
 UCL Phonetics & Linguistics
Word Grammar is a theory of language structure which Richard (= Dick) Hudson has been building since the early 1980's.
As the latter title indicates, Chomsky's transformational grammar was very much `in the air', and both books accepted his goal of generative grammar but offered other ideas about sentence structure as alternatives to his mixture of function-free phrase structure plus transformations.
There are a dozen or so theories of language in general, and of grammar in particular (and even more particularly, of syntax with or without semantics).
www.phon.ucl.ac.uk /home/dick/wg.htm   (1262 words)

  
 Publisher description for Library of Congress control number 76000604   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
The goal of daughter-dependency theory is the same as that of Chomskyan transformational grammar—to generate syntactic structures for all (and only) syntactically well-formed sentences that would relate to both the phonological and the semantic structures of the sentences.
This structure incorporates all the kinds of information that are spread, in a transformational grammar, over to a series of structures (deep, surface, and intermediate).
Hudson's strong arguments for a non-transformational grammar stress the capacity of daughter-dependency theory to reflect the facts of language structure and to capture generalizations that transformational models miss.
www.loc.gov /catdir/enhancements/fy0608/76000604-d.html   (304 words)

  
 The New York Review of Books: DEEP LANGUAGE
Chomsky always cites examples of putative universals from transformational grammar, but the fact is that just about every other theory of grammar that has ever been seriously proposed has, either implicitly or explicitly, incorporated claims for extremely complex and sophisticated linguistic universals.
It was found that virtually no transformational rules that had been formulated could be made to handle the data; there is not a single rule of Chomsky's syntax that can honestly be said to be well established.
The really deep results of transformational grammar are, in my opinion, the negative ones, the hosts of cases where transformational grammar fell apart for a deep reason: it tried to study the structure of language without taking into account the fact that language is used by human beings to communicate in a social context.
www.nybooks.com /articles/9956   (1677 words)

  
 Transformational grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
To complicate the understanding of the development of Chomsky's theories, the precise meanings of Deep Structure and Surface Structure have changed over time — by the 1970s, the two were normally referred to simply as D-Structure and S-Structure, and D-Structure bore increasingly less resemblance to the Deep Structure of the 1960s.
A descriptively adequate grammar for a particular language defines the (infinite) set of grammatical sentences in that language; that is, it describes the language in its entirity.
Chomsky has argued that it is impossible to describe the structure of natural languages using context free grammars (at least if these descriptions are to be judged on vaguely Chomskian criteria).
transformational-grammar.kiwiki.homeip.net   (2210 words)

  
 Key Theorists/Theories in Psychology - NOAM CHOMSKY
According to transformational grammar, every intelligible sentence conforms not only to grammatical rules peculiar to the particular language in which it is uttered but also to “deep structures,” a universal grammar underlying all languages and corresponding to an innate capacity of the human brain.
Chomsky and other linguists who have built on his work have formulated transformational rules, rules for transforming a sentence with a given grammatical structure (e.g., “John saw Mary”) into a sentence with a different grammatical structure but the same essential meaning (“Mary was seen by John”).
Transformational linguistics has been influential in psycholinguistics, particularly in the study of language acquisition by children.
www.psy.pdx.edu /PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Chomsky.htm   (474 words)

  
 UMass Amherst - 2006/07 Graduate School Bulletin: Linguistics Courses
Intensive introduction to the concepts of transformational grammar.
Topics from traditional historical linguistics from standpoint of transformational generative grammar: language change, relative chronology of sound changes, comparative method, internal reconstruction, and linguistic universals.
Typical topics: grammars and automata, formal models of transformational grammar, syntax-directed compilers.
www.umass.edu /grad_catalog/linguist/courses.html   (649 words)

  
 Syntax
The manipulation of verb tenses is one aspect of transformational rules.
Case grammar allows a word to have the same semantic role, despite having a different syntactic designation.
The case grammar approach is supported by normal readers difficulties with ambiguous sentences where the ‘obvious’ syntactic structure results in an unintelligible sentence.
www.rpi.edu /~verwyc/Cognote8.htm   (859 words)

  
 Teaching Grammar
Research on the relationship between formal grammar instruction and performance on measures of writing ability is very consistent: There is no relationship between grammar study and writing (Krashen, 1984).
I do not think that grammar teaching should be at the core of the English curriculum, but I think there are good reasons for including direct study of grammar.
A comparison of present day English grammar and old English can lead to discussions of language change (it is inevitable and natural or a sign of corruption and decay?), and dialects (are some dialects better than others?).
www.msu.edu /~sandinkr/grammarwhybother.htm   (843 words)

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