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Topic: Transnational issues of Western Sahara

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In the News (Wed 17 Jul 19)

  Political Science Department Courses
Western political philosophers and their theories to the 17th century.
Western political philosophers and their theories from the 17th to the 20th centuries.
Issues and problems in democratic theory, e.g., the nature of democracy, majority rule, representation, equality, and the value of political participation.
www.asu.edu /clas/polisci/courses/ugradcourses04.html   (1377 words)

 Economy Of Western Sahara   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
If you would like to use this flag of Western Sahara or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
If you would like to use this map of Western Sahara or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
If you would like to use this information for Western Sahara or any other on your website you are welcome to do so, all we ask is that you include a link back to our site on the same page.
www.appliedlanguage.com /country_guides/western_sahara_country_economy.shtml   (431 words)

 CIA - The World Factbook -- Western Sahara
Morocco virtually annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) in 1976, and the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal.
Western Sahara depends on pastoral nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the population.
Incomes and standards of living in Western Sahara are substantially below the Moroccan level.
www.factbook.org /factbook/wi.shtml   (372 words)

 Middle East Report Online: The Peace Movement Plans for the Future, by Mark Levine
The Western anti-war movement was just as angry at US policy as Middle Easterners were, but it refrained from offering sustained indictments of Middle Eastern regimes -- even the one in Baghdad.
Moreover, the dynamics surrounding the Palestine issue are related to the problems with the strategic vision of the movement as a whole.
Activists have identified several issues that need attention and development, but as of now it appears that anti-imperialism, civil rights and the occupation of Palestine will be the primary strategic foci.
www.merip.org /mero/interventions/levine_interv.html   (6260 words)

 IFES - Publication
The impasse in Western Sahara centers on the first category: identity establishment or the recording of an officially recognized identity with public authorities.
This task is complicated in Western Sahara because of large refugee and displaced populations and differing definitions of who are the legal residents of the territory.
By solving the technical and political issues associated with the identification and registration of eligible voters, a resurgence of violence can be avoided and a political process established to peacefully broker the conflicts between the two parties.
www.ifes.org /publications-detail.html?id=89   (607 words)

 POS Political Science Courses
POS 340 History of Political Philosophy I. Western political philosophers and their theories to the 17th century.
Examination of issues affecting the international security of states and peoples, e.g., military, economic, technological, environmental, and demographic.
The systematic analysis of the causes of war, the preconditions for peace, and approaches to the resolution of conflict.
www.asu.edu /aad/catalogs/1998-1999/courses/pos.html   (1735 words)

 Air Force Magazine
Today, the Sahara region is believed to be home for thousands of the 30,000 or so jihadists who passed through Osama bin Laden’s Afghan training camps in the 1990s.
Most importantly, the Sahara is vast—3,000 miles across, making it as large as the United States.
The Sahara’s ancient caravan routes serve as unpoliced byways for international terrorists trying to reach the Mediterranean and slip undetected into Western Europe or the Middle East.
www.afa.org /magazine/Nov2004/1104sahara.asp   (1935 words)

 homepage\geopolitical issues
One issue is over the insecure and indefensible border of Israel prior to the addition of the West Bank after the 1967 war.
Most of the rivers in the Middle East are transnational and thus have become subject to international concern and dispute.
The Western values of foreigners were held in contempt by the Mujahhedin, and they felt that their own values were under attack.
www.list.org /~mdoyle/issues.html   (11085 words)

 U.S.-China Cooperation on the Problem of Failing States and Transnational Threats: Special Reports: Publications: U.S. ...
The problem of failing states and transnational threats must be viewed within the broader context of globalization and the post–Cold War, post-9/11 strategic environment, which poses common challenges and threats to China, the United States, and other major global players.
The hallmark of these issues is that they are, in most cases, trans-national or trans-regional and are detrimental to the stability of all countries.
Given the trans-national and trans-regional nature of nontraditional security issues, enhanced coordination and closer regional and international cooperation among all countries are the only way to effectively meet the new challenges brought by these issues.
www.usip.org /pubs/specialreports/sr126.html   (6671 words)

 Issues Paper: The Multifunctional Character OF Agriculture and Land
Global markets usually demand uniform foods that are increasingly processed and sold by transnational corporations, and are geared to meet the food desires of relatively wealthy, urban based consumers- both in developing and developed countries.
- emphasising three main issues considered essential for research and development: ecosystem approaches and ecosystem functions; specific research on classes of species such as soil biota, pollinators and predators that are essential for productive soils and plants; and threats and positive incentives for agricultural biodiversity.
The issues at stake go beyond purely technical matters and include the fundamental human right to food, the right to a healthy environment as well as the political economy of who gains and who loses.
www.fao.org /docrep/x2775e/X2775E03.htm   (17042 words)

 Western Sahara on the Internet
ARSO is an NGO in Switzerland concerned with the decolonization of Western Sahara (former Spanish Sahara), the UN referendum, human rights violations, Saharawi refugees in Algeria, etc. Contact: E. Martinoli - arso@hei.unige.ch
Its Western Sahara section has "information about the dispute over the future of the Western Saharan territory.
The UN Mission for a Referendum in the Western Sahara (MINURSO) and special envoy James Baker are negotiating for a peaceful resolution and a referendum." GPF, an NGO, was founded in 1993 to monitor global policy making at the United Nations.
www-sul.stanford.edu /depts/ssrg/africa/westernsahara.html   (324 words)

 Spain (06/06)
Despite the success of economic liberalization, Spain remained the most closed economy in Western Europe—judged by the small measure of foreign trade to economic activity—and the pace of reform slackened during the 1960s as the state remained committed to "guiding" the economy.
While Spain's departure from its former colony of Western Sahara ended direct Spanish participation in Morocco, it maintains an interest in the peaceful resolution of the conflict brought about there by decolonization.
These issues were highlighted by a crisis in 2002, when Spanish forces evicted a small contingent of Moroccans from a tiny islet off Morocco’s coast following that nation’s attempt to assert sovereignty over the island.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/2878.htm   (3744 words)

 Western Sahara Products and Arabic Languages
Western Sahara was originally a Spanish colony and as Spain was preparing to withdraw from Morocco and grant the Western Saharans (or Saharawis) independence, they made a secret deal with Morocco and Mauritania to access the territory.
The capital of Western Sahara is Ayoun (also spelled El-Ayoun, Laayoune or El-Aaiun) and is currently occupied and controlled illegally by Moroccans.
Economy - overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and having little rainfall, depends on pastoral nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the population.
www.worldlanguage.com /Countries/WesternSahara.htm   (736 words)

 The Permanent Mission of Algeria to the U.N.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
It is an established fact that for several years African issues have occupied the lion’s share of the Council’s monthly deliberations.
This means that the format for the Council’s work for the month of March gives us an excellent opportunity to deal with a range of issues linked to the quest for greater effectiveness in the actions of the international community on the continent.
In that case, there is no other choice but to resort to mediation, which remains almost exclusively regional and subregional in the African conflicts with which we have had to deal in March.
www.algeria-un.org /?doc=2169   (831 words)

 Defense Issues: Volume 10, Number 78-- U.S. Security Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Africa is beset by a variety of other transnational problems which we are helping to address.
In 1979, Tanzanian troops and Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda to overthrow Idi Amin.
Outside tropical regions, much of the land is extremely dry and includes the Sahara Desert, covering much of the north, and the Kalahari Desert, covering much of southern Africa.
www.dod.gov /speeches/1995/s19950801-report.html   (5234 words)

 Western Sahara - Country Background and Profile at ed-u.com - The Colossal Education Mega-Site - Click here...
Background: Morocco virtually annexed the northern two-thirds of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) in 1976, and the rest of the territory in 1979, following Mauritania's withdrawal.
A guerrilla war with the Polisario Front contesting Rabat's sovereignty ended in a 1991 cease fire; a referendum on final status has been repeatedly postponed and is not expected to occur until at least 2002.
Economy - overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources and lacking sufficient rainfall, depends on pastoral nomadism, fishing, and phosphate mining as the principal sources of income for the population.
www.ed-u.com /wi.html   (1057 words)

 Baker Institute - Research - Foreign Policy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
General on the Western Sahara issue and the Institute hosted the fourth negotiating round between the parties.
The Institute's research and studies on energy issues have broken new ground with a focus on the geopolitical framework of energy supply and security issues in the Gulf, the Caspian Sea Basin, and the Asia.
A study on Latin American energy issues is underway in the 2000-2001 academic year and there are plans for future studies on Russia and Africa.
www.bakerinstitute.org /Research/fpolicy_FPolicy.htm   (482 words)

 Foreign relations of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The mention of U.S. generosity as opposed to the low spendings on foreign developmental aid (measured as percentage of GDP) when compared to other western countries.
But some memorandums emerged after the Abu Ghraib scandal "suggested that the administration was discussing ways in which its agents could avoid the international ban on torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment" [3].
U.S. generosity is not demonstrated in the relatively low spendings on foreign developmental aid (measured as percentage of GDP) when compared to other western countries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/American_foreign_policy   (2587 words)

 POSC - Political Science
POSC 350 Politics and the Environment 3 The political context of environmental issues; air and water pollution, population control, and conservation.
POSC 441 Problems of Western European Politics by Country 3 Intensive examination of European politics from the perspective of a specific country, e.g., Spain, England and France.
POSC 616 Transnational Relations and World Politics 3 Transnational political and economic phenomena; emphasis on political behavior of multinational corporations, international financial system; and implications for world order.
www.udel.edu /provost/ugradcat/ugradcat95/26/list/77.html   (3293 words)

 Address at the 53rd United Nations General Assembly
Urgent steps are also required to arrive at a just and permanent peace in the Middle East, on the basis of the realisation of the legitimate aspirations of the people of Palestine and respect for the independence and security of all the States of this important region.
We also look forward to the resolution of the outstanding issues of Western Sahara and East Timor, convinced that it is possible to take these matters off the world agenda on the basis of settlements that meet the interests of all the peoples concerned.
The issues we have mentioned were discussed in a comprehensive manner at the Twelfth Summit Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement held in the city of Durban, South Africa, earlier this month.
www.anc.org.za /ancdocs/history/mandela/1998/nm0921.htm   (2087 words)

 BUBL LINK: Western sahara
Western Sahara Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2003
Map of Western Sahara showing the main settlements, boundaries and routes.
Listing of political resources relevant to Western Sahara, with links to parties, organisations, government, media and results of recent elections, where available.
bubl.ac.uk /link/w/westernsahara.htm   (161 words)

 Darfur in Flames: Atrocities in Western Sudan: BACKGROUND
Greater Darfur, a territory composed of three states (North, South, and West Darfur), is located in the northwestern region of Sudan, bordering Chad to the west, Libya to the northwest, and Central African Republic to the southwest.
In Darfur, Arab tribes considered they were not sufficiently represented in the Fur-dominated local administration and in 1986, a number of Arab tribes formed what became known as the “Arab alliance” (Tujammo al Arabi) aimed at establishing their political dominance and control of the region.
In a pattern that was to be repeated numerous times throughout the 1990s, rather than working to defuse tensions and implement peace agreements, the Khartoum government inflamed tensions by arming the Arab tribes and neglecting the core issues underlying the conflict over resources: the need for rule of law and socio-economic development in the region.
www.hrw.org /reports/2004/sudan0404/3.htm   (2936 words)

 Tunis, regional delegation (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco/Western Sahara, Tunisia)
In 1999, the Tunis regional delegation again focused on the humanitarian issues arising from the aftermath of the Western Sahara conflict.
For over 20 years the repercussions of the conflict in the Western Sahara have been felt by thousands of people, including around 1,800 Moroccan prisoners held by the Polisario Front.
On 8 January, the ICRC President met the Polisario Front Coordinator for the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara at ICRC headquarters.
www.icrc.org /Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/htmlall/57JQNZ?OpenDocument&View=defaultBody&style=custo_print   (2776 words)

 AEI - Short Publications
International trade is burgeoning, transnational investment continues to grow, and living standards in nearly all areas of the world have dramatically improved.
To an ever greater degree, it would thus appear, "development assistance" spending has become a vehicle for underwriting not material advance but economic failure, and for sustaining the finances of the regimes that do not offer the prospect of substantive improvements in economic liberties to their subjects.
In the July issue of National Security Outlook, Frederick W. Kagan highlights the detrimental consequences to both the United States and the Iraqi people of abandoning Iraq now.
www.aei.org /publications/filter.foreign,pubID.7085/pub_detail.asp   (2271 words)

 Rhodes College: Subject Guide: International Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Historical Abstracts is your complete reference guide to the history of the world from 1450 to the present (excluding the United States and Canada, which are covered in America: History and Life).
It is specifically designed to help researchers gather information on Canadian-related security and defence issues and also on the Security and Defence establishments of other countries and international organizations.
In producing and disseminating materials on the various regions of Africa, Africa Resource Center encourages national, regional, continental and global debates on issues that are specifically pertinent to Africa.
www.rhodes.edu /InformationServices/ResearchandCollections/SubjectGuides/Subject-Guide-International-Studies.cfm   (4509 words)

In view of the varied political weight the different ethnic groups had been able to wield under British rule, and their varied experiences with the concept of democratic governance, the issues were not necessarily susceptible to quick resolution.
The issue of which minorities will be granted states and the rights permitted the remaining minorities is but one thorny question in this area.
This body is to be established as part of the Economic and Social Council, serving as an advisory body to the Council, and discussing indigenous issues within the mandate of the Council relating to economic and social development, culture, the environment, education health and human rights.
www.ibiblio.org /obl/docs/LIOB05-SD.Southalan.htm   (6785 words)

 Africa Magazines and Journals on the Internet. J - Z
Volume 23, Number 1, February 1999 was a Special Issue: Africans Meeting Missionaries, edited by Jean Landau and Derek Peterson, with papers presented at a conference at the University of Minnesota in 1997.
Future issues will cover African literature survival outside the realm of large world publishers: illusion or reality?, AIDS literature in Africa and elsewhere.
Latest issue and articles from the newsletter of the Uganda Democratic Coalition (UDC) whose slogan is, "The Voice of the People in Opposition to One Party Rule." The UDC opposes the govt.
www-sul.stanford.edu /depts/ssrg/africa/journ2.html   (7027 words)

 USC School of International Relations
These courses focus on what used to be considered "low" politics, but which have become key issues.
Money, trade, investment, development, the environment, and foreign economic policy issues are examined.
The economic, political, ethnic, and social history of a region are examined to help explain current developments and interstate and domestic policies and issues within a region.
www.usc.edu /dept/LAS/ir/programs/u-concentrations.htm   (755 words)

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