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Topic: Transoxania


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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  
  ALAÚ÷﷓AL﷓DÈN ABU÷L﷓FATH® MOH®AMMAD B
Transoxania and central and eastern Iran as well as in K¨úa@razm, 596-617/1200-20.
This blunder may possibly be excused by the sultan's lack of control over a subordinate on the fringes of his empire, but it was followed by a senseless act of provocation by Moháammad himself when he put to death three envoys from Ùingiz.
Defeating Kü±lüg and the tribe of the Merkit, Ùingiz's main army advanced westwards in 616/1219, and in 616-17/1220 overran most of Transoxania, sacking Bokhara and Samarkand, whilst the sultan abandoned the defense of the province at a stroke and retreated, first to Balkò and then westwards into Iran.
www.iranica.com /newsite/articles/v1f7/v1f7a130.html   (1128 words)

  
  Tamerlane - MSN Encarta
Tamerlane was born on April 10, 1336, into a Mongol sub-group settled at Kesh in Transoxania (present-day Shakhrisyabz, Uzbekistan), and rose to prominence in the service of the Jagataid khan Tughluq Timur.
Between 1364 and 1370 he won control of Transoxania, overwhelming former superiors and allies, and in the latter year declared the restoration of the empire of Genghis Khan, whom he falsely claimed as his ancestor.
His dynasty, the Timurids, which ruled Transoxania and Iran until the early 16th century, was noted for its patronage of Turkish and Persian literature.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761563423/Tamerlane.html   (305 words)

  
 mod1lect1
The bastion of the Abbasid Caliphal Empire in the east was in Khurasan (northeastern Iran) and Transoxania.
In the eighth to ninth centuries, Islam became the majority religion in Iran and Transoxania, which was a cultural and economic extension of the Iranian world.
Transoxania became a centre of Muslim religion, administration, and culture.
www.humanities.ualberta.ca /ottoman/module1/lecture1.htm   (641 words)

  
 Metal
This can be clearly seen in the decoration of an elegant silver cup, made in Transoxania in the tenth century, the base of which depicts a bird-man holding a grapevine while an Arabic inscription in praise of wine circles the rim of the cup (Fig.
The artistic style of the applied arts in Khurasan and Transoxania began to change from the middle of the eleventh century, as the decorative principle established its supremacy.
The incrustation of bronze artefacts is practically never encountered in Transoxania in the pre-Mongol period, whereas the works produced by the craftsmen of Khurasan (Merv and Herat) provide eloquent testimony to their mastery of that technique.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/arts/decoart/handcraft/TansoxKhuras/Metalwork.htm   (842 words)

  
 Fine fabrics and carpet
Clothes and carpets were indications of their owner’s social position, and in the tenth century, to say that someone ‘had not one carpet’ implied that he was extremely ascetic.
In the pre-Mongol period, Transoxania and Khurasan were renowned for their cloth, which was not only produced for domestic consumption but was widely exported to the lands further west.
The influence of Chinese iconography was as apparent in the fabric patterns and technology as it was in the ceramics of the period; images of dragons and phoenixes appear along with diffuse cloud motifs.
www.cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Arts/decoart/handcraft/TansoxKhuras/Finefabrics.htm   (905 words)

  
 The Institute of Ismaili Studies - Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khurasan and Transoxania During Umayyad ...
The movement of al-Muqanna' survived in Transoxania after the suppression of his revolt in 779, and the Mubayyida continued to await the return of al-Muqanna' until the twelfth century.
In Transoxania, the Imamiyya were present from the later ninth century; and by the early tenth century, Imami thought of a somewhat independent nature was propagated in Central Asia, from Samarkand, by Muhammad b.
In Khurasan and Transoxania, both wings came to be represented, though the Qarmatis predominated until the middle of the eleventh century.
www.iis.ac.uk /view_article.asp?ContentID=101275   (7951 words)

  
 Resistance against Arabians
To this effect, the "rulers" of the Transoxania and directly the Arabians had sent some committees upon the approval and encouragement of the Arabians.
Actually, the Chinese policy of expansion towards the west -that was defeated by the Gok-Turk Khanate- that was initiated concurrently with the penetration of the Arabian armies beyond the Seyhun River would encounter the risk and danger of running into the Turgis wall.
The purpose of Su-lu was to destroy the Arabian central quarters in Samarkand and to repulse the Arabians from the entire Transoxania.
www.ozturkler.com /data_english/0001/0001_08_02.htm   (1513 words)

  
 Saudi Aramco World : The Battle of Talas   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Arab soldiers initially crossed the Oxus River (now Amu Darya) into Transoxania (in today's present-day Soviet Uzbekistan) in 654, but it was not until 705, when Qutaiba ibn Muslim became Umayyad governor of Khorasan, that the Arabs achieved real success in Central Asia.
Nevertheless, by the end of the Umayyad period (750), most of Transoxania-one of the wealthiest lands of the medieval world, thanks to its extensive trade with China, largely in silk, and Eastern Europe, in such goods as furs, amber, honey, and walrus ivory - had been incorporated into the Islamic realm.
The Chinese had mobilized - in concert with the troops of Ferghana - 30,000 men, according to Chinese accounts, 100,000 according to the Arabs and in July, 751, met the armies of Islam near the town of Talas or Taraz on the Talas River.
www.saudiaramcoworld.com /issue/198205/the.battle.of.talas.htm   (1680 words)

  
 The Iranian Academi of the Arts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
According to Academy of art public relations report, in the beginning of the conference Iraj Naeimayi, Associate member of Academy of art, described Transoxania as the union place of Iranian music, culture and art and said: Khorasan is the place where Iranian culture and art unite.
Transoxania was the center of culture and art of the area so that artists from Kashmir and India had came there to study music.
The second part of 1st day of conference of the music of Khorasan and Transoxania was begun by a session managed by Dr. Sasan Fatemi.
www.honar.ac.ir /newsen/showone.asp?id=217&kind1=22   (1164 words)

  
 Timur: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
Timur took part in campaigns in Transoxania with Chagatai, a descendant of Genghis Khan.
(Timur Lenk, or Tamerlane, means “Timur the Lame,” reflecting the battle wounds he received.) Through machinations and treachery he took over Transoxania and proclaimed himself the restorer of the Mongol empire.
In the 1380s he began his conquest of Iran (Persia), taking Khorsn and eastern Iran in 1383–85 and western Iran as far as Mesopotamia and Georgia in 1386–94.
ref.enotes.com /britannica-encyclopedia/timur   (238 words)

  
 [No title]
As a result of the conquests won in the period of the Caliph Ömer (634-644), Muslims came face to face with the Turks in Khorasan and especially in Transoxania and the Caucasus.
Then, he besieged Bokhara that was one of the most important cities in Transoxania that was governed by various Turkish bey principalities.
The conquest of Transoxania was partially fulfilled in the period of the governorship of Kuteybe b.
trboard.org /modules/makale/print.php?id=68   (494 words)

  
 The History Of Tajikistan
The Tajiks are the direct descendants of the Iranian peoples whose continuous presence in Central Asia and northern Afghanistan is attested from the middle of the 1st millennium BC.
The first Turkic invaders (from the northeast) seized this area of Transoxania in 999, and in time, because both conquered and conquerors were Muslim, many Tajiks--especially those in the valleys of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya--became Turkicized.
This resulted in the transformation of a formerly purely Iranian land into "Turkestan." The name Tajik, originally given to the Arabs by the local population, came to be applied by Turkic invaders and overlords to those elements of the sedentary population that continued to speak Iranian languages.
rustamjon.tripod.com /history.html   (761 words)

  
 The Seljuk Empire (1040 - 1157 AD) - S.Shaw
To him fell the bleak task of defending the Middle East against the Mongol hordes that now threatened it from Transoxania, but after his death in 1157 there was little left to stand in their way.
Between 1206 and 1215 he incorporated most of the Asian steppes between northern China and Transoxania into his empire, in the process adding large numbers of Turkomans to his army while building a society devoted almost entirely to war.
In the end the invasion was stopped not by the Middle East's military defenses, but rather by periodic crises within the Mongol Empire caused by the deaths of Genghis Han and his successors.
turkmeniya.tripod.com /id8.html   (2498 words)

  
 CENTRAL ASIA AFTER THE MONGOL INVASION-ISLAM AND SEDENTARY LIFE AS A CONSEQUENCE
The rulers settled in Transoxania and in some mesaure abandoned the nomadic traditions, which led to their alienation from the eastern regions.
We know from the works of geographers of the tenth century, such as Istakhri and Muqaddasi and from Yaqut Hamami, who was in Transoxania and Khorezm during the period of the Khorezmshahs, that most cities, towns and villages had Arabic and Iranian names.
The Western Iranian or Tajiks who had come to Transoxania and Turkestan,i.e., the Transoxanian Tajiks had come here mostly for the sake of trade or as a result of internal struggles, as at the time of the Sassanids.Under the rule of the early Chaghataids some of the Tajiks had been sent to Eastern Turkestan.
www.history.hacettepe.edu.tr /archive/oimakale.html   (4119 words)

  
 Iranica: Decoration
The earliest carved-stucco wall decoration in Khorasan and Transoxania, for example, in the nine-bay mosque near Balkh, were all interior surfaces once had stucco revetments, reflected the taste of Abbasid Iraq.
On the arch spandrels, intrados, and impost blocks at Balkh the stucco decoration included patterns based on the grape leaf and grapevine, whereas the pier capitals were ornamented with abstract vegetal ornament.
In Khorasan, Transoxania, and Sistan attention was focused on the exteriors of buildings.
www.iranian.com /Iranica/Sept97/Decor   (3523 words)

  
 Morgan. Shah Isma'il I
After the death of the Timurid Shah Rukh in 850/1447 he took advantage of the political confusion to invade Transoxania, though he was unable to establish himself there.
The conquest of Transoxania took several years: Samarqand itself had to be occupied twice, in 905/1500 and 906/1501.
A considerable effort to resist the Ozbegs was made by the Timurid Babur, whose lifelong ambition it was to be the ruler of Samarqand.
coursesa.matrix.msu.edu /~fisher/hst373/readings/morgan.html   (4601 words)

  
 Persian Literature in Translation - The History of the Rise of Mohammedan Power in India, Volume 1
The whole of Transoxania, including Orkund, is added to the Ghiznian empire.
The Suljook Tartars invade Transoxania, and the provinces on the Caspian.
The Suljooks defeated in Transoxania by Aluptugeen Hajib.
persian.packhum.org /persian/pf?file=06901021&ct=0   (5957 words)

  
 Avicenna Spine and Joint Care   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The course of ibn Sina's life was dominated by the period of great political instability through which he lived.
Nuh ibn Mansur, in an attempt to keep in power, had put Sebüktigin, a former Turkish slave, as the ruler of Ghazna and appointed his son Mahmud as governor of Khorasan.
However the Turkish Qarakhanids, already in control of most of Transoxania, joined with Mahmud and moved to depose the Samanids.
www.painmed.com /Avicenna.htm   (1945 words)

  
 7000 years of Iran & Iranian History & Culture Heritage Persian History web site persia online Iran history news ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
When Abdallah ibn Tahir died in 230/844 he ruled over Khorasan, Rey, and Samanid princes in Transoxania were his vassals, Oshrusana had been conquered during his rule and Maziyar had been taken by his lieutenants.
After Amr the \doman of the Saffarids was limited to Sistan and the Saffarid princes were the vassals of the powerful Iranian dynasties which came into existence one after another, such as the Samanids, the Ghaznavids, the Khwarazm - Shahs, the Il - Khans, the Karts, the Timurids and the Safavids.
It also included to the northeast Torkestan and the borders of China, During the rule of Nasr ibn Ahmad ibn Ismail Kerman was occupied by Muhammad ibn Ilyas and thus was added to the Samanid domains.
www.iranian.ws /7000/7000-4.htm   (1777 words)

  
 The Iranian Academi of the Arts
Then Sasan Fatemi delivered a speech about carnivals and music in Transoxania and said: in central cities of Transoxania especially Bokhara carnival is an important cultural and economic event that is meaningless without music, therefore musicians play great role in carnivals.
He added: organizing musician of the carnival and their position in society is very similar to Iranian musicians in past.
The conference of music of Khorasan and Transoxania was ended by eastern Khorasan Dutar music performance by Abdullah Sarvar Ahmadi (player) and Habib Habibifard (Avaz).
www.honar.ac.ir /newsen/showone.asp?id=220&kind1=22   (505 words)

  
 Transoxania (Uzbekistan) - Digital Grin Photography Forum
They are related to the Seljuk and Osmanli turks as well, and arrived in Transoxania starting in the 13th century.
Transoxania, being at the crossroads of civilizations for about 2,000 years, is a very mixed place.
Khiva has a number of Mosques and minarets, the most famous of which is the "Kalta Minor." It's actually unfinished, being built to about a third of its intended height before the Khan building it died.
www.dgrin.com /showthread.php?t=48357   (3973 words)

  
 Iranica.com - ESMAÚ¿ÈL b. Ahámad b. Asad SAÚMAÚNÈ
In Khorasan and Transoxania this period was one of strife among various adventurers seeking power following the fall of the Taherid governors of N^æa@pu@r.
When Nasár died in Joma@da@ I 279/August 892 Esma@¿^l became ruler of all Transoxania and transfered the capital to Bukhara, thenceforth the center of the Samanid amirate; he was officially recognized as governor of Transoxania by the caliph al-Mo¿tazµed (279-89/892-902) in Baghdad.
Hart¯ama in 283/896, had received from al-Mo¿tazµed a grant of Ray and the whole of eastern Persia and Transoxania, which entailed deposing Esma@¿^l as governor.
www.iranica.com /articles/v8f6/v8f668.html   (745 words)

  
 Iran Daily - Arts & Culture - 01/07/06   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
On the closing day of the event, which was co-sponsored by the Iranian Studies Foundation and Tehran’s Comtemporary Arts Museum, Secretary of the Conference Amir Hossein Pour-Javadi, in an interview with Iran Daily, spoke of the region’s great potentials in the field of music which, he noted, is of historical significance.
He pointed out, “The large province of Khorasan and Transoxania is the cradle of ancient Iranian culture and civilization and the history of music in the region can be traced back to ancient times.
Pour-Javadi said that the large Khorasan province and Transoxania was the venue of interaction between Islamic Iran and music from other cultures in Asia and the South.
www.iran-daily.com /1384/2470/html/art.htm   (1364 words)

  
 J281 Qarakhanid
The Qarakhanids were a Turkish confederation of Qarluqs, ruled by a Qaghan (Khaqan).
In the 10th Century the Qarluq became Sunni Muslims and the Qarakhanids were divided into the western half in Transoxania based at Samarkand and Bukhra (Sughd or ancient Sogdiana), and the eastern half based in Balasaghun, Kashgar and Khotan.
Samanid territory was divided along the Oxus river with Khurasan falling to the Ghaznavids and the Transoxanian provinces to the Qarakhanids.
www.forumancientcoins.com /historia/coins/j2/j281.htm   (336 words)

  
 These are my notes
Transoxania is a region located south of the Aral sea.
It is named after the river that runs through it, the Oxus river(now called Amu Darya) Oxus is only a Historic name.
1.2 This is a research frontier, in the history of Transoxania.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Sparta/3976/notes.html   (1629 words)

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