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Topic: Transoxiana


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  Transoxiana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania) is the largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan.
During this time, when Transoxiana was cut off from the rest of Western culture by the Sassanid Empire, it is often called Sogdiana, a provincial name taken from early Persian, and used to distinguish it from nearby Bactria.
Both are in the southern portion of Transoxiana, however (though still to the north of the Oxus itself, on the river Zeravshan), and the majority of the region was dry but fertile plains.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Transoxiana   (371 words)

  
 Chagatai Khanate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On his death, the Chagatai Khanate was divided between Muslim Transoxiana under a converted Mongol ruler and the steppes Mongols, who were lacking a leader.
Chagatai dominion over Transoxiana was broken by Timur i Leng, or Tamerlane, a Muslim native of Transoxania who claimed descent from Genghis Khan.
He took Samarkand in 1366 and was recognized as emir in 1370, although he continued to officially act in the name of the Chagatai ulus.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Chagatai_Khanate   (1480 words)

  
 Transoxiana -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Transoxiana's major city and cultural center was (City in southern Uzbekistan; Tamerlane's opulent capital in the 14th century) Samarkand, while another was (Click link for more info and facts about Bukhara) Bukhara.
Both are in the southern portion of Transoxiana, however (though still to the north of the Oxus itself, on the river (Click link for more info and facts about Zeravshan) Zeravshan), and the majority of the region was dry but fertile plains.
Following the Arab conquest of this area, it became known as Ma wara'un-Nahr ((The Semitic language of the Arabs; spoken in a variety of dialects) Arabic, "what is beyond the river").
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/tr/transoxiana.htm   (325 words)

  
 TRANSOXIANA FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania) is the largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central_Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan.
The name stuck in Western consciousness because of the exploits of Alexander_the_Great, who extended Greek culture into the region with his conquests of the 4th_century_BC; Transoxiana represented the uttermost northeastern point of the Hellenistic culture, and in fact kept a hybrid Greek/Indian/Chinese Buddhist culture, dubbed 'Serindian', until the Islamic conquest.
Genghis_Khan invaded Transoxiana in 1219 during his conquest of Khwarazm.
www.bellabuds.com /Transoxiana   (347 words)

  
 TEMPLE OF TAMERLANE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Tamerlane was born April 10, 1336, at Kesh in Transoxiana (present-day Shakhrisyabz, Uzbekistan), and rose to prominence in the service of the Jagataid khan Tughluq Timur.
Between 1364 and 1370 he won control of Transoxiana, and in the latter year declared the restoration of the empire of Genghis Khan, whom he falsely claimed as his ancestor.
His dynasty, the Timurids, which ruled Transoxiana and Iran until the early 16th century, was noted for its patronage of Turkish and Persian literature.
sangha.net /messengers/Tamerlan.htm   (283 words)

  
 The Glories of Sogdiana
This area, known variously as Transoxiana (that is, across the Oxus, or the Amu Darya) or Eastern Iran (meaning really the eastern extension of Iranian culture) is a fascinating area, well worth exploring.
But at the same time, the area abutted on the steppes, and there was almost constant pressure from nomads to the north and east, across the Syr Dary, to move in with their herds and to raid, and if successful, to become the rulers of this rich land.
It was in effect the early-comers fending off the late-comers, because the inhabitants of Transoxiana were an Iranian population who had themselves moved in from the steppes and who had settled down.
www.silk-road.com /artl/sogdian.shtml   (2323 words)

  
 Iransaga - Persian Art, The Samanids
The best-known and most refined pottery of this Samarkand type is that bearing large inscriptions in Kufic (the earliest version of Arabic script used in the Koran, named after the city Kufa in Iraq) painted in fl on a white background.
Figure decoration never appeared on these Transoxiana wares and motifs were often copied from textiles such as rosettes, roundels, and peacock-tail "eyes".
On the other hand, Khorasan pottery of the Samanid period, known primarily from material excavated at Nishapur, did not eliminate the human form, and there are examples of human figures against backgrounds abounding in animals, flowers and inscriptions.
www.artarena.force9.co.uk /samanid.htm   (473 words)

  
 Timur (Tamerlane)
When Timur was ten-years-old the Mongols lost power in Transoxiana, and an emir (another word for warlord) took power there.
Ilyas Khodja withdrew from Transoxiana but returned in 1365, and he defeated Timur and Hussein at what became known as the Battle of the Mud.
Timur left Transoxiana under the official rule of a Turkish khan named Suyughghatmish, superior to Timur nominally but not in actual power.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h13tm.htm   (2536 words)

  
 Iranica.com - NASáR (I) B. AH®MAD (I) B. ESMAÚ¿IL
ESMAÚ¿IL Amir-e Sa¿id "The Fortunate Amir," a title he was given after his death, ruler of the Samanid dynasty (q.v.) in Transoxiana and Khorasan between 301/914 and 331/943.
Nevertheless, as shown by T¨a¿a@lebi's sections on the writers of Khorasan and Transoxiana in his Yatimat al-dahr, there was a brilliant concourse of poets and literary men at the Bukharan court at this time.
Stern, "The Early Isma@¿ili Missionaries in North-West Persia and in Khura@sa@n and Transoxiana," BSOAS 23, 1960, pp.
www.iranica.com /articles/sup/Nasr_b_Ahmad.html   (1586 words)

  
 RUDAOT - LoveToKnow Article on RUDAOT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Farid-eddin Mahommed Abdallh, the first great literary genius of modern Persia, was born in Rudag, a village in Transoxiana, about 870900.
Most of his biographers assert that he was totally blind, but the accurate knowledge of colors shown in his poems makes this very doubtful.
bin Ahmad, the ruler of Khorgsan and Transoxiana (91342), who invited the poet to his court.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /R/RU/RUDAOT.htm   (428 words)

  
 Central Asian History, Part 1
The Invasion of Transoxiana by the Achaemenids of Persia under Darius I and Cyrus.
The Invasion of Transoxiana and capture of Samarkand by the Greeks under Alexander the Great, resulting in the rule of the Greek Seleucids in both Bactria and Soghdiana.
The Persian Samanid dynasty (Sunni) obtains the administration of Transoxiana, with its capital in Bukhara, from the Caliph.
www.oxuscom.com /cahist1.htm   (1988 words)

  
 Oghuz_Turks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Ibnul Asir, an Arab historian, declared that the Oghuz Turks had come to Transoxiana in the period of the caliph Al-Mahdi in the years between 775 and 785.
The extension from the Karacuk Mountains towards the Caspian Sea (Transoxiana) was called the "Oghuz Steppe Lands" from where the Oghuz Turks established trading, religious and cultural contacts with the Abbasid Arab caliphate who ruled to the south.
The Arab historians mentioned that the Oghuz Turks in their domain in Transoxiana were ruled by a number of kings and chieftains.
www.freecaviar.com /search.php?title=Oghuz_Turks   (1890 words)

  
 The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)
By the mid-14th century, the Khanate was disintegrating under a series of weak leaders, and different regions within the Khanate were evolving separately.
Transoxiana, a small region that included the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand, was in fact flourishing while the rest of the Chagatai Khanate dissolved around it.
Timur began his career of conquest in Transoxiana, where he fought the Chagatai Khans for control of Transoxiana.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/timurid.html   (1262 words)

  
 TIMUR - TAMERLANE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
However, although the size of the Timurid empire was drastically reduced, his successors went on to usher in the Muslim equivalent of the European Renaissance, centered in the cities of Samarkand and Herat.
The Arab general, Qutayba ibn Muslim, launched a jihad (holy war) against Transoxiana from Merv (in present-day Turkmenistan, south of the Oxus) in 705: Bukhara finally fell in 709, to be followed by Khiva in 711.
As Timurid power in Transoxiana faltered after the deaths of Shah Rukh and Ulugh Beg, the city ceased to be as important as it had been.
users.rcn.com /web-czar/timur.htm   (2687 words)

  
 IndeResearches
Muhammed Taragai Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) was a Turk who ruled the province of Transoxiana (Maverannahr), a region situated between the River Oxus (Amu Darya) and the River Jaxartes (Syr Darya), the principal city of which was Samarkand.
Ulugh Beg became the ruler of Transoxiana in 1447 upon the death of his father.
The administration of Transoxiana was the responsibility of Ulugh Beg's father for most of Ulugh Beg's life.
www.students.itu.edu.tr /~ahmedova/IndeULUG.htm   (423 words)

  
 A History of Inner Asia (Svat Soucek) - book review
The Arab conquest of Transoxiana took almost a century from 650; a key event was the battle of Talas in 751, where the Arabs defeated a Tang army, putting a stop to Chinese expansion west of Sinkiang.
In Khurasan and Transoxiana Arab governors were replaced by an Iranian dynasty, the Samanids, which lasted through the 9th and 10th centuries.
They were succeeded by Timur and his successors in the 15th century, who in turn were displaced in the 16th century by the Uzbek Shaybanids, rivals of the Shiite Safavids in Persia.
dannyreviews.com /h/Inner_Asia.html   (814 words)

  
 Timur's Empire and Successor States   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Transoxiana, the Sogdiana of the Iranians and the Murannawarh of the Arabs, was one of these magnets for nomads who wanted to sedentarize.
Timur's ambitions were as large as his ability to survive and it was this caginess which prompted him for a time to install insignificant puppet khans related to the line of Jenghiz instead of assuming the kingship himself.
Besides offsetting the Mongol threat, Timur also had to bring all of Transoxiana under his rule, which is what he did by waging war on the reborn Khwarizmian state at Urgench and Khiva.
www.worldhistoryplus.com /t/timursEmpireSuccessorStates.html   (859 words)

  
 Saunders. History of Medieval Islam
For nearly three centuries Transoxiana, or as the Arabs called it, Ma Wara al-Nahr, 'that which is beyond the river', was a flourishing land, free from serious nomadic incursions, and cities like Samarkand and Bukhara rose to fame and wealth.
Of Persian origin, they set up a strong centralized government in Khurasan and Transoxiana, with its capital at Bukhara; they encouraged trade and manufactures; they patronized learning, and they sponsored the spread of Islam by peaceful conversion among the barbarians to the north and east of their realm.
Barbarians though they might be, they found a certain favour with their subjects: they stood for order, they allowed Persian officials to run the government, they protected trade, they were orthodox Sunnite Muslims, and they professed themselves ardent champions of the faith against heretics and unbelievers.
www.h-net.msu.edu /~fisher/hst372/readings/saunders.html   (3963 words)

  
 The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor (Zahiruddin Babur)
He then recounts his part in the internecine conflicts between the Timurids (descendants of Temür/Tamerlane) over Khurasan, Transoxiana, and Fergana and their loss to the Uzbeks under Shaybani.
In 1504 he left Transoxiana with a few hundred companions, acquired the discontented followers of a regional leader in Badakhshan, and took Kabul.
Babur includes descriptions of many of the places he visits and is interested in flora and fauna and techniques of hunting, fishing, and agriculture; there are also set-piece geographical overviews of Fergana, Transoxiana, and the area around Kabul, as well as a twenty page description of Hindustan.
dannyreviews.com /h/Baburnama.html   (702 words)

  
 Exhibit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Modern-day Uzbekistan lies in an area that the Greeks named Transoxiana, a term that is still in use today.
By trade and by conquest, all of these influences were brought together and blended into the culture of Transoxiana.
But by the middle of the 8th century, Persian Arab dynasties conquered Transoxiana and made Islam the dominant religion and most important cultural influence in Central Asia.
www.rmerrillphoto.com /exhibit   (597 words)

  
 Silk Road Seattle - Samarkand   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Two examples from other palaces in Transoxiana from this same period (the images are reproduction paintings, filmed in substandard light in the Samarkand museum) provide an additional sense of the cultural connections of these prosperous Central Asian states.
Firm Arab control in the region was not established before the middle of the eighth century (CE), and a century after that, Samarkand came under the control first of the Samanid and then the Karakhanid states.
The Samanids, who were of Iranian origin, established Bukhara as their capital, and it was under their rule (to about the end of the ninth century) that the cities of Transoxiana became major centers of Muslim learning.
depts.washington.edu /~uwch/silkroad/cities/uz/samarkand/samarkand.html   (2126 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Transoxiana
Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium.
"Transoxiana" is also the name of a well-respected society of investigators from Argentina.
Click for other authoritative sources for this topic (summarised at Factbites.com).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Transoxiana   (1178 words)

  
 Articles - Khazars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
According to Vasil'ev, Khazar populations remained behind in Transoxiana under Pecheneg and Oghuz suzerainty, possibly remaining in contact with the main body of their people.
During the 7th and 8th centuries the Khazar fought a series of wars against the Umayyad Caliphate, which was attempting simultaneously to expand its influence into Transoxiana and the Caucasus.
The first war was fought in the early 650 and ended with the defeat of an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar, after a battle in which both sides used siege engines on the others' troops.
www.gaple.com /articles/Khazar   (5695 words)

  
 Paradox Interactive Forums - AGC-EEP Timurids
I'm going to look into why more provinces weren't turned to Sunni from Shiite, but here we have straight form the AGC a bunch of provinces that were appropriately set as Sunni for the 1419 start.
So I'm consigning Transoxiana to 'revolt=no' as it is still useful in existing in sequences post the Timurid period.
As you said, and I agree, this was inevitable because events that lead to this were set before the beginning of the game.
www.europa-universalis.com /forum/showthread.php?t=165773&page=2   (3529 words)

  
 The Umayyads   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
711 CE, 92 A.H Conquest of Spain, Sind, and Transoxiana.
Arabic was made the official language of administration, and Byzantine coins were replaced with a new Islamic-style coinage.
Under his sons, Walid I (705-715) and Sulayman (715-717), the empire expanded westward to Morocco and Spain, and eastward to Transoxiana.
islamic-world.net /islamic-state/umayyads.htm   (845 words)

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