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Topic: Transplant rejection

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  Repeated Transplant Rejection: Why Does It Happen?
When a transplanted organ is placed into a patient's body, his normal immune system recognizes the tissue as foreign, assumes it is an invading organism and begins to develop the ability to attack and kill these foreign cells.
Rejection rates remained high with 70-80 percent of patients experiencing at least one rejection episode and the one-year survival of transplanted organs at only 65 percent.
The introduction of Cyclosporine (Sandimmune®, Neoral®) in the 1980's was associated with a reduction in the rate of rejection and an improvement in the one-year transplant survival to 80 percent.
www.aakp.org /AAKP/RenalifeArt/2002/repeatedrejection.htm   (1102 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Transplant rejection
Transplant rejection is when a transplant recipient's immune system attacks a transplanted organ or tissue.
A biopsy of the transplanted organ can confirm that it is being rejected.
Suppressing the immune system is usually necessary for the rest of the transplant recipient's life to prevent the tissue from being rejected in the future.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/000815.htm   (736 words)

 Renal Transplant Evaluation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
On scintigraphy, chronic rejection is characterized by decreased perfusion, a decreased accumulation of activity (maximum counts or peak activity), normal to slightly delayed time to peak activity (5 to 7 minutes), and a moderately increased cortical retention at 20 minutes (although parenchymal transit and cortical retention may be normal).
Transplant patients with ATN generally lack the constitutional symptoms which are seen in acute transplant rejection.
Kidney-pancreas transplants are done with increasing frequency in patients with poorly controlled diabetes in an effort to restore normal endocrine function of the pancreas and prolong renal transplant survival (5 year graft survival is 80%).
www.indyrad.iupui.edu /public/lectures/HTML/nm-rm/NucMed/GU05.HTM   (1536 words)

 Introduction to Transplant Immunobiology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Since most transplants are done from genetically different donors, we must consider the immunological response of the recipient to the transplantation antigens presented by the donor graft.
Rejection can be mediated by antibodies, lymphocytes or both and can manifest itself in different ways: hyperacute rejection (during the early post-transplant period), acute rejection (may occur at any time) and chronic rejection (a slowly developing process causing a progressive decline in graft function).
In lung transplant patients, chronic rejection is manifested by a progressive obstructive disease of the airways, referred to as obliterative bronchiolitis.
tpis.upmc.edu /tpis/immuno/introT1.html   (2711 words)

 ► Transplant rejection
A consequence of organ or tissue transplantation caused by the transplant recipient's (host's) immune response to the transplanted organ/tissue which can damage or destroy it.
The presence of foreign blood or tissue in the body triggers an immune response that can result in blood transfusion reactions and transplant rejection when antibodies are formed against foreign antigens on the transplanted or transfused material.
Corneal transplants are rarely rejected because they have no blood supply, so lymphocytes and antibodies do not reach the cornea to cause rejection.
www.umm.edu /ency/article/000815.htm   (336 words)

 Liver Transplant Program - Rejection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Rejection is the immune system's normal and expected reaction to foreign matter in the body, including the transplanted liver.
Your transplant team uses the results of these tests to monitor the levels of medications in your blood, as well as to check for infections, signs of rejection and other medical conditions.
Most transplant recipients will experience some kind of rejection, but that does not mean that they will lose their new liver.
www.va.gov /portland/Transplant/liver/rejection.htm   (386 words)

 CHEST: Radionuclide Imaging of Acute Lung Transplant Rejection With Annexin V - )   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Graft loss after lung transplantation is usually caused by chronic rejection.[1-10] One of the major factors in the development of chronic rejection is the number and severity of episodes of acute rejection.
Acute rejection is primarily mediated[1] by apoptosis (programmed cell death) of pulmonary allografts induced by alloreactive host T lymphocytes.[11-14] T lymphocyte-induced apoptosis in acute rejection specifically targets the pulmonary vascular, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary allografts.
We have previously used radiolabeled annexin V to detect and quantify acute cardiac transplant rejection in heart grafts heterotopically placed in the abdomen of rats.[15-19] Annexin V is a human protein with a molecular weight of 36,000 that has a high affinity for cell or platelet membranes with externalized phosphatidylserine (PS).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0984/is_3_117/ai_61635219   (1205 words)

 eMedicine - Immunology of Transplant Rejection : Article by Randy P Prescilla, MD   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Transplantation immunology refers to an extensive sequence of events that occurs after an allograft or a xenograft is removed from a donor and then transplanted into a recipient.
Rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to the nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues.
In hyperacute rejection, transplant patients are serologically presensitized to alloantigens (ie, graft antigens are recognized as nonself).
www.emedicine.com /ped/topic2841.htm   (1331 words)

 Transplant Rejection Treatment
involved in rejection must differentiate and the antibodies in response to the allograft must be produced before rejection is initiated.
This form of rejection is characterized by endothelial activation and coagulation, causing cell damage, thrombosis and eventual graft rejection.
Acute vascular rejection is the main barrier to xenografts, and research is attempting to circumvent this new phenomena of rejection; however, currently even with heavy immunosupression, most pig to primate grafts fail within thirty days due to acute vascular rejection.
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BI108/BI108_2004_Groups/Group04/Rejection_overview.htm   (925 words)

 Pitt Campaign Chronicle: Radiation Could Reduce Small Intestine Transplant Rejection
Rejection was observed in only one patient of 13 in the study, reported a surgeon from the University of Pittsburgh Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute at Transplant 2001, the joint meeting of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Typically, 85 percent of patients receiving intestinal transplants — either alone, with the liver, or as a multivisceral graft — experience at least one episode of rejection within the first 30 days of transplantation.
When a donor intestine is transplanted, these donor immune cells are in such large numbers that they can either aggravate the recipient immune system to attack and reject the intestine or these donor cells can themselves attack the recipient’s organs and cause serious damage or even death.
www.umc.pitt.edu /media/pcc010521/reducerejection.html   (615 words)

 Organ Rejection: Liver Transplant Patient Guide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Rejection is an attempt by the immune system to attack the transplanted liver and destroy it.
To prevent rejection from occurring, a recovering patient must take immunosuppressive medications, as prescribed, for the rest of his life.
Rejections are usually controlled by changing the dosages of immunosuppressive medications or temporarily adding a new one.
www.surgery.usc.edu /divisions/hep/patientguide/rejection.html   (277 words)

 News: Fighting heart transplant rejection - myDNA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Rejection is one of the most common causes of death in the first year after heart transplantation.
Humoral rejection is caused by the body making antibodies that can attack the donor organ, which is similar to the way that antibodies attack other foreign objects such as viruses or other infectious agents.
In heart transplant recipients, humoral rejection has been reported to play a role in the donor heart becoming weak in the early post-transplant period, and to be a risk factor for the development of transplant coronary artery disease, which is one of the major factors limiting long-term survival.
www.mydna.com /health/heart/news/resources/news/200505/news_20050523_agecom.html   (649 words)

 CHFpatients.com - Heart Transplant - Organ Rejection
To lower the chances of transplant rejection, donors who share as many MHC genes as possible with the transplant recipient are preferred.
Even then, most transplant recipients are given lots of drugs to suppress their immune response and prevent organ rejection.
Transplant coordinators try to match histocompatibility antigens of the donor and the recipient as well as possible to minimize rejection.
www.chfpatients.com /tx/txrejection.htm   (2132 words)

 ENLmedical.com: Conditions And Concerns: Medical Encyclopedia: Transplant rejection
Suppression of the immune response is used for both treatment and prevention of transplant rejection.
The dosage may be very high during treatment of acute rejection episodes and then reduced to a lower "maintenance" dose to prevent rejection.
Monoclonal antibodies specifically reduce the activity of T lymphocytes, which are the primary immune system cells responsible for transplant rejection.
www.enlmedical.com /article/000815.htm   (490 words)

 Lung Transplant Rejection
Immune cells recognize the transplanted lung as different from the rest of the body and attempt to destroy it.
After transplant surgery, you are prescribed immunosuppressive drugs to "fool" your immune system into thinking your new lung is your own so it doesn't try to attack it.
In order to control the rejection, you might need to be admitted to the hospital, or you might receive care in an outpatient setting.
www.clevelandclinic.org /health/health-info/docs/2700/2722.asp?index=4377&src=news   (719 words)

 Liver transplant rejection
Rejection is an attempt by your immune system to attack the transplanted liver and destroy it.
This is known as ‘acute rejection’ and is treated quite successfully with a three day course of high dose steroids.
The suspected diagnosis of acute rejection is usually confirmed by a liver biopsy.
www.cambridge-transplant.org.uk /program/liver/liverrejection.htm   (226 words)

 New Therapy Could Block Transplant Rejection : Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Because of this, islet transplantation is not ready for use in all patients or in children because lifelong immune suppression would not be appropriate.
Usually, when the immune system perceives foreign matter (such as transplanted tissue), a specific population of T cells is activated and begins to multiply.
Based on the signals the cells receive in their environment, this activated population of T cells may either expand and carry out its function of rejection, or undergo an activation-induced cell death—a programmed self-destruction—known as apoptosis.
www.jdrf.org /index.cfm?page_id=100470   (669 words)

 CHFpatients.com - Heart Transplant - Updates
Rejection causes oxidative stress in the heart, which releases substances called alkanes in the breath.
Ten transplants and 5 years later, she and her colleagues are reporting a survival rate of 80%, which equals the rate using matched blood types.
One year and longer after transplant, there were 2 cases of rejection in the 13 remaining marrow patients versus 20 cases in the remaining 22 control patients.
www.chfpatients.com /tx/txextras.htm   (7400 words)

 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Heart transplant
Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure to remove a damaged or diseased heart and replace it with a healthy donor heart.
Drugs that prevent transplant rejection must be taken for the rest of the patient's life.
In heart transplantation, the healthy heart must come from a person who recently died or is on life-support and is brain dead.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/003003.htm   (649 words)

 Allergies increase risk for corneal transplant rejection, UT Southwestern study shows
This was in sharp contrast to the 50 percent rejection rate that occurred in the mice without allergic eye disease," said Dr.
The immune system is programmed to react to organ transplants by producing a specific pattern of proteins that promote a destructive immune response, which culminates in graft rejection.
Another group of mice served as a control group, and corneal grafts were rejected in 50 percent of them; however, all of the grafts were rejected in mice with ocular ragweed allergy.
www8.utsouthwestern.edu /utsw/cda/dept37389/files/225002.html   (608 words)

 IngentaConnect Long Term Management of Liver Transplant Rejection in Children
The current management of hepatic allograft rejection after liver transplantation in children requires effective baseline immunosuppression to prevent rejection and rapid diagnosis and treatment to manage acute rejection episodes.
The subsequent impact on chronic rejection is dependent on the combination of adequate prevention and the treatment of acute rejection.
Although most episodes of acute cellular rejection occur during the first 6 weeks after liver transplant, the appearance of late acute liver allograft rejection must raise the question of noncompliance, especially in the adolescent population.
www.ingentaconnect.com /content/adis/bio/2000/00000014/00000001/art00004   (394 words)

 Clinical Trial: Study of Heart Transplant Rejection
Acute and chronic heart transplant rejection may be caused by certain substances the body produces in response to the new heart.
Clinically, the symptoms of acute rejection are relatively nonspecific (fatigue, dyspnea, fever).
Adult heart transplant centers exclude infants, toddlers, and children with a physiologic age less than 12, and adults with advanced physiologic age (less than 65), however, for our study we will exclude heart transplant patients less than 18 years of age.
clinicaltrials.gov /ct/gui/show/NCT00042614   (1151 words)

 Early Warning Sign Predicts Heart Transplant Rejection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The researchers found the marker molecules during routine endomyocardial biopsy specimens performed to monitor the patients for transplant rejection.
Of the 121 heart transplant patients studied, 78 were found to be positive for the presence of the two marker molecules in their coronary arteries and 43 were negative.
The researcher say early detection of transplant hearts prone to coronary artery disease is essential to institute new therapeutic approaches that can increase the success rates of transplants.
www.pslgroup.com /dg/3d2ea.htm   (412 words)

 UpToDate Chronic lung transplant rejection: Bronchiolitis obliterans
The clinical syndrome of chronic rejection and the infectious complications related to its treatment are the major sources of late morbidity and mortality after transplantation [1].
Chronic rejection is classified pathologically as either chronic vascular rejection or chronic airway rejection [2].
Chronic airway rejection, which can be identified histologically by the presence of bronchiolitis obliterans, is the more common and morbid of the two types of rejection [3].
patients.uptodate.com /topic.asp?file=lungtran/4394   (444 words)

 FDA Approves Rapamune To Prevent Kidney Transplant Rejection   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
To help reduce the risk of organ rejection, transplant patients are given a life-long regimen of immunosuppressant agents.
Immunosuppressant drugs are necessary after organ transplants because the human body is designed to reject cells that are foreign and perceived to be potentially dangerous, such as a transplanted organ.
In one of the largest transplant studies ever conducted in the United States involving 700 kidney transplant patients, researchers compared the efficacy of Rapamune (2 mg/day and 5 mg/day) versus azathioprine.
www.pslgroup.com /dg/12c216.htm   (889 words)

 New Scientist Breaking News - Duped cells may prevent transplant rejection
Fooling the human immune system into accepting foreign transplant tissue as its own may be the key to future stem cell and organ transplants, say experts.
However, the transplant of stem cells not produced from the recipients own cells are likely to pose the same problems with tissue rejection as conventional organ transplants.
Though organ transplants now have a high success rate for up to five years, with the help of immunosuppressive drugs, "the rate of loss of tissue grafts after five years has not improved since the 1980s”, Dalman notes.
www.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=dn7986&feedId=online-news_rss20   (660 words)

 Preventing Transplant Rejection: Healthy For Life from the Eyewitness News Newsroom
Transplant surgeon Dominic Borie is studying this new compound in animals to reduce the risk of rejection.
After recovering from one life-threatening rejection incident already, Melinda is grateful for the research.
A transplant offers a second chance at life for most recipients, but with that new organ comes a new set of problems: transplant rejection.
www.wchstv.com /newsroom/healthyforlife/2226.shtml   (1170 words)

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