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Topic: Treaty of Moscow

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  Moscow Treaty
This Treaty shall remain in force until December 31, 2012 and may be extended by agreement of the Parties or superseded earlier by a subsequent agreement.
The Moscow Treaty is one important element of a new strategic framework, which involves a broad array of cooperative efforts in political, economic and security areas.
Paragraph 2 of Article IV provides that the Moscow Treaty shall remain in force until December 31, 2012 and may be extended by agreement of the Parties or superseded earlier by a subsequent agreement.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/18016.htm   (11090 words)

 Outer Space Treaty
The Outer Space Treaty, as it is known, was the second of the so-called "nonarmament" treaties; its concepts and some of its provisions were modeled on its predecessor, the Antarctic Treaty.
States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident, distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the high seas.
This Treaty, of which the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/5181.htm   (2522 words)

 Moscow Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The treaty can be extended by agreement of the parties beyond 31 December 2012, or be superseded by a subsequent agreement before this date.
Russia was not able to establish a limitation in the treaty of US plans for missile defence systems: The preamble merely refers to the Joint Statements that both presidents made in Genoa on 22 July 2001, according to which there is a connection between talks on offensive and defensive systems.
However, in the Moscow Joint Declaration, both sides agree that they will strengthen their cooperation in the area of missile defence by exchanging information on missile defence programmes and tests and by allowing observers to conduct reciprocal visits to observe missile defence tests, with the aim of building trust and increasing transparency.
www.auswaertiges-amt.de /www/en/aussenpolitik/friedenspolitik/abr_und_r/moskauer_vertrag_html   (960 words)

 The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty: A Strategic Shift in Eurasia?
This treaty is the first such agreement between these two Eurasian powers since Mao Tse-tung signed a treaty with Joseph Stalin of the U.S.S.R. in 1950, four months before the outbreak of the Korean War.
The treaty should signal to the Western world that a major geopolitical shift may be taking place in the Eurasian balance of power, with serious implications for the United States and its alliances.
The recent institutionalization of the SCO demonstrates that Moscow and Beijing hope to be the decisionmakers in Central Asia, possibly to the exclusion of Turkey, Iran, and the United States.
www.heritage.org /Research/RussiaandEurasia/BG1459.cfm   (4765 words)

 Powell Urges Quick Senate Action on Moscow Treaty, July 9, 2002
The United States intends to implement the Treaty by reducing its operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads to between 1700 and 2200 through removal of warheads from missiles in their launchers and from heavy bomber bases, and by removing some missiles, launchers, and bombers from operational service.
The Moscow Treaty thus allows greater flexibility for each side to respond to unforeseen circumstances, whether those circumstances are technical problems in the stockpile, changes in the international environment, or the emergence of new threats.
The Preambles to both the Moscow Treaty and the Joint Declaration on the New Strategic Relationship Between the United States and Russia state that this new relationship will be based on a number of principles, including mutual security, trust, openness, cooperation and predictability.
www.usembassy.it /file2002_07/alia/a2070905.htm   (5397 words)

 Moscow Treaty
The Moscow Treaty was made possible because of rest from enemies and the unity between the two countries.
The ceremony for signing the Moscow Treaty featured Bush and Putin side-by-side, which corresponded to the witness of the weather elephants and represented a witness.
Milwaukee is in the region of Naphtali, the doe and symbol of peace, which points to the Moscow Treaty, a type of peace treaty.
www.biblenews1.com /history2/20020524.htm   (1361 words)

 CCC - New Arms Pact and the Post-Cold War Arms Agenda
In contrast to earlier treaties, the agreement allows both sides complete freedom to choose the types and mix of delivery vehicles on which their permitted warheads will be deployed.
What is significant about the Moscow Treaty, therefore, is not so much the numbers as the fact that Bush and Putin successfully closed the deal.
If the Moscow summit and its agreements have set the United States and Russia on a course of improved relations, then there may be opportunities in the future for follow-up talks on nuclear arms control.
www.ccc.nps.navy.mil /si/july02/nukes.asp   (1833 words)

 USATODAY.com - Putin calls U.S. decision on ABM treaty 'mistake'   (Site not responding. Last check: )
President Bush gave Moscow formal notice on Thursday that Washington was withdrawing from the treaty, marking an end to attempts to negotiate a compromise with Russia.
The ABM treaty prohibits the development, testing and deployment of strategic missile defense systems and components that are based in the air, at sea or in space.
But Bush contends that the treaty is a relic of the Cold War and a roadblock to mounting a U.S. defense against missile attack.
www.usatoday.com /news/world/2001/12/13/russia.htm   (537 words)

 USCCB - Moscow Treaty on Strategic Offensive Reductions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops welcomes the new treaty on strategic nuclear weapons, and prays that will not be seen as an end but as one of many steps that must be taken if we are to achieve the goal of a mutual, verifiable global ban on nuclear weapons.
Our perspective on this treaty is derived from our moral analysis of the nuclear predicament which the world has faced for more than half a century.
Finally, this treaty and U.S. nuclear policy generally must be connected to the special responsibility of the United States and other nuclear powers to use their influence and resources to lead in the construction of a more just and stable international order.
www.usccb.org /sdwp/international/tstjul23.htm   (1267 words)

 NPT Treaty
Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.
Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realised.
This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by the States, the Governments of which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty other States signatory to this Treaty and the deposit of their instruments of ratification.
www.un.org /events/npt2005/npttreaty.html   (1462 words)

 Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on the Treaty of Moscow - Carnegie Endowment for International ...
That is why I welcome the Moscow Treaty: it is a statement at the highest level, in treaty form, of the continued commitment of the United States and Russia to control and reduce nuclear weapons, and it lends momentum to that process.
The Treaty, in Article III, calls upon the Parties to meet at least twice a year on implementation issues; it is silent on the need to develop further transparency measures.
However, the Moscow Treaty does employ a flexible approach that might be helpful as a concept to consider in the context of warhead control.
www.carnegieendowment.org /publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=1073   (4403 words)

 The text of the Moscow Peace Treaty, 12 March 1940
Within the days from the date this treaty enters into effect, the government of Finland shall withdraw all its military forces from Hanko Cape, which together with its adjoining islands shall be transferred to the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R. in accordance with this article of the treaty.
As provided in the treaty of 1920, the Soviet Union and its citizens are granted the right of free transit across the Petsamo area to Norway and back, in addition to which the Soviet Union is granted the right to establish a consulate in the Petsamo area.
Upon the coming into force of this treaty economic relations between the contracting parties shall be restored, and with this end in view the contracting parties shall enter into negotiations for the conclusion of a trade agreement.
www.winterwar.com /War'sEnd/moscow_peace_treaty.htm   (876 words)

 Disarmament Documentation: US Senate Approves Moscow Treaty, March 6   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Treaty was approved by the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee on February 5, and by the full Senate on March 6 by a vote of 95 to 0.
The Moscow Treaty helps lay to rest the legacies of Cold War competition and suspicion, and marks a fundamentally new era in relations between the United States and Russia.
The Moscow Treaty, negotiated by Presidents Bush and Putin in May 2002, reduces operationally-deployed strategic nuclear warheads to a level of between 1,700 and 2,200 by December 31, 2012.
www.acronym.org.uk /textonly/docs/0303/doc03.htm   (1016 words)

 Transcript: Powell Says Moscow Treaty Consistent with Previous Treaties
And President Putin, when responding to our notification that we were leaving the treaty, made a similar statement with respect to the reduction that he would be undertaking.
And then after a period of intense discussion and negotiation, we came up with the treaty that was signed yesterday, which moves operationally deployed warheads down from their levels of roughly 5,000 to 6,000 now, down to 1,700 to 2,200.
I might point out that all previous arms control treaties were of the same type -- they didn't deal with the stockpile elimination, they dealt with either launchers or systems.
www.usembassy-israel.org.il /publish/peace/archives/2002/may/052606.html   (4048 words)

 Bush, Putin Certify Moscow Treaty
The second was near Harrison, Nebraska at 42 N., for Baal, the bear, and Russia, and 103 W., for the Justice of the Holy Spirit in 2003.
The waterspouts represented the Moscow Treaty because Florida is responsible for air and sea defense.
The waterspouts in the Florida Keys pointed to the Moscow Treaty as well as the Road Map for peace, both of which are Satanic attacks upon the Sovereign Design of God.
www.biblenews1.com /history3/20030601.htm   (886 words)

 DefenseLINK News: Rumsfeld Asks Senate to Support Nuke Reduction Treaty   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Moscow Treaty calls on the United States and Russia to reduce offensive nuclear arsenals to between 1,700 and 2,200 warheads over the next decade.
The defense secretary contrasted the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of 1991 with the Moscow Treaty.
Rumsfeld also addressed the complaint that, because the Moscow Treaty does not contain a requirement to destroy warheads, it is somehow reversible "and therefore not real." No other agreement has required the destruction of warheads, he said.
www.defenselink.mil /news/Jul2002/n07172002_200207172.html   (817 words)

 NRDC: The Moscow Treaty's Hidden Flaws
The treaty's voluntary, self-imposed "limit" on operationally deployed strategic weapons excludes strategic nuclear systems that are being overhauled, but the treaty contains no corresponding cap on the number of deployed warheads that may be claimed to be in overhaul at any given time.
The Moscow Treaty does not mandate the elimination of a single nuclear missile silo, submarine, missile, warhead, bomber or bomb.
The combination of the treaty's nonbinding character with the Bush administration's new doctrine of preemptive and preventive attacks -- including tactical nuclear strikes against deeply buried and "agent defeat" targets in non-nuclear weapon states -- amounts to a failure to comply with U.S. obligations under Article VI of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT).
www.nrdc.org /nuclear/moscow/moscflaw.asp   (842 words)

 CNS - The Duma Ratifies the Moscow Treaty
Ratification of the Moscow Treaty was tentatively rescheduled for May 16,[7] but unofficial sources talked even about June, probably reflecting Moscow's expectations for the duration of the military operation in Iraq.
The last-minute attempt by the Communist Party on the morning of May 14 to drop the Moscow Treaty from the agenda failed,[9] and the treaty was ratified during the afternoon session.
Ratification of the Moscow Treaty by the Duma was widely expected and, in a sense, inevitable given the high interest of the government, including and especially President Putin, in that treaty.
cns.miis.edu /pubs/reports/sort.htm   (1651 words)

The committee's chairman, Senator Joseph Biden (D-Delaware), and the panel's vice chairman, Senator Richard Lugar (R-Indiana), praised the thrust of the treaty, but they cited flaws, particularly the lack of a provision requiring both the United States and Russia to destroy the warheads that are decommissioned.
This was not reassuring to Lugar, who said he preferred language in the treaty requiring verification that decommissioned warheads are either destroyed or stored where they cannot be stolen by unscrupulous Russian scientists or military officials and sold to the highest bidder.
He also pointed out that no previous treaty with the Soviet Union had language requiring the destruction of warheads, so the Moscow Treaty does not require it, either.
www.rferl.org /features/2002/07/10072002151859.asp   (1013 words)

 Putin Will Not Introduce Peace Treaty During Japan Visit — FM - NEWS - MOSNEWS.COM   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Preparation for the visit does not include work on a peace treaty between Moscow and Tokyo to formally end World War Two hostilities that is still unsigned because of a dispute over a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, Lavrov said.
Tokyo has refused to sign a treaty unless Moscow agrees to return four rocky islands the Soviet Union seized in the closing days of the war.
Moscow has said it is ready to negotiate the return of two of the islands, known in Russia as the Southern Kuriles and as the Northern Territories in Japan.
mosnews.com /news/2005/07/14/nopeacetreaty.shtml   (772 words)

By calling for ratification during de Hoop Scheffer’s visit, Moscow is signaling that it plans to raise this issue at the OSCE’s upcoming year-end ministerial conference in Brussels on December 3-4, hoping to break the linkage between ratification of the CFE Treaty and fulfillment of Russia’s Istanbul Commitments regarding the South Caucasus and Moldova.
Russia is eager for ratification of the adapted treaty in order to extend its applicability to the territories of the Baltic states, which are not covered by the existing treaty’s ceilings on force deployments.
Moscow’s main argument -- as presented during de Hoop Scheffer’s visit -- claims that Russia has fulfilled all of its 1999 obligations by signing the agreements with Georgia to close the Batumi and Akhalkalaki bases and withdraw the Russian troops stationed there by the end of 2008.
www.jamestown.org /edm/article.php?article_id=2371595   (823 words)

 Russia: Moscow Says CFE Treaty May Be Outdated - RADIO FREE EUROPE / RADIO LIBERTY   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The 1989 CFE treaty placed specific limits on the number of troops, tanks, aircraft, and other weapons, which NATO and the Warsaw Pact could maintain in any part of Europe.
NATO countries argue that an updated version of the CFE treaty agreed in Istanbul in 1999 called for the withdrawal of these military units and their weapons.
Ivanov told the conference that Moscow views these 1999 agreements as political commitments that have nothing to do with the CFE treaty itself.
www.rferl.org /featuresarticle/2004/2/7C5F5764-4341-4626-9238-116E401D41C7.html   (739 words)

 CDI Russia Weekly #234
The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT, or the Treaty of Moscow) signed by U.S. president George W. Bush and Russian president Vladimir Putin during their Moscow/St. Petersburg summit in May 2002, marks the de facto end of traditional U.S.-Russian negotiated strategic arms control.
In sharp contrast to previous agreements, the Moscow Treaty is very short (only three pages long) and it does not contain any definitions of what exactly should be reduced.
The Treaty of Moscow provides both sides with a solution to their most pressing needs in strategic nuclear and missile defense areas.
www.cdi.org /russia/234-9-pr.cfm   (1393 words)

 State Duma Condemns CFE Treaty - Kommersant Moscow
Inked in 1990 by 22 states of the Warsaw Treaty and NATO, the CFE Treaty imposed limits on the strength of troops and military machinery in Europe.
But the transition of some Warsaw Treaty members to NATO created a sort of disbalance, and an Agreement on Adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe with limits specified not for the blocs but for the states was sealed in Istanbul in November 1999.
Russia’s President Vladimir Putin held up the CFE Treaty in mid.-June and brought in to the State Duma the bill on its suspension on July 27.
www.kommersant.com /p806384/CFE_Treaty_moratorium   (364 words)

 CNN Cold War - First Draft: Pravda
"Scratch an opponent of the Moscow Treaty and you will often find close ties to the arms manufacturers and militarists." Obviously, it is not without purpose that the daily newspapers have recently been playing up the bellicose Senator Goldwater as no less than a reserve major-general.
It is not for nothing that he is trying to "supplement" the Moscow treaty of peace with his own kind of "pact" between Congress and the White House on intensifying the arms race.
For anyone who entertains even the slightest doubts about the importance of the Moscow treaty for peace-loving peoples, it is useful to know who is opposing it in the U.S.A. These are the flest, the most "rabid" forces of imperialism, driven by the knights of war profits.
edition.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/12/1st.draft/pravda.html   (868 words)

 U.S.-Russia Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (see Moscow Treaty)
Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation On Strategic Offensive Reductions (The Moscow Treaty)
This Treaty shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Party.
ARTICLE-BY-ARTICLE ANALYSIS OF THE TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ON STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE REDUCTIONSThe Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions, signed at Moscow on May 24, 2002 (the Moscow Treaty) consists of a Preamble and five Articles.
www.state.gov /t/ac/trt/10527.htm   (11079 words)

 Vatican-Moscow Treaty
The existence of this Vatican-Moscow Treaty helps to explain certain ecclesiastical oddities, such as Cardinal Sodano’s May 13th Fatima address, in which the word “Russia” is mysteriously missing but replaced with the vague, politically correct phrase “communist regime.” Of course, Our Lady at Fatima used the word “Russia”, not communist regime.
Essentially, the rationale of the Vatican-Moscow Treaty is that of rejecting divine wisdom in favor of human prudence.
Therefore, this Treaty must be rescinded, as Jesus said, “for only in that way shall you have a true peace.” The rescinding of this Treaty is also necessary to pave the way for the consecration of Russia by the Pope and all the bishops of the world.
www.tldm.org /news/vatican_moscow_treaty.htm   (4591 words)

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