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Topic: Treaty of Westphalia


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  Westphalia - LoveToKnow 1911
The triangular southern portion of Westphalia, most of which is included in Sauerland ("south land"), is a rugged region of slate hills and wooded valleys drained chiefly by the Ruhr with its affluents the Lenne, Mohne, andc., and in the S. by the Sieg and Eder.
Thus the former duchy of Westphalia and the bishoprics of Munster and Paderborn which remained in ecclesiastical hands are almost entirely Roman Catholic, while the secularized bishopric of Minden and the former counties of Ravensberg and Mark, which fell or had fallen to Brandenburg, and the Siegen district, which belonged to Nassau, are predominantly Protestant.
Westphalia, "the western plain" (in early records Westfalahi), was originally the name of the western province of the early duchy of Saxony, including the western portion of the modern province and extending north to the borders of Friesland.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Westphalia   (1513 words)

  
 The Treaty of Westphalia, by Helga Zepp LaRouche
The Peace of Westphalia, when all the war parties came together, was the first time that a European community of sovereign states was established.
The Treaty of the Peace of Westphalia states that peace is the highest goal of the community of states.
But, I think that the conclusion of the Thirty Years War, and the Peace Treaty of Westphalia, were a gigantic step forward in international law, and also for another reason: that the amount of the destruction made necessary the role of the state in economic reconstruction.
www.schillerinstitute.org /strategic/hzl_t_of_w_0599.html   (1271 words)

  
  Peace of Westphalia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Known also as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, The Peace of Westphalia is the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War and officially recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation.
The Treaty of the Pyrenees ending the war between France and Spain is also often considered part of the treaty.
It is often said that the Peace of Westphalia initiated the modern fashion of diplomacy as it marked the beginning of the modern system of nation-states (or "Westphalian states").
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Peace_of_Westphalia   (960 words)

  
 Westphalia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Westphalia (in German Westfalen) is a (historic) region in Germany centred on the cities of Münster Bielefeld and Osnabrück and now included in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia (and the (south-)west of Lower Saxony).
Originally Westphalia was a part of the of Saxony until it was elevated to the of a duchy by emperor Barbarossa in 1180.
Westphalia is known for the 1648 Peace of Westphalia (in fact the two treaties of and Osnabrück) which ended the Thirty Years' War.
www.freeglossary.com /Westphalia   (444 words)

  
 Treaty of Versailles -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
At the Treaty of Versailles it was difficult to decide on a common position, because each had been treated differently by Germany during the war.
Secret treaties were also to be discouraged, and Britain and France greeted a reduction in armaments by all nations with disapproval.
However, the reparations were a failure in retrospect as well from the view that Germany made money off the treaty, as she did not repay most of her foreign loans in the 20s and did not complete her indemnity payments.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/tr/treaty_of_versailles.htm   (1906 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Westphalia
Westphalia, as has already been said, was only a part of Saxony, and in about the year 900 Saxony was made a duchy, after Ludolf, the ancestor of the ducal house, had been made a margrave in 850 during the reign of Louis the German.
In 1648 Brandenburg-Prussia received by the Treaty of Westphalia the Diocese of Minden, in 1702 the Countship of Lingen by inheritance from the line of Orange, and in 1707 the Countship of Tecklenburg by purchase.
The eastern section of Westphalia was made, in conjunction with territories taken from Prussia, Hesse, Hanover, and Brunswick, into the Kingdom of Westphalia, the name of which was a misnomer, as the larger part of the new kingdom was composed of lands that were not Westphalian.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/15601b.htm   (3532 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Peace of Westphalia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League on September 25, 1555 at the city of Augsburg in Germany.
The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4...
The Peace of Westphalia See also: Peace of Westphalia It was the exploits of Axel Oxenstierna and Johan Banér which alone enabled Sweden to obtain even what she did obtain at the great Peace of Westphalia congress in 1648.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Peace-of-Westphalia   (2588 words)

  
 TREATY OF WESTPHALIA:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
TREATY OF WESTPHALIA - LoveToKnow Article on TREATY OF WESTPHALIA - TREATY OF WESTPHALIA WESTPHALIA, TREATY OF, a collective name given to the two treaties concluded on the 24th of October 1648 by the empire with France at Mflnster and with Sweden and the Protestant.
The Treaty of Westphalia, by Helga Zepp LaRouche - But, I think that the conclusion of the Thirty Years War, and the Peace Treaty of Westphalia, were a gigantic step forward in international law, and also for another reason: that the amount of the.
Treaty of Wesphalia (1648) - and war, and the natural development of German national unity was delayed.
www.washingtonattorney123.com /Treaty_of_Westphalia   (1437 words)

  
 Treaty of Wesphalia (1648)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Peace of Westphalia confirmed the Peace of Augsburg (1555), which had granted Lutherans religious tolerance in the empire and which had been rescinded by the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II in his Edict of Restitution (1629).
The declaration that all protests or vetoes of the Peace of Westphalia by whomsoever pronounced should be null and void dealt a blow at the intervention of the Roman Curia in German affairs.
The treaty was recognized as a fundamental law of the German constitution and formed the basis of all subsequent treaties until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
www.hfac.uh.edu /gbrown/philosophers/leibniz/BritannicaPages/WestphaliaTreaty/WestphaliaTreaty.html   (912 words)

  
 Peace Of Westphalia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by [[Gerard Terborch
The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War, the Eighty Years' War, and "officially" recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation.
The treaty was signed October 24 1648, and meant an end to the long conflict between Catholic and Protestant forces.
www.wikiverse.org /peace-of-westphalia   (561 words)

  
 SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Treaty of Westphalia
The 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty-Years War, also ended the millennial domination of the ideal of universal empire and creed, personified in the priest-king, god-king or divine emperor...
In 1648 the negotiators of the Treaty of Westphalia adopted the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, the religion of the ruler is the religion of the state.
In 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia created the modern nation state and enshrined the concept of the sanctity of its sovereignty.
news.surfwax.com /history/files/Treaty_of_Westphalia.html   (1321 words)

  
 Peace of Westphalia - dKosopedia
The Peace was possible by a the signing of a series of treaties culminating with the Treaty of Westphalia on October 24 1648.
The provisions of the Treaty of Westphalia recognizing the individual sovereignty of the German states is usually credited with ending the relevance of the Holy Roman Empire (of which they were part).
The Peace of Westphalia established the suppremacy of states in the international arena and is widely believed to be the first community of nations in Europe, and thus the point of origin for all other European multilateral agreements.
www.dkosopedia.com /index.php?title=Peace_of_Westphalia&printable=yes   (137 words)

  
 Treaty of Westphalia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to theseries of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War, the Eighty Years'War, and "officially" recognized the United Provinces and Swiss Confederation.
The treaty was signed October 24, 1648, and meant an end to the longconflict between Catholic and Protestant forces.
The two locations were needed as the Protestant and Catholic leaders refused to meet each other.The Treaty of the Pyrenees ending the war betweenFrance and Spain is also often considered part of the treaty.
www.therfcc.org /treaty-of-westphalia-5131.html   (400 words)

  
 WESTPHALIA, TREATY OF - Online Information article about WESTPHALIA, TREATY OF
A preliminary treaty embodying this proposal was concluded between the representatives of the emperor, France and Sweden at Hamburg on the 25th of See also:
The treaty was signed at Munster by the members of both conventions on the 24th of October 1648, and ratifications were exchanged on the 8th of February 1649.
law of the German constitution, and formed the basis of all subsequent treaties until the dissolution of the empire.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /WAT_WIL/WESTPHALIA_TREATY_OF.html   (2240 words)

  
 Edwin Ginn Library-Multilaterals Project
Although the project was initiated to improve public access to environmental agreements, the collection today also includes treaties in the fields of human rights, commerce and trade, laws of war and arms control, and other areas.
Most of the texts date from 1945 or later, but the collection also includes historical texts, from the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia to the Covenant of the League of Nations.
Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate prepared by the Congressional Research Service, January 2001.
fletcher.tufts.edu /multilaterals.html   (203 words)

  
 Home Page
The concept of the state began in the fourteenth century but it was not until the Peace, or Treaty, of Westphalia in 1648 that sovereign states emerged in an international community.
The reason treaties are now the most important source of international law is their beneficial characteristics.
Treaties are enforceable and derive their legitimacy because a state must agree to join in the contractual responsibilities to the environment.
psclasses.ucdavis.edu /pol122/WR02/BH/indivassign.html   (1286 words)

  
 Citizens Electoral Council of Australia
The basis of the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, was the principle of The Advantage of the Other—a moral principle which had the power to completely transform the politics of the Age, to effectively rule a permanent and irreversible line under all prior conflicts, strife, and injustices and to invoke the true Christian idea of forgiveness.
The Treaty of Westphalia was signed in Munster for the Catholics and in Osnabruck for the Protestants on Oct 24, 1648 and occurred at the mid-point of a 300-year long struggle for the idea of national sovereignty.
The Treaty of Westphalia was based instead, on a political and moral principle of gratuitous and benevolent conduct aimed specifically at eliminating suspicion, and therefore, at eradicating the very source of misunderstanding and war.
www.cecaust.com.au /main.asp?sub=culture&id=Westphalia.htm   (1321 words)

  
 ::The Peace of Westphalia::
The Thirty Years War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia which was referred to as the "Peace of Exhaustion" by contemporaries.
The Peace of Westphalia was not one specific treaty but rather a collection of treaties commonly linked by the fact that they brought the Thirty Years War to an end.
The French persuaded Ferdinand III to exclude Spain from the peace negotiations but the United Provinces and Spain did sign a peace settlement at Munster in 1648 thus bringing to an end 80 years of hostility between the Spanish government and the Dutch commonly known as the Revolt of the Netherlands.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /peace_of_westphalia.htm   (632 words)

  
 Treaty of Westphalia - Global Policy Forum - Nations and States   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
That the Annual Pension of the Lower Marquisate, payable to the Upper Marquisate, according to former Custom, shall by virtue of the present Treaty be intirely taken away and annihilated; and that for the future nothing shall be pretended or demanded on that account, either for the time past or to come.
That the Contracts, Exchanges, Transactions, Obligations, Treatys, made by Constraint or Threats, and extorted illegally from States or Subjects (as in particular, those of Spiers complain, and those of Weisenburg on the Rhine, those of Landau, Reitlingen, Hailbron, and others) shall be so annull'd and abolish'd, that no more Enquiry shall be made after them.
In this present Treaty of Peace are comprehended such, who before the Exchange of the Ratification or in six months after, shall be nominated by general Consent, by the one or the other Party; mean time by a common Agreement, the Republick of Venice is therein compriz'd as Mediatrix of this Treaty.
www.globalpolicy.org /nations/nature/westphalia.htm   (3503 words)

  
 Peace of Westphalia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The peace negotiations were after initial talks held in the cities of Münster and Osnabrück, which lie about 50 km apart in the present day state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Treaty texts (http://www.pax-westphalica.de) The texts of the Westphalian Treaties (IPO and IPM) and some translations (German, French, English, Italian, Spanish, Swedish).
High resolution map of Germany after the Treaty of Westphalia (http://bss.sfsu.edu/jacksonc/germany_1648.htm)
www.eastcleveland.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Treaty_of_Westphalia   (985 words)

  
 PS101 Case Study: Treaty of Westphalia, 1648
When the treaty was finally signed by the last holdout, the Austrian Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor, in October 1648, the result was a major change in international relations: the creation of the sovereign state as the primary actor in international relations.
The treaty itself was a breakthrough; unlike previous treaties of two or three signatories, this had two hundred states participating.
Indeed, the concept of sovereignty which was born of the Treaty of Westphalia was initially synonymous with the person of the sovereign, the king, queen, prince, or duke.
www.iup.edu /politicalscience/courses/ps101/d-westph.htm   (2206 words)

  
 The Hungarian Quarterly, VOLUME XLIV * No. 171 * Autumn 2003
What was generally expected of the Treaty of Westphalia all over Europe was that the Christian countries would make up their differences and, uniting their forces, would turn against the Ottomans.
Since the Treaty of Westphalia had limited the power of the Holy Roman Emperor over the German principalities, the Habsburgs, in the spirit of absolutism, fortified their positions, building up an integrated empire in keeping with raison d'état, ragion di stato notions.
The Peace Treaty of Szatmár (Satu Mare) was a compromise; it prolonged Habsburg rule in Hungary and the existence of the feudal national institutions of the Kingdom of Hungary.
www.hungarianquarterly.com /no171/12.html   (1495 words)

  
 [No title]
That the Annual Pension of the Lower Marquisate, payable to the Upper Marquisate, according to former Custom, shall by virtue of the present Treaty be intirely taken away and annihilated; and that for the future nothing shall be pretended or demanded on that account, either for the time past or to come.
That the Contracts, Exchanges, Transactions, Obligations, Treatys, made by Constraint or Threats, and extorted illegally from States or Subjects (as in particular, those of Spiers complain, and those of Weisenburg on the Rhine, those of Landau, Reitlingen, Hailbron, and others) shall be so annull'd and abolish'd, that no more Enquiry shall be made after them.
In this present Treaty of Peace are comprehended such, who before the Exchange of the Ratification or in six months after, shall be nominated by general Consent, by the one or the other Party; mean time by a common Agreement, the Republick of Venice is therein compriz'd as Mediatrix of this Treaty.
fletcher.tufts.edu /multi/texts/historical/westphalia.txt   (3472 words)

  
 [No title]
The settlement reached in the Treaty, however, was ruined by the French decision to directly intervene in the war.
The Treaty of Westphalia proved the success of Richelieu in achieving his goals.
The Treaties of Westphalia and Pyrenees established France as the predominant power in Europe.
www.geocities.com /lilnuttygrl/ch12cardinalrichelieu.doc   (1050 words)

  
 The Peace of Westphalia
But the content of this treaty, which is credited with establishing the sovereignty of the nation-state, as opposed to the era of empires, has been a matter of agitated debate among international political leaders.
In the Peace Treaty of Westphalia, it was first declared that Europe was ``a community of nations.'' This treaty, which constituted the formal end of the war, was signed in October 1648, in the cities Osnabruck and Munster.
The end is the most problematic part of the treaty, because of the paragraphs about the right of the signators to intervene against every attempt to ``break the peace.'' These paragraphs would later be cited by all aggressor nations when they wanted to justify their wars on German soil.
www.aboutsudan.com /democracy/peace_process/westphalia.htm   (5404 words)

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