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Topic: Trench warfare


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  First World War.com - Feature Articles - Life in the Trenches
In busy sectors the constant shellfire directed by the enemy brought random death, whether their victims were lounging in a trench or lying in a dugout (many men were buried as a consequence of such large shell-bursts).
It was a fungal infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and unsanitary trench conditions.
Trench Foot was more of a problem at the start of trench warfare; as conditions improved in 1915 it rapidly faded, although a trickle of cases continued throughout the war.
www.firstworldwar.com /features/trenchlife.htm   (1781 words)

  
  Bombthrowers - LoveToKnow 1911
Eventually this need was met by the development of trench mortars and trench guns, many types of which were loosely called bombthrowers, but all of which are differentiated from bombthrowers in the sense here meant by the fact that they used an explosive propellant.
But in the first phases of trench warfare such ordnance either did not exist at all or existed only in such small numbers and in so imperfect a form, that for the needs of day-byday trench warfare along the front temporary substitutes were evolved.
In naval usage, on the contrary, the term is applied to explosive-propellant derivatives of trench ordnance which were mounted on trawlers and other craft for the purpose of attacking submarines.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /Bombthrowers   (1698 words)

  
 Trench Warfare - MSN Encarta
Trenches were dug along battlefield fronts, and the resulting trench warfare created a stalemate that lasted for most of the war.
Trench warfare involved different types of trenches, such as firing trenches, cover trenches, supply trenches, and communication trenches.
Firing trenches, from which troops fired weapons at the enemy, were backed up by cover trenches, which provided a second line of defense in case enemy troops overran the firing trench.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761585472/Trench_Warfare.html   (492 words)

  
 Tommy's life in the trenches
The trenches were the domain of the infantry, with the supporting arms of the mortars and machine-guns, the engineers and the forward positions of the artillery observers.
This photograph of a soldier of the 5th Scottish Rifles in the flooded trenches near Armentieres in the winter of 1914-15 is used with the kind permission of Donna Smillie, and is from her excellent website Different Worlds.
Troops in the trenches were also subjected to the weather: the winter of 1916-1917 in France and Flanders was the coldest in living memory; the trenches flooded in the wet, sometimes to waist height, whenever it rained.
www.1914-1918.net /intrenches.htm   (1829 words)

  
 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense.
Trench warfare arose when there was a revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility and communications.
The fundamental purpose of the aircraft in trench warfare was reconnaissance and artillery observation.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Trench_warfare   (9083 words)

  
 1918 - Trench Warfare
Trench warfare created a living environment for the men which was harsh, stagnant and extremely dangerous.
Apart from the inescapable cold during the winters in France, trenches were often completely waterlogged and muddy, and crawling with lice and rats.
Diseases such as trench fever (an infection caused by louse faeces), trench nephritis (an inflammation of the kidneys), and trench foot (the infection and swelling of feet exposed to long periods of dampness and cold, sometimes leading to amputation) became common medical problems, and caused significant losses of manpower.
www.awm.gov.au /1918/trenchwarfare   (266 words)

  
 Trench Warfare - MSN Encarta
Trenches were often waterlogged and infested with rats.
Soldiers have continued to dig-in under fire, such as in the Falklands War of 1982, but trench warfare has all but vanished because of the emergence of advanced land weaponry such as mobile rocket launchers and improved armoured vehicles, and the combination of these with air attacks on land forces.
In the 1991 Gulf War the Iraqi trenches were easily breached or outflanked by the Coalition’s tanks and armoured infantry.
uk.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_781539542_2/Trench_Warfare.html   (161 words)

  
 Trench Warfare
Trenches were a new phenomenon to both the soldiers and the Generals.
Trenches came about as a result of the German General Erich von Falkenhayn ordered his men to dig in to stop the Allies from advancing any further.
Much of the time the trenches were as little as 40 metres away from the enemy and the method of attack was to 'go over the top' of the trench and charge at the opposing trench.
www.schoolshistory.org.uk /trenchwarfare.htm   (216 words)

  
 Trench Art: An Illustrated History, by Jane Kimball
Trench art is a highly evocative term conjuring up the image of a mud-spattered soldier in a soggy trench hammering out a souvenir for a loved one at home while dodging bullets and artillery shells.
A few types of trench art (finger rings made from melted down aluminum are a good example) could be made easily in a trench during lulls in the fighting, but the hammering involved in making many trench art pieces would have been greeted with unwelcome hostile fire from the enemy.
Trench art items made during the war were in fact created at a distance from the front line trenches either by soldiers ‘at rest’ behind the front lines, by skilled artisans among the civilian population, by prisoners of war, or by soldiers convalescing from wounds as handicraft therapy.
www.trenchart.org   (3747 words)

  
 Trench warfare; power washing a mahogany deck - The Boston Globe
We have a big problem in our back yard, which butts up against a concrete block retaining wall about 3 feet high, with a trench 3 feet deep on the other side of the wall, which is 18 inches from the house, where the earth covers several inches of aluminum siding.
The trench is a big attraction for my young daughter, so I have to have something done.
And that leaves the ``attractive nuisance," the trench that is such a temptation to your daughter.
www.boston.com /yourlife/home/articles/2006/07/27/trench_warfare_power_washing_a_mahogany_deck   (1034 words)

  
 Trenches on the Web - Timeline: British Trench Warfare 1917-1918
A system of trenches must therefore be designed which facilities the preparation and launching of an unexpected assault, and at the same time is adapted to meet a sudden attack by the enemy.
The repair, maintenance, and improvement of the trenches furnish ample work to afford employment to the troops, who must be made to understand that this work reacts in their own favor in the shape of increased security and comfort and conditions more favorable to health.
The construction of new trenches in sight of the enemy, and much of their maintenance and repair, the construction, repair, and improvement of obstacles, and in many cases the bringing up of materials and stores and the relief of the garrison, can not be carried out by daylight.
www.worldwar1.com /tlbtw.htm   (1953 words)

  
 The Imperial War Museum Trench Map Archive
For security reasons, although the trench maps show all the German trenches and tactical features, they mostly only show the British front line, until 1917-18 when this policy was gradually relaxed; in 1917 British trenches were shown for about 250 metres behind the front line, while in 1918 all British trenches were shown.
The intricacies of the trench systems are shown, plotted from air photos, right down to individual machine guns, trench mortars, command posts, field battery positions, etc. Further back, the enemy’s medium and heavy battery positions are shown together with roads, tracks and light railways and supply and ammunition dumps, and rear defence systems.
The regular series 1:10,000 trench maps (series GSGS 3062) were produced for most front line areas from mid-1915 until the last, mobile, operations of 1918 which were conducted on smaller scale maps.
www.great-war-trench-maps.com /aboutCD.htm   (354 words)

  
 The Live-and-Let-Live System in Trench Warfare in World War I: An Excerpt from Axelrod's 'The Evolution of Cooperation'
What made trench warfare so different from most other combat was that the same small units faced each other in immobile sectors for extended periods of time.
The origins, maintenance, and destruction of the live-and-let-live system of trench warfare are all consistent with the theory of the evolution of cooperation.
In trench war, a structure of ritualised aggression was a ceremony where antagonists participated in regular, reciprocal discharges of missiles, that is, bombs, bullets and so forth, which symbolized and strengthened, at one and the same time, both sentiments of fellow-feelings, and beliefs that the enemy was a fellow sufferer.
www.heretical.com /games/trenches.html   (3982 words)

  
 CCHS NEWS QUEST
Food supply in the trenches was insufficient and the 18 ounces of meat and vegetables initially standardized for the troops was significantly reduced as the war proceeded.
Signalers and snipers went hand in hand in the trench warfare system, when a signaler would expose his head to send a message, he would often be the target of an enemy sniper.
The reality is, trench warfare and its functions did not genuinely protect the troops but merely delayed their deaths a day or two.
www.uvm.edu /~cesscchs/trench_warfare.htm   (618 words)

  
 Trench Warfare -- Social 10-7
Trench Foot: a condition which soldiers who lived in trenches were prone to catching.
Trench Mortar: a projectile which was launched from within the trenches, they were not very effective weapons because it took a lucky shot to land one inside of a trench.
Trench Warfare: warfare in which the opposing forces attack and counterattack from a relatively permanent system of trenches protected by barbed-wire entanglements.
www.freewebs.com /trenchwarfare/definitions.htm   (364 words)

  
 trench warfare - HighBeam Encyclopedia
To break the stalemate various methods and new weapons were tried; tremendous artillery barrages sought to devastate the enemy and blow a gap in his trenches; trench mortars, hand grenades, poison gas, and tanks were used.
The advent of mechanized warfare made it possible to circumvent such defenses, and World War II was a war of movement.
The painful lessons of chemical warfare: gas, mud, and blood at Ypres.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-trenchwa.html   (444 words)

  
 World War I Trench Warfare (2): 1916-18 (Elite)
Trench warfare on the Russian, Italian and Turkish fronts is ignored in this volume, and even the French do not receive their fare share of coverage.
However, while the author successfully identifies the recognition by both sides that a solution to trench warfare deadlock had to be found, he fails to adequately define their solutions.
Another related factor of trench warfare is the issue of non-battle casualties, of which there were thousands in the muddy lice-infested trenches; it was the non-battle casualties that necessitated unit rotation even more than combat casualties.
www.8notes.com /books/detpage.asp?asin=1841761982&field-keywords=Couperin&schMod=music&type=&sb=s   (1538 words)

  
 Lone Sentry: German Position Warfare Reverts to Trench Lines in the East (WWII Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 51, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The manual provides for the building of continuous trenches in the forward edge and along the main line of resistance, to a depth of 1 to 2 miles, connected with a series of strong points located in the forward edge and with resistance centers placed in depth.
When a trench system is endangered by an enemy penetration, the Germans rapidly shift all soldiers in the first line trench to the juncture of the communication trench and the main trench.
While fighting is going on in the first trench line, artillery and mortars direct their fire upon the second trench, aiming particularly at the intersection points of the communication and main trenches in order to disrupt reserve formations and prevent a counterattack.
www.lonesentry.com /articles/ttt/trench-warfare-eastern-front.html   (3616 words)

  
 World War 1 Trench Warfare
Rats were a constant companion in the trenches in their millions they were everywhere, gorging themselves on human remains (grotesquely disfiguring them by eating their eyes and liver) they could grow to the size of a cat.
The cold wet and unsanitary conditions were also to cause trench foot amongst the soldiers, a fungal infection, which could turn gangrenous and result in amputation.
Death was everywhere in the trenches, at any time of day or night it could be your corpse laying in the mud, whether through the shell bombardment, poison gases, disease or a random bullet from a sniper.
hubpages.com /hub/World_War_1_Trench_Warfare   (1046 words)

  
 Trench Warfare
Trench warfare began when countries realised the war would not end quickly and this method of fighting lead to a huge amount of deaths on the battlefield.
Trenches were often described as ‘complex labyrinths’ and this is indeed the best way to describe the trenches.
The soil that was dug out of the ground to form the trenches was used to pile on the sides of the trenches to provide a little bit of extra cover from enemy fire.
www.harris-academy.com /departments/history/Trenches/Mark/mark.1.htm   (711 words)

  
 Trench Warfare - Oral Histories of the First World War - Library and Archives Canada
The trenches themselves were built in a ziz-zag pattern, to contain the blast from enemy shells and prevent the enemy, should he capture part of a trench, shooting along the entire line of the trench.
The trenches, usually four or five feet deep (less than 2m), were further built up with three (1m) feet of sandbags.
No matter how well built, trenches were wet and muddy, infested with rats, and worst of all, within range of enemy artillery and sniper fire.
www.collectionscanada.ca /first-world-war/interviews/025015-1500-e.html   (420 words)

  
 Trench Warfare - North Carolinians in World War I   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Thus, Americans encountered trenches flooded with muddy water that provided a perfect environment for rats the size of cats, frogs, lice (called "cooties" by the soldiers), insects, and the associated problems of dysentery and other diseases derived from these poor living conditions.
The terrain in between the opposing armies' trenches became known as "No Man's Land." This area became a barren wasteland of mud and deep holes formed by artillery shells.
Person, 321st Infantry, 81st Division, wrote his brother about the horrors of trench warfare: "The worst of all is the men lieing around that have never [been] burried.
www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us /archives/wwI/OldNorthState/trenchwarfare.htm   (964 words)

  
 Trench Warfare -- Social 10-7
The main idea behind trench mortars is to fire the mortar into the air and try and land it in the enemy's trench.
The trench mortar was one of the most effective weapons to use because you had the safety of the trenches while firing the weapon.
It was of great use in the trenches because you could secretly assasinate an unknowing solider from atop a ledge or building.
www.freewebs.com /trenchwarfare/weapons.htm   (739 words)

  
 Trench Warfare
Because of this view, trench warfare proved to be, in World War I, an ineffective and traumatizing experience for all.
While the design of the trenches and the network of trenches seemed like a great tactic, the reality of the life in the trenches was a different story.
Trench foot is an infection of the feet caused by wet and insanitary conditions.
www.freeessays.cc /db/26/hte240.shtml   (1071 words)

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