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Topic: Trichloroethylene

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  Trichloroethylene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the late 1950s, the demand for trichloroethylene as a degreaser began to decline in favor of the less toxic 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
The active metabolite of trichloroethylene is trichloroethanol, identical to that of chloral hydrate.
The weak association between trichloroethylene and cancer are responsible for its questionable status: until recent years, the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) contended that it was had little-to-no carcinogenic potential, and was probably a co-carcinogen—that is, it acted in concert with other substances to promote the formation of tumors.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Trichloroethylene   (1264 words)

 ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Trichloroethylene (TCE)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a nonflammable, colorless liquid with a somewhat sweet odor and a sweet, burning taste.
Trichloroethylene is not thought to occur naturally in the environment.
Trichloroethylene quickly evaporates from surface water, so it is commonly found as a vapor in the air.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /tfacts19.html   (978 words)

 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-127
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a colorless, volatile, nonflammable liquid that is immiscible in water with a vapor density of 4.45 and a boiling point of 87°C. It is miscible with alcohol, chloroform, and ether, and dissolves most fixed and volatile oils.
Trichloroethylene has a powerful solvent action for fats, greases, and waxes, and it is one of the most important chlorinated solvents for use in degreasing and drycleaning.
A pharmaceutical grade of trichloroethylene is used as a general anesthetic in surgical and obstetrical procedures and as an analgesic in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.
www.cdc.gov /niosh/78127_2.html   (1450 words)

Trichloroethylene is a non-polar, highly lipophilic compound that is readily absorbed in humans by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal routes.
Trichloroethylene uptake by inhalation, ingestion, and absorption is rapidly distributed throughout the bloodstream and excreted as metabolites, primarily by urine (Figure 1).
Trichloroethylene is primarily excreted in the urine as trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and trichloroethanol glucuronide, which are the principle metabolites of trichloroethylene (21).
ag.arizona.edu /~jpfield/health.html   (1280 words)

 ATSDR - MMG: Trichloroethylene
Trichloroethylene vapor is readily absorbed from the lungs, and inhalation is the main route of exposure.
Trichloroethylene is heavier than air and may cause asphyxiation in poorly ventilated or enclosed spaces and in low-lying areas.
Trichloroethylene readily crosses the placenta and is found in fetal blood at levels comparable to those of the mother.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov /MHMI/mmg19.html   (4613 words)

 568. Trichloroethylene, 1,1,2- (WHO Food Additives Series 18)
In studies of labelled trichloroethylene administered in an inhalation chamber, male B6C3F1 mice metabolized more inhaled trichloroethylene on a per kg body weight basis than male Osborne- Mendel rats, the mice also activated more of the inhaled trichloroethylene to a reactive tissue binding metabolite in the liver and kidney than the rat.
Because the trichloroethylene in the previous carcinogenic bioassay contained epichlorohydrin as a stabilizer (a, compound which is mutagenic) new studies were conducted using epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene.
Epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene was administered by gavage using a corn oil vehicle to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice.
www.inchem.org /documents/jecfa/jecmono/v18je15.htm   (6911 words)

 IDEM - OAM - TOX Watch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
As a general solvent or as a component of solvent blends, trichloroethylene is used with adhesives, lubricants, paints, varnishes, paint strippers, pesticides (its use as a fumigant has been discontinued), and cold metal cleaners.
Trichloroethylene is an extraction solvent for greases, oils, fats, waxes, and tars, and is used by the textile processing industry to scour cotton, wool, and other fabrics.
Trichloroethylene is used as a refrigerant for low-temperature heat transfer and in the aerospace industry for flushing liquid oxygen.
www.in.gov /idem/air/toxwatch/health/chemicals/cas79016.html   (527 words)

 Trichloroethylene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Trichloroethylene, with and without stabilizers, was tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in two adequate experiments in mice.
In rodents, trichloroethylene is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and through the lungs, whereas absorption of the vapour through the skin is negligible.
In fungi, trichloroethylene (pure or of unspecified purity) induced aneuploidy, gene mutation and mitotic recombination and induced gene conversion in the presence of metabolic activation.
www-cie.iarc.fr /htdocs/monographs/vol63/trichloroethylene.htm   (1453 words)

 ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Trichloroethylene (1989)
Trichloroethylene is a colorless liquid at room temperature with an odor similar to ether or chloroform.
Trichloroethylene is mainly used as a solvent to remove grease from metal parts.
Background levels of trichloroethylene can be found in the outdoor air we breathe (30 to 460 parts of trichloroethylene per trillion parts of air) and in many lakes, streams, and underground water used as sources of tap water for homes and businesses.
home.att.net /~wfm/Trichloroethylene.htm   (1267 words)

 TETRACHLOROETHYLENE TRICHLOROETHYLENE - (Organic Method #1001)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Around 85% of the trichloroethylene produced in the United States is used in degreasing of fabricated metal parts with the remaining 15% divided equally between exports and use in miscellaneous applications.
The mean respective extraction efficiencies for tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene from SKC Lot 2000 charcoal tubes over the range of the RQL to 2 times the target concentrations are 98.8% and 99.3% for TWA levels, 98.3% and 98.8% for ceiling levels and 98.5% and 99.0% for peak levels.
The mean respective extraction efficiencies for tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene from SKC Lot 2000 charcoal tubes that had humid air drawn through them before they were spiked at the target concentrations are 98.9% and 99.5% for TWA levels, 98.6% and 98.9% for ceiling levels and 98.6% and 98.8% for peak levels.
www.osha-slc.gov /dts/sltc/methods/mdt/mdt1001/1001.html   (6973 words)

 Trichloroethylene (EHC 50, 1985)
Trichloroethylene is eliminated unchanged in exhaled air and, to a lesser extent, in faeces, sweat, and the saliva.
Trichloroethylene has also been used as a carrier solvent for the active ingredients of insecticides and fungicides; as a solvent for waxes, fats, resins, and oils; as an anaesthetic for medical and dental use; and as an extractant for spice oleoresins and for caffeine from coffee.
Trichloroethylene applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (glass depot containing at least 1.0 ml) was absorbed and produced blood concentrations of 0.79 mg/litre after 0.5 h and decreased to 0.46 mg/litre after 6 h, in spite of continuing exposure (Jakobson et al., 1982).
www.intox.org /databank/documents/chemical/tricheth/ehc50.htm   (15252 words)

 CLU-IN.ORG | Contaminant Focus: TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE), Overview
Trichloroethylene is a man-made chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment.
It also has found use as an extractant for oils, waxes, and fats, a solvent for cellulose esters and ethers, a dry cleaning fluid, refrigerant and heat exchange fluid, fumigant, carrier agent in paints and adhesives, a scourant for textiles, and as a feedstock for manufacturing organic chemicals.
Trichloroethylene also is known as trichloroethene, and is commonly referred to as TCE.
clu-in.org /contaminantfocus/default.focus/sec/Trichloroethylene_(TCE)/cat/Overview   (441 words)

 Nat' Academies Press, Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants: Volume 3 (1996)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a colorless, nonflammable, volatile liquid, with a sweetish odor resembling chloroform (ACGIH, 1986).
Inhalation carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene in mice and rats.
The carcinogenicity of trichloroethylene and its metabolites, trichloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid, in mouse liver.
www.nap.edu /books/0309056292/html/292.html   (4832 words)

 CHEC Chemical Profile: trichloroethylene (Printer Friendly)
Trichloroethylene is an industrial solvent in the halogenated organic class of chemicals.
Trichloroethylene is one of the chemicals suspected of causing a cluster of childhood leukemia cases due to drinking water contamination in the town of Woburn, Massachusetts, in the early 1980s.
Children breathe in traces of trichloroethylene from air polluted by industrial releases, primarily from metalworking and plastics facilities.
www.checnet.org /healthehouse/chemicals/chemicals-detail-print.asp?Main_ID=306   (994 words)

 Suburban Water Testing Labs: Trichloroethylene Fact Sheet
Source: Trichloroethylene is a colorless or blue organic liquid with a chloroform-like odor.
The greatest use of trichloroethylene is to remove grease from fabricated metal parts and some textiles.
Major environmental releases of trichloroethylene are due to air emissions from metal degreasing plants.
www.h2otest.com /factsheets/trichloroethylene.html   (214 words)

 Trichloroethylene [factsheet]
Trichloroethylene is metabolized in humans and animals to a number of substances which themselves are known to be toxic: chloral hydrate, trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroethanol.
Other studies reexamined the data and did not agree with the association because the people were exposed to chemicals other than trichloroethylene, and the statistical significance of the incidence of leukemia has not been resolved.
* The odor threshold for trichloroethylene is 28 ppm.
www.lakes-environmental.com /toxic/TRICHLOROETHYLENE.HTML   (1185 words)

 Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL +/+ mice.
Trichloroethylene accelerates an autoimmune response by Th1 T cell activation in MRL +/+ mice.
As early as 4 weeks of treatment, Western blot analysis showed a dose-dependent increase in the level of trichloroethylene-modified proteins, indicating that a reactive metabolite of trichloroethylene was formed.
Taken collectively, the results suggest that trichloroethylene treatment accelerated an autoimmune response characteristic of MRL +/+ mice in association with nonspecific activation of Th1 cells.
www.aegis.com /aidsline/2000/apr/A0040575.html   (492 words)

 EPA Ground Water & Drinking Water > breadcrumb? > Consumer Factsheet on: TRICHLOROETHYLENE
Trichloroethylene is a colorless or blue organic liquid with a chloroform-like odor.
Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
If the levels of trichloroethylene exceed the MCL, 5 ppb, the system must notify the public via newspapers, radio, TV and other means.
www.epa.gov /safewater/contaminants/dw_contamfs/trichlor.html   (838 words)

 Trichloroethylene (TCE)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Children of parents who drank water from a well contaminated with trichloroethylene were born with more heart problems.
The IARC determination is based on the lack of strong evidence associating cancer in people with exposure to trichloroethylene and the mixed or flawed results from animal studies.
Tests can measure trichloroethylene in your breath and breakdown products in urine or blood, but these tests are not routinely available at your doctor' s office.
members.aol.com /kaltofen/aolTCE.html   (688 words)

 Sex-dependent regulation of hepatic peroxisome proliferation in mice by trichloroethylene via peroxisome ...
Trichloroethylene and its metabolite chloral hydrate are not
in the incidence of liver tumors induced by trichloroethylene
Maotoni,C., Lefemine,G., Cotti,G. and Perino,G. (1988) Long-term carcinogenicity bioassays on trichloroethylene administration by inhalation to Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss and B6C3F1 mice.
carcin.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/21/4/677   (2615 words)

 Madeline Felkins FLAG DAY: DOE Rocketdyne Nuclear Contamination Cleanup Alternatives Protest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Trichloroethylene was used as a cleaning solvent at Rocketdyne, (now Boeing), where it and other hazardous radioactive and non-radioctive toxic substances and other hazardous materials and wastes have seeped into the soil for years including perchlorate.
One gallon of trichloroethylene contaminates more than 96 million gallons of water, multiplied by a minimum of 500,000 gallons of TCE, as more than one million gallons of trichloroethylene were used during the 30 year period, beginning 1954 throughout 1983.
Studies have shown that trichloroethylene causes brain and liver cancers and brain and liver disease as well as nerve, kidney, heart, and immune system damage.
www.geocities.com /madelinefelkins/kitty3a.htm   (1477 words)

 Global Chlorinated Organics - Products - Trichloroethylene   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A clear, heavy liquid with excellent solvency, trichloroethylene has no flash point as determined by standard test methods.
Its high stability in the presence of common chemical stabilizers and low boiling point permit vapor degreasing with low heat input.
Trichloroethylene is supported by closed loop transfer systems, stabilizers and employee exposure monitoring.
www.dow.com /gco/na/prod/trich   (88 words)

 Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Epidemiologic Evidence
Mode of action for liver tumor induction by trichloroethylene and its metabolites, trichloroacetate and dichloroacetate.
Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of trichloroethylene and its metabolites for use in risk assessment.
Neurotoxic and pharmacokinetic responses to trichloroethylene as a function of exposure scenario.
www.ehponline.org /docs/2000/suppl-2/intro/intro.html   (1893 words)

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common industrial solvent and dry cleaning agent, was tested for its effects on reproduction and fertility in Fischer 344 rats using the RACB protocol (Morrissey et al., Fundam Appl Toxicol 13:747-777 [1989]).
In sum, these data indicate that trichloroethylene produced some general toxicity (reduced body weight gain, increased relative liver and kidney weights) at all doses, while reducing reproductive indices only in the F
Thus, trichloroethylene was not found to be a selective reproductive toxicant in rats.
www.ehponline.org /members/1997/Suppl-1/dfa016a.html   (771 words)

 Chemical Fact Sheets -- Trichloroethylene
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a man-made chemical that does not occur naturally in the environment.
It’s also important to consider the length of exposure to the chemical; the amount of chemical exposure; and whether the chemical was inhaled, touched, or eaten.
There are tests to detect TCE in the breath, urine, and blood of people exposed to high levels of the compound within the previous 24 hours.
www.dhfs.state.wi.us /eh/ChemFS/fs/TCE.htm   (781 words)

Trichloroethylene : A stable, low boiling-point colorless liquid, toxic if inhaled.
Trichloroethylene is a colorless liquid which is used as a solvent for cleaning
Trichloroethylene is a colorless or blue organic liquid with a chloroform-like
www.mongabay.com /reference/environment/Trichloroethylene.html   (214 words)

Histological examinations performed at 15 minutes, 1, 4, and 16 hour /indicated/ degenerative changes (pyknotic nuclei) were observed in the epidermis after 15 minutes, and were progressive (pyknosis, karyolysis, junctional separation of the epidermis) up to the end of the study.
Daily body uptake has been estimated to be approximately 6 mg/kg body weight, for an exposure of 4 hr at 378 mg/cu m and /is not influenced/ by the quantity of adipose tissue.
Under laboratory conditions, human volunteers at rest exposed to concentrations of 540 or 1080 mg/cu m for 30 minutes, 50% of the quantity inhaled was retained.
www.frankmckinnon.com /information_regarding_trichloroe.htm   (15564 words)

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