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Topic: Trophoblast

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 Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Page 46
The cells of the morula are at first closely aggregated, but soon they become arranged into an outer or peripheral layer, the trophoblast, which does not contribute to the formation of the embryo proper, and an inner cell-mass, from which the embryo is developed.
Fluid collects between the trophoblast and the greater part of the inner cell-mass, and thus the morula is converted into a vesicle, the blastodermic vesicle (Fig.
The inner cell-mass remains in contact, however, with the trophoblast at one pole of the ovum; this is named the embryonic pole, since it indicates the situation where the future embryo will be developed.
www.bartleby.com /107/pages/page46.html   (256 words)

 Science Paper on the Trophoblast Theory of Cancer - A Technical Paper
Cellular trophoblasts are invasive, eroding, and metastasizing cells, which mediate the parasitization of the mother's uterus with a new life form which grows concomittantly and distinctly alongside the placental process.
Early histologists and embryologists conceived of trophoblasts primarily as a mediating tissue responsible for passing nutrients to the fetus.
As it is the thesis that cancer it trophoblastic, it is meaningless or a tautology to say "the cancer of cancer" as is implied in the terms chorio-carcinoma, or trophoblastic carcinoma.
www.cancure.org /science_paper1.htm   (5925 words)

 Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Full text | Trophoblast biology: Forum introduction
In mammals, a carefully orchestrated dialogue between the mother and conceptus (embryo/fetus and associate extraembryonic membranes) is initiated during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as the trophoblast develops, functions to signal pregnancy recognition, and initiates implantation.
As implantation proceeds, the trophoblast of most species continues to develop and differentiate to form a variety of specialized cell types that are involved in placentation and secretion of unique hormones that directly regulate maternal adaptations to pregnancy.
Trophoblast morphogenesis and function during implantation and placentation are critical for reproductive success in mammals.
www.rbej.com /content/2/1/45   (817 words)

 Trophoblasts and Cancer
If the trophoblast cell, presented outside the normal canalization or checks of pregnancy, is truly the cancer cell, then it must be impossible for the trophoblast cell or its hormone---"chorionic" gonadotrophin---ever to be found in the male or, aside from the canalization of normal pregnancy, in the female except in a malignant fashion.
The masking of the trophoblast by the reactivity of the somatic cells is a measure of the resistance of the host: the degree to which such somatic resistance against the ectopic trophoblast fails determines the malignancy with which the trophoblast is exhibited.
That the induction of the ectopic trophoblast is usually accomplished against great difficulty---regardless of pancreatic adequacy---is indicated in the fact that non-chorionepitheliomatous exhibitions in man usually have a latent period of years, while a chorionepithelioma in pregnancy may arise from the preexisting trophoblast and destroy the host within a few weeks.
cancercure.ws /trophoblast.htm   (9925 words)

 AFH LIBRARY - The Unitarian or Trophoblastic Thesis of Cancer by Ernst T. Krebs, Jr., Ernst T. Krebs, Sr., and Howard ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Were pregnancy trophoblast in vivo or in situ to lack the humorally mediated checking influences that are lacking in vitro then such tissue would expectedly behave as it does in vitro and be exhibited in the fiercely malignant fashion of primary uterine chorionepithelioma.
The malignant exhibition of the trophoblast of the placenta is the expression of a lack of extrinsic growth restraints against the trophoblast; this fact was demonstrated in the tissue culture of normal rabbit trophoblast.
The occurrence of frank trophoblast cells within the soma (invariably as the most malignant exhibition of cancer) is either the result of the meiosis of a diploid totipotent cell or it is not; and, therefore, is the result of a spontaneous generation.
www.alkalizeforhealth.net /Ltrophoblast.htm   (10310 words)

 Endovascular Trophoblast Invasion: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Intrauterine Growth Retardation and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
of extravillous trophoblast and the degree of invasion of spiral
epithelial adhesion molecules and 2) the nonproliferative trophoblast
Implantation, trophoblast differentiation and haemochorial placentation: mechanistic evidence in vivo and in vitro.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/69/1/1   (4661 words)

 1st 12 Weeks Trophoblast Differentiation
Trophoblasts are unique cells derived from the outer cell layer of the blastocyst which mediate implantation and placentation (Hertig and Rock, 1956).
Since we were also interested in examining the morphologic and degradative features of trophoblasts during the early stages of the invasive process, we developed a novel slope of undiluted Matrigel in order to examine the characteristics of ECM invasion as a function of time and Matrigel thickness (Kliman and Feinberg, 1990a).
Since immunocytochemical staining of trophoblast cultures shows that the large majority of the cells stain for all of these products, it can be concluded that most, if not all, of the trophoblasts are synthesizing all of these products at the same time.
info.med.yale.edu /obgyn/kliman/placenta/articles/1st_12wks.html   (7320 words)

 The Role of Apoptosis in the Regulation of Trophoblast Survival and Differentiation during Pregnancy -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
tolerance because it is the trophoblast and not the fetus that
Western blot analysis of 3A trophoblast cells pretreated with or without Phenoxodiol (1 µg/ml) for 2 h followed by treatment with Phenoxodiol (1 µg/ml) alone or the combination of Phenoxodiol (1 µg/ml) and an agonistic anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) (500 ng/ml) for 24 h.
that the inhibition of survivin induced apoptosis in a trophoblast
edrv.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/26/7/877   (8346 words)

 The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway Modulates the Endocrine Differentiation of Trophoblast Cells -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Proliferating (P) and differentiating (D) Rcho-1 trophoblast cells were lysed in RIPA buffer and incubated with immobilized GST-Lyn SH3 (lanes 1 and 2) and GST-Src SH3 (lanes 3 and 4).
Rcho-1 trophoblast cells were maintained under proliferating conditions or grown to near confluence and transferred to NCTC culture medium containing 1% HS.
Faria TN, Soares MJ 1991 Trophoblast cell differentiation: establishment, characterization, and modulation of a rat trophoblast cell line expressing members of the placental prolactin family.
mend.endojournals.org /cgi/content/full/16/7/1469   (6104 words)

 Signal Transduction and Biological Function of Placenta Growth Factor in Primary Human Trophoblast -- Desai et al. 60 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Trophoblast was rendered quiescent by serum deprivation and treated with rhPlGF, rhEGF, or UV irradiation in serum-free media for the indicated times.
Trophoblast was isolated and treated as described in Figure 3.
The trophoblast was cultured an additional 48 h, and MTT reductive capacity was assessed as described in Material and Methods.
www.biolreprod.org /cgi/content/full/60/4/887   (4426 words)

 Human Trophoblast Invasion and Spiral Artery Transformation : The Role of Nitric Oxide -- Lyall et al. 154 (4): 1105 -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Human Trophoblast Invasion and Spiral Artery Transformation : The Role of Nitric Oxide -- Lyall et al.
Cytokeratin staining indicates presence of trophoblasts in syncytiotrophoblast, cell islands, cell columns, and decidua.
Ilana A, Hochberg A, Shochina M: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in early gestation and in trophoblastic disease.
ajp.amjpathol.org /cgi/content/full/154/4/1105   (4510 words)

 Cooperative Program on Trophoblast-Maternal Tissue Interactions
L-selectin on blastocyst binds uterine wall carbohydrates - Dr. Fisher demonstrated that the blastocyst expresses much larger amounts of L-selectin at the time of implantation, supporting her hypothesis that binding between carbohydrates on the uterine wall and L-selectin on the surface of the blastocyst halts the blatocyst in preparation for implantation.
She also found that the trophoblasts bound to carbohydrate-coated beads, and that isolated trophoblasts bond more firmly to sections of uterine lining collected when the uterus is most receptive to implantation than to those collected when the uterine lining is least receptive.
Trophoblast L-selectin-mediated adhesion at the maternal fetal interface.
www.nichd.nih.gov /research/supported/trophoblast.cfm   (557 words)

 First trimester trophoblast cells secrete Fas ligand which induces immune cell apoptosis -- Abrahams et al. 10 (1): 55 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
trophoblast, a population of fetally derived cells that surround
Hsi BL, Hunt JS and Atkinson JP (1991) Differential expression of complement regulatory proteins on subpopulations of human trophoblast cells.
Ohshima K, Nakashima M, Sonoda K, Kikuchi M and Watanabe T (2001) Expression of RCAS1 and FasL in human trophoblasts and uterine glands during pregnancy: the possible role in immune privilege.
molehr.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/10/1/55   (6350 words)

 trophoblast - OneLook Dictionary Search
trophoblast : The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language [home, info]
Example: "After implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine wall the trophoblast divides into two layers, the chorion and the placenta"
Phrases that include trophoblast: syncytial trophoblast, trophoblast interferon
www.onelook.com /?w=trophoblast   (183 words)

 Involvement of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation -- Frendo et al. 116 (16): 3413 -- ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Involvement of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation -- Frendo et al.
Involvement of connexin 43 in human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation
and by measuring the expression of specific trophoblast genes
jcs.biologists.org /cgi/content/abstract/116/16/3413   (359 words)

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