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Topic: Tunica albuginea

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  All about the penis
This tissue is strong but not flexible, and it is susceptible to injury during sex: a penile "fracture" is actually a tear in the tunica albuginea.
Surrounding the corpora cavernosa is a fibrous layer of tissue called the tunica albuginea.
The emissary veins are located between the corpora cavernosa and their respective tunica albuginea.
www.penis-website.com /penis-info.html   (1890 words)

  eMedicine - Testicular Trauma : Article by Richard A Santucci, MD, FACS
The presence of a disrupted tunica albuginea is pathognomonic for testicular rupture.
The tunica albuginea is a tough, white, fibrous, capsulelike layer surrounding the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
Sharply incise the tunica albuginea to assess the viability of the testis.
www.emedicine.com /MED/topic2859.htm   (4481 words)

 Male Genital Anatomy
The tunica albuginea forms a thick fibrous coat to the spongy tissue of the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum.
Along the inner aspect of the tunica albuginea, numerous flattened columns or sinusoidal trabeculae composed of fibrous tissue, elastin fibers and smooth muscle surround the endothelium-lined sinusoids or cavernous spaces.
The venous tributaries between the sinusoids and the subabugineal venous plexus are compressed by the dilating sinusoids and the stretched tunica albuginea.
www.bumc.bu.edu /Dept/Content.aspx?DepartmentID=371&PageID=6939   (2714 words)

 Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Page 1243   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
It is applied to the tunica vasculosa over the glandular substance of the testis, and, at its posterior border, is reflected into the interior of the gland, forming an incomplete vertical septum, called the mediastinum testis (corpus Highmori).
The Tunica Vasculosa is the vascular layer of the testis, consisting of a plexus of bloodvessels, held together by delicate areolar tissue.
It clothes the inner surface of the tunica albuginea and the different septa in the interior of the gland, and therefore forms an internal investment to all the spaces of which the gland is composed.
www.bartleby.com /107/pages/page1243.html   (778 words)

 Medical Meeting Report - Sexual Medicine Society of North America, Inc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Biopsates were taken from the plaques of 16 PD patients and from the tunica albuginea of 7 patients without PD. After initiating the cell culture process from these tissues, the transcriptional factors Smads were investigated on the RNA-, protein-, and cellular levels before and after TGF-b1 stimulation.
Previous studies have shown that the collagen-degrading enzymes, or collagenases, are reduced in the tunica albuginea of older men, suggesting the contribution of age to the progression of PD and lack of spontaneous healing process.
This study demonstrated the presence of all four types of TIMPs in the tunica albuginea from PD plaques, age-matched old and young controls, with a 2-fold increase in the levels of TIMPs in the plaque and the surrounding perilesional tunica.
www.sexhealthmatters.org /article/news/4/20/peyronies-disease.html   (3469 words)

 Tunica albuginea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tunica albuginea (penis): The tough fibrous layer of connective tissue that surrounds the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
Tunica albuginea (testicles): A layer of connective tissue covering of the testicles which lies just deep to the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis and enters the posterior of the testes forming the mediastinum testis.
Tunica albuginea (ovaries): The connective tissue covering of the ovaries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tunica_albuginea   (155 words)

 Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Page 1242
The head is intimately connected with the upper end of the testis by means of the efferent ductules of the gland; the tail is connected with the lower end by cellular tissue, and a reflection of the tunica vaginalis.
It is a pouch of serous membrane, derived from the saccus vaginalis of the peritoneum, which in the fetus preceded the descent of the testis from the abdomen into the scrotum.
The inner surface of the tunica vaginalis is smooth, and covered by a layer of endothelial cells.
www.bartleby.com /107/pages/page1242.html   (610 words)

 Cardiovascular and Defense
The tunica propria is also prominent and consists of several layers of cells with elongated flat nuclei.
The mediastinum is an extension of the tunica albuginea and is penetrated by numerous blood vessels and the rete testis.
albuginea surrounding the corpora cavernosa and the deep dorsal vessels (both an artery and a vein).
www.fsu.edu /~histo/for~1.htm   (2597 words)

 Peyronie's Disease
It reduces the elasticity of the tunica albuginea in that area and, as a result, causes the penis to bend upward during an erection.
In injuring the tunica albuginea, that trauma triggers a cascade of inflammatory and cellular events resulting in the abnormal fibrosis (excess fibrous tissue), plaque and calcifications characteristic of this disease.
They act as scaffolds for the tunica albuginea tissue to grow over as the graft is naturally dissolved by the patient's body.
www.geisinger.org /consumers/services/urology/pfd/pd.html   (2455 words)

 John J. Bauer, MD, FACS - Pitfalls of Penile Implants   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
During distal dilation the tip of the dilator should be kept under the dorsolateral surface of the tunica albuginea with the dilator directed away from both the urethra and the septum.
The tunica albuginea has a thickness of about 2 millimeters and there is an abrupt transition between it and the underlying erectile tissue which is brownish-red and appears mesh-like.
After extending the corporotomy and placing multiple stay sutures through the cut edges of the tunica albuginea, a plane is established between the under surface of the tunica albuginea and the fibrotic cavernosal tissue by sharp dissection with Metzenbaum scissors.
www.urologychannel.com /michuroassoc/pitfalls.shtml   (2084 words)

 Anatomy of the Testis (2)
The tunica albuginea is the dense, white, inelastic tissue immediately covering the testis, beneath the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis.
The septa extends from the tunica albuginea into the testicle, dividing the testes into lobules.
The posterior surface of the tunica albuginea is reflected into the interior of the gland to form the incomplete septum known as the mediastinum of the testis.
training.seer.cancer.gov /ss_module11_testis/unit02_sec02_anatomy.html   (98 words)

The oviduct (fallopian tube in humans) is a fairly typical tubular organ composed of a tunica mucosa with a lamina epithelialis and a lamina propria.
The lamina epithelialis of the tunica mucosa is shown in higher magnifications in the stacked micrographs.
In the tunica mucosa the lamina epithelialis is usually simple columnar except in the sow and ruminants where it may be pseudostratified columnar.
www.cvm.okstate.edu /instruction/mm_curr/histology/HistologyReference/HRFemaleRS.htm   (1350 words)

 International Journal of Impotence Research - Penile enhancement using a porcine small intestinal submucosa graft in a ...
In group 2, the penile enhancement was performed by an I-shaped incision of the tunica albuginea on each side and the dissection of the plane between tunica albuginea and cavernous tissue.
The tunica albuginea of the control rat penises killed at 2 months consists of numerous collagen bundles oriented in two directions: inner circular and outer longitudinal, with an abundance of elastic fibers, similar to the composition of human tunica tissue.
penile enhancement was performed by incision of tunica albuginea on both sides and the dissection of the plane between tunica albuginea and cavernous tissue.
www.nature.com /ijir/journal/v18/n1/full/3901358a.html   (2428 words)

 Anatomy of the Human Penis: The Relationship of the Architecture Between Skeletal and Smooth Muscles -- Hsu et al. 25 ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa is a bilayered
The corpora cavernosa (CC) is surrounded by the tunica albuginea, which is a bilayered structure (an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer with multiple sublayers).
The distal ligament is aggregated from the collagen bundles of the outer longitudinal layer of the tunica albuginea.
intl.andrologyjournal.org /cgi/content/full/25/3/426   (3055 words)

After the tunica albuginea is exposed, a 5-0 or 6-0 vicryl suture on a small tapered needle is applied.
All bleeding vessels are coagulated prior to incising the tunica albuginea to prevent saturation of the biopsy specimen with blood.
Tunica albuginea is exposed and transfixed with 5-0 vicryl stay suture after avascular site was identified.
www.uhmc.sunysb.edu /urology/male_infertility/DIAGNOSTIC_PROCEDURES.html   (2379 words)

 Ed's Histology Notes: Male
The tunica vaginalis ("jacket-sheath"), which is peritoneum, surrounds the testis and its cord; it has a pareital layer inside the skin of the scrotum, and a visceral layer which is the mesothelium around the tunica albuginea.
The tunica albuginea is thick, very tough fibrous tissue, the thickest capsule in human biology, and as pain-and-pressure sensitive as any.
The tunica albuginea thickens at the pole to form the mediastinum of the testis, where it then gives rise to the septa which divide the testis into around 250 lobules, tall pyramids each with 1-4 seminiferous tubules.
www.pathguy.com /manhisto.htm   (2476 words)

 THE MERCK MANUAL OF GERIATRICS, Ch. 115, Sexual Dysfunction in Men
Penile erection is accomplished through engorgement of the corpora cavernosa, two spongiform, intercommunicative, highly vascular bodies surrounded by a tough, fibrous sheath (the tunica albuginea).
The pudendal artery supplies blood to the corpora, and blood flow is controlled by relaxation and contraction of arterial smooth muscle, which in turn is under the influence of a variety of neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y. When the smooth muscle relaxes, arterial filling occurs.
The disease is characterized by bands or plaques in the tunica albuginea, which lead to a "deformed" erection.
www.merck.com /mrkshared/mmg/sec14/ch115/ch115b.jsp   (1987 words)

 Male Reproductive System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The capsule of the testis is composed of dense connective tissue and is called the tunica albuginea.
Hold the slide up to the light and identify the two pale corpora cavernosa (occupying most of the central part of the section; the partition between the two may be incomplete), surrounded closely by a thick layer of dense connective tissue (pink), the tunica albuginea.
The organ expands by hydrolic pressure, and the shape of the erect penis is determined by the tunica albuginea.
www.umich.edu /~mededlrc/histology/endoRepo/MaleReproductive.html   (1773 words)

 Peyronies Disease
It is elastic to a point, but unlike the flimsy wall of a balloon, tunica albuginea is interlaced with strong connective tissue fibers.
Peyronies disease is a disorder of the tunica albuginea.
Early on as painfully swollen patches of inflammed tunica albuginea, or later in the disease as the site of inelastic and permanently disfiguring scars, they are at the heart of the problem.
www.menstuff.org /issues/byissue/peyronies.html   (996 words)

 Food animals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The fascia lata implant is placed between the apical ligament and tunica albuginea beginning as far proximally as possible.
The tear usually occurs on the dorsum of the penis at the distal sigmoid flexure opposite the insertion of the retractor penis muscles; the tunica albuginea is thinner in this area.
The elastic layers are incised longitudinally on the left lateral aspect of the penis to permit exteriorization of the tunica albuginea.
www.vetmed.lsu.edu /eiltslotus/theriogenology-5361/food_animals.htm   (2835 words)

 Anatomy of the penis
The corpora cavernosa or penile erectile bodies are surrounded by a thick fibrous sheath (tunica albuginea) that is relatively non-distensible, composed of elastic fibers and collagen that support and maintain the rigidity of erectile function.
Surrounding the tunica albuginea is a second gossamer layer of fascia called Buck's fascia.
These small penile arteries include the dorsal artery to the penis outside the tunica albuginea, the bulbo-urethral artery that travels within the corpus spongiosum lateral to the urethra and the central cavernosal arteries that travel in the central portion of each of the paired corpora cavernosa and supply the blood for erection.
menbodymind.com   (1054 words)

 Endotext.com - Endocrinology Of Male Reproduction, Endocrinology of the Male Reproductive System
The relationships of the tunica vaginalis to the testis and epididymis is illustrated from the lateral view and two cross sections at the level of the head and mid-body of the epididymis.
From this structure, thin imperfect septa run in a posterior direction to join a fibrous thickening of the posterior part of the tunica albuginea called the mediastinum of the testis.
The arterial supply to the testis arises at the level of the second lumbar vertebra from the aorta on the right and the renal artery on the left and these vessels descend retroperitoneally to descend through the inguinal canal forming part of the spermatic cord.
www.endotext.org /male/male1/male1.htm   (2954 words)

 Handbook of Andrology
The corpora cavernosal sinus tissue is supplied by a slightly eccentric central vessel (the cavernosal artery), which is derived from the pudendal artery, and branches to form the helicine arteries (Fig.2).
These venules form a number of veins traversing the tunica albuginea called emissary veins, which usually drain into the circumflex veins on the outer surface of the tunica albuginea, that in turn drain into the deep dorsal vein of the penis located in the dorsal midline of the penile shaft (Fig.
The emisary veins are also further collapsed by the expanding tunica albuginea so that venous efflux is markedly decreased and intracavernous pressure rises to 80 to 100 mm Hg, which is the pressure necessary for rigidity (Fig.3B).
www.andrologysociety.com /resources/handbook/ch.19.asp   (1603 words)

 Peyronie's Disease: Current Management - August 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians
Biopsy may demonstrate fibrin deposition and perivascular inflammation underlying the tunica albuginea and, occasionally, within and beneath Buck's fascia overlying the plaque.
During the first year or so after formation of the plaque, while the scar in the tunica is undergoing the process of remodeling, penile distortion may increase, remain static or, as is most often the case in younger men, resolve and disappear spontaneously.
After the scar has matured, the configuration of the tunica albuginea is unlikely to be changed by nonsurgical treatments.
www.aafp.org /afp/990800ap/549.html   (2089 words)

 Tunica albuginea (testicles) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tunica albuginea, 2 Septula testis, 3 Lobulus testis, 4 Mediastinum testis, 5 Tubuli seminiferi contorti, 6 Tubuli seminiferi recti, 7 Rete testis, 8 Ductuli efferentes testis, 9 Ductus epididymidis, 10 initial part of deferent duct
tunica albuginea, 4 tail of epididymis, 5 head of epididymis, 6 spermatic cord with convuluted testicular artery
It is covered by the tunica vaginalis, except at the points of attachment of the epididymis to the testis, and along its posterior border, where the spermatic vessels enter the gland.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Tunica_albuginea_(testicles)   (317 words)

 The Mechanics of Peyronie's Disease
The cause for the erectile dysfunction of Peyronie’s disease is "venous leakage." In other words, the blood that should normally be trapped within the taut confines of the tunica albuginea is leaking slowly out.
By locally hardening the tunica, plaques may prevent the exit veins from pinching off in the normal fashion.
The majority of the tunica albuginea compresses with stretch during erection, but the topmost strip is subject to an opposite, delaminating force.
www.peyronies.org /pages/mechanics.htm   (445 words)

 MRI of an Adenomatoid Tumor of the Tunica Albuginea -- Patel and Silva 182 (2): 415 -- American Journal of Roentgenology
We present a case of an adenomatoid tumor of the tunica albuginea
of the tunica albuginea, with tunical layers surrounding the
tunica albuginea, helped to indicate the origin of the mass.
www.ajronline.org /cgi/content/full/182/2/415   (1292 words)

 eMedicine - Penile Fracture and Trauma : Article by Richard A Santucci, MD, FACS
This clothing is caught on moving machinery, such as motorcycles or farm implements, which rends the soft tissue from the stronger underlayer of the tunica albuginea.
The expansion and stiffness of the tunica albuginea impede venous return and are responsible for maintaining tumescence during male erection.
Small corporal injuries of the tunica albuginea are repaired via primary closure using 1-0 braided nonabsorbable sutures or 2-0 delayed absorbable sutures such as polydioxanone.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic3415.htm   (7126 words)

 Lab 2 Linear
Examine the testis, it is covered by the parietal tunica vaginalis which is actually the inner most connective tissue layer of the scrotum.
The outer layer is the visceral tunica vaginalis.
The visceral tunica vaginalis can be differentiated from the parietal tunica vaginalis by the presence of the blood vessels.
www.wisc.edu /ansci_repro/lab/lab2/lab2ex2002.html   (988 words)

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