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Topic: Turbulence

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In the News (Sun 23 Jun 19)

  Turbulence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by random, stochastic property changes.
The statistical description of turbulent flow was suggested by the Russian mathematician Andrey Kolmogorov, this description is known to be approximate at best.
Turbulence causes the formation of eddies which are defined by the Kolmogorov length scale and a turbulent diffusion coefficient.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Turbulence   (739 words)

 Safer air travel - Turbulence
Turbulence is the leading cause of in-flight injuries.
In-flight turbulence is the leading cause of injuries to passengers and crew.
Occupants injured during turbulence are usually not wearing seatbelts, ignoring recommendations to keep seatbelts fastened even when the signs are not illuminated.
www.casa.gov.au /airsafe/trip/turbulen.htm   (702 words)

 Turbulence in the Air
Turbulence, the stealthiest of weather hazards, can strike from a sky that is literally clear and blue.
Turbulence refers to an irregular or disturbed flow in the atmosphere that produces gusts and eddies.
Taking on the challenge of clear-air turbulence, scientists at NCAR and colleagues fly research aircraft equipped with lidar, which uses lasers to detect minute particles that are invisible to radars.
www.ucar.edu /research/society/turbulence.shtml   (729 words)

 Air Turbulence
Turbulence is basically a stream of air in irregular motion that normally cannot be seen and often occurs unexpectedly.
Normally, when severe turbulence is encountered, a pilot would make a report of the incidence and the airplane would be physically examined by the Engineers to determine if it ought to be taken off line for further repairs.
The pilot is usually informed of turbulence by the air traffic information service or if he is flying with a wind shear warning equipment, he could avoid the turbulence by aborting the landing or divert to another Airport.
www.geocities.com /khlim777_my/asturbulence.htm   (7081 words)

 Suppressing Tundish Turbulence   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This initial high flow rate creates turbulence that draws impurities from the bath surface down into the liquid being cast, resulting in lower quality steel for one or two slabs.
Without the pad, the highest level turbulence is at the surface of the bath, where we don't want it.
High values of turbulence occur near the pad, and the bath surface is relatively undisturbed.
www.psc.edu /science/USS/USS-turbulence.html   (303 words)

 Stone's MHD Turbulence Research
This turbulence has important implications for star formation in these clouds: it may dominate the spectrum of density fluctuations that ultimately collapse to form stars, and it may alter the balance between pressure and gravity that supports them.
The turbulence in the strongly magnetized case is clearly anisotropic, with the magnetic field lines remaining less tangled than the weakly magnetized case.
We have studied the decay of saturated turbulence in a self-gravitating gas, and then have compared a wide variety of properties of the simulations (such as the statistics and shapes of dense clumps formed during collapse, and the statistics of the column density and polarization) to actual observations.
www.astro.princeton.edu /~jstone/turb.html   (863 words)

 CNN - A primer on air turbulence - December 29, 1997
Turbulence can occur when the sky appears to be clear.
The turbulence that hit United Airlines Flight 826 is a relatively common type known as clear air turbulence.
Among non-fatal accidents, in-flight turbulence is the leading cause of injuries to airline passengers and flight attendants.
cgi.cnn.com /US/9712/29/turbulence.explainer   (296 words)

 USATODAY.com - Should you be afraid of turbulence?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Answer: You don't need to fear turbulence, but you do need to respect it by wearing your seatbelt whenever you're seated and always when the "fasten seatbelt" sign is on.
Turbulence in a general sense is to be expected on most flights because all air is disturbed to some degree, even if we perceive it to be smooth.
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) occurs at high altitudes and is often associated with the jetstream.
www.usatoday.com /travel/columnist/getline/2004-09-27-ask-the-captain_x.htm   (890 words)

 Clean Air Strategic Alliance - Air Quality - Turbulence
Turbulence in the atmosphere describes the random motion of a parcel of air at a specific point in space.
This random motion in the atmosphere is a primary factor in determining the dispersion of air pollutants.
Atmospheric turbulence is governed by mechanical processes such as wind and topography, and by thermal forces such as solar heating.
www.casadata.org /whatis/turbulence.asp   (199 words)

 USATODAY.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Turbulence can shake any airplane, no matter how big and no matter the importance of the passengers, as those aboard Air Force One learned on June 12, 1996.
Forces causing turbulence have more affect on air because the air is lighter than water and also because it has a lower viscosity than water.
The term "wind shear" can be confusing because in recent years the news media have often used it to refer to the particular kind of wind shear caused by microbursts, which are winds that blast down from showers or thunderstorms and have caused several airline crashes over the years.
www.usatoday.com /weather/wturbwht.htm   (1230 words)

 Online NewsHour: Air turbulence --- December 30, 1997
JOHN NANCE: Severe turbulence is defined rather specifically because when you use that term, you trigger a lot of reactions; people not wanting to fly in that area and inspections on the airplane.
I mean, it really refers to turbulence that can’t be seen by the eye, but actually causes of turbulence are due to things like the jet stream or frontal activity, or air flowing over mountains, or convection, and in most of the categories there can be clear air turbulence even associated with convection.
JOHN NANCE: This type of turbulence outside of a major encounter with a thunderstorm, outside of a tornado encounter, outside of flying through a mountain wave at low altitude, the answer is, no, in almost no case.
www.pbs.org /newshour/bb/transportation/july-dec97/safety_12-30.html   (1834 words)

 Turbulence & hazards
Turbulent eddies may form in any plane — horizontal, vertical or anywhere between: these eddies, updraughts and downdraughts will impact the aoa of an aircraft flying into them, even to the extent of the aoa passing the stalling aoa.
Such turbulence occurring when an aircraft is flying near the surface, particularly in take-off and landing, may place the aircraft in a dangerous, and possibly irrecoverable, situation.
Air flow in the boundary layer is normally turbulent to some degree but such turbulence does not significantly alter the aircraft’s flight path.
www.auf.asn.au /groundschool/umodule21.html   (7536 words)

Mountain pilots are exposed to more and usually greater intensity mechanical turbulence than their flatland counterparts, because the obstructions causing the turbulence are larger.
A pilot's judgment of turbulence and its severity is influenced by his experience level, the type of aircraft being flown and the length of time he is in it.
Turbulence is divided into four degrees of intensity.
www.mountainflying.com /turbulence.htm   (767 words)

 Airline passenger injuries from turbulence decline   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Injuries aboard airplanes from turbulence are on the decline, thanks partly to new technology, aggressive use of seat belts and an unintended consequence of post-Sept. 11 security concerns.
To a meteorologist, turbulence is an irregular or disturbed flow in the atmosphere, much like waves on an ocean, produced when cold air collides with warm air or tall mountains disrupt the flow of air.
In clear-air turbulence incidents, injuries result from passengers and crew not being buckled into their seats, not from damage to the airplane.
www.post-gazette.com /pg/05123/498351.stm   (1074 words)

 Understanding turbulence
The result is the turbulence you feel on board an aircraft.
Turbulence in the laboratory: the tilting tank experiment.
In the tilting tank experiment, the scale of the turbulence is minuscule compared to the scale of turbulence that affects aircraft, but the phenomenon is essentially the same.
plus.maths.org /issue1/turb   (1976 words)

Turbulent behavior is characteristic of systems of large numbers of particles, and its unpredictability and randomness has long thwarted attempts to fully understand it, even with such powerful tools as
Until the early 1970s, it was held that laminar, or smooth, flow made a gradual transition to turbulent flow by the addition of instabilities, one at a time, until the flow became unpredictable.
Increased understanding of turbulent flow through supercomputer models is leading to advances in such diverse areas as the design of better airplane wings and artificial heart valves.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0849722.html   (360 words)

 CNN.com - What is wake turbulence? - November 16, 2001
Wake turbulence is less well-known and, until now, has been less destructive -- especially with jumbo jets, which are thought to better handle such air disturbances than smaller, lighter jets.
The NTSB believes wake turbulence was the initiating event in that crash, and subsequent tests showed turbulence from another jet can disrupt a trailing plane.
Experts, like Wiley, say wake turbulence is likely a contributing, but not the lone factor in the crash of Flight 587, just as it was for USAir Flight 427.
www.cnn.com /2001/TRAVEL/NEWS/11/16/wake.turbulence   (505 words)

 Gyrofluid Turbulence Simulations
Much more work is needed to develop a complete turbulent transport model (which includes the edge region as well, and a broader range of plasma conditions including sheared flows and particle transport), but the present level of agreement, as illustrated below, is quite encouraging.
One of the main scientific challenges of fusion research is the problem of small-scale plasma turbulence, which appears to control the quality of the thermal insulation provided by the confining magnetic field.
Plasma turbulence has been a very challenging scientific problem, as it involves the complex, nonlinear, 3-dimensional, and chaotic physics of interactions between particles and electromagnetic waves.
w3.pppl.gov /~hammett/gyrofluid/gyrofluid.html   (756 words)

 CAUTION Wake Turbulence Brochure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
When a visual approach is issued and accepted to visually follow a preceding aircraft, the pilot is required to establish a safe landing interval behind the aircraft s/he was instructed to follow.
Ordinary turbulence is not unusual, particularly in the approach phase.
A pilot who suspects wake turbulence is affecting his or her aircraft should get away from the wake, execute a missed approach or go-around and be prepared for a stronger wake encounter.
www.asy.faa.gov /safety_products/wake.htm   (1570 words)

TURBULENCE is a menagerie of synthesised forms, evolved within the computer using a process of artificial selection.
Turbulence was produced in association with the Australian Film Commission.
More information on Turbulence is available in the book: Impossible Nature: the art of Jon McCormack.
www.csse.monash.edu.au /~jonmc/projects/turbulence.html   (385 words)

This turbulence increases the resistance dramatically so that large increases in pressure will be required to further increase the volume flowrate.
Blood flow in the human body is remarkably free of turbulence, but sounds attributed to turbulence are sometimes detected by stethescope associated with the aorta.
Fluids for which the viscosity is independent of pressure are called Newtonian fluids, and the flow of Newtonian fluids such as water are described reasonably well by Poiseuille's law so long as the conditions for laminar flow are met.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/pturb.html   (481 words)

 ETC9 Home Page - EUROMECH ETC9 European Turbulence Conference   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The 9th European Turbulence Conference, ETC9, held under the auspices of the European Mechanics Society, EUROMECH, is be devoted to fundamental aspects of turbulence physics that are of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians.
Turbulence remains one of the major unsolved problems in the 21st century and it has direct application to many aspects of science and, indeed, daily life.
The four-day programme was devoted to fundamental aspects of fluid turbulence that are of interest and importance to engineers, physicists, and mathematicians.
www.etc9.soton.ac.uk   (612 words)

 GAFD Turbulence, LCD, CU Boulder
We are studying highly turbulent flows, typically constrained by rotation and stratification, which play crucial roles in determining the large-scale dynamics within oceans, atmospheres and stars.
The GAFD Turbulence project is motivated by four general grand challenge applications: geostrophic turbulence, oceanic convection, deep convection in planetary atmospheres, and stellar compressible convection, all influenced by effects of rotation and stratification.
This GAFD Turbulence study involves an interdisciplinary team of researchers combining strengths in the necessary physical and computational disciplines from the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the University of Minnesota.
lcd-www.colorado.edu /Home.html   (434 words)

 Turbulence Training Home -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
I developed the Turbulence Training phiosophy and workouts as a result of my research and practical experiences in the gym.
My clients enjoy Turbulence Training because of the varied routines and the high intensity workouts that they are guaranteed.
The Turbulence Training Manual is easy to follow, simple and explains using empirical research, examples and diagrams a fitness and strength program that allows you to both meet and exceed your personal fitness goals.
www.turbulencetraining.com   (2798 words)

 Turbulence Links Around the WWW
Turbulence by the Numbers is a discussion on turbulence with a few results
The small-scale structure of turbulence at TU Eindhoven in the Netherlands
Aerodynamics and Turbulence Lab at the University of Houston.
www.ionasoftware.com /gross/fluids/turbulence.html   (2483 words)

 Numerical Tokamak Turbulence Project
The primary research objective of the Numerical Tokamak Turbulence Project (NTTP) is to develop a predictive ability in modeling turbulent transport due to drift-type instabilities in the core of tokamak fusion experiments, through the use of three-dimensional kinetic and fluid simulations and the derivation of reduced models.
Nonlinear simulations of turbulence, driven by the toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability with both global and flux-tube codes, provide key first-principles results supporting the physics picture that turbulence-driven fluctuating E x B zonal flows can significantly reduce turbulent transport.
A key discovery is the existence of states with zero thermal transport for linearly unstable values of the ion temperature gradient in the limit of no collisions.
www.nersc.gov /news/annual_reports/annrep98/cohen1.html   (1194 words)

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