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Topic: Turing test

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  Turing test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Turing contradicts this by arguing that Lady Lovelace's assumption was affected by the context from which she wrote, and if exposed to more contemporary scientific knowledge, it would become evident that the brain's storage is quite similar to that of a computer.
Turing replies by stating that this is confusing laws of behaviour with general rules of conduct, and that if on a broad enough scale (such as is evident in man) machine behaviour would become increasingly difficult to predict.
A modification of the Turing test, where the objective or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans, is termed a reverse Turing test.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Turing_test   (2248 words)

 Alan Turing (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Turing's motivations were scientific rather than industrial or commercial, and he soon returned to the theoretical limitations of computation, this time focussing on the comparison of the power of computation and the power of the human brain.
Turing's underlying argument was that the human brain must somehow be organised for intelligence, and that the organisation of the brain must be realisable as a finite discrete-state machine.
Turing was in fact sensitive to the difficulty of separating ‘intelligence’ from other aspects of human senses and actions; he described ideas for robots with sensory attachments and raised questions as to whether they might enjoy strawberries and cream or feel racial kinship.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/turing   (9730 words)

 Wikinfo | Turing test   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Described by Alan Turing in the 1950 paper "Computing machinery and intelligence", it proceeds as follows: a human judge engages in a natural language conversation with two other parties, one a human and the other a machine; if the judge cannot reliably tell which is which, then the machine is said to pass the test.
The test was inspired by a party game known as the "Imitation Game", in which a man and a woman go into separate rooms, and guests try to tell them apart by writing a series of questions and reading the typewritten answers sent back.
The name "Turing test" may have been invented, and was certainly publicized, by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1968 science-fiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Turing_test   (1408 words)

 the Turing test and intelligence - abelard
A.M. Turing (1912 – 1954) in 1950 suggested a test (full text available on this site), since widely known as ‘the Turing test’ as a yardstick for determining whether a computer were to be regarded as ‘intelligent’[2].
Turing being a rather superior sort of fellow, I will assume that he was rather more confident and objective than average Jo and, therefore, that he meant intelligent in the ‘my, that is impressive’ mood, rather than the previously noted more common form, “they must be bright because they agree with me”.
Turing, clearly one of the great thinkers and contributors to the advance of knowledge this century, achieved one of the more important functions of the creative scientist, he asked interesting questions.
www.abelard.org /turing/tur-hi.htm   (3714 words)

 The Turing Test (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The phrase “The Turing Test” is also sometimes used to refer to certain kinds of purely behavioural allegedly logically sufficient conditions for the presence of mind, or thought, or intelligence, in putatively minded entities.
Turing observes that a small error in the information about the size of a nervous impulse impinging on a neuron may make a large difference to the size of the outgoing impulse.
But this interpretation of The Turing Test is vulnerable to the kind of objection lodged by Bringsjord (1994): even on a moderately long single run with relatively expert participants, it may not be all that unlikely that an unintelligent machine serendipitously succeeds in the imitation game.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/turing-test   (12868 words)

 Alan Turing Scrapbook - Turing Test
I discussed Turing's paper in the light of what seemed to me to be Turing's own doubts about AI —; doubts centred on the serious problem of where to draw a line between thinking and living.
Turing started his paper by describing a game in which a man and a woman compete under these remote-terminal conditions to convince an interrogator that they are the woman.
Turing's democratic and open approach to 'testing' intelligence is one that everyone is invited to share in and respond to.
www.turing.org.uk /turing/scrapbook/test.html   (1313 words)

 The New Atlantis - The Trouble with the Turing Test - Mark Halpern
Turing does not argue for the premise that the ability to convince an unspecified number of observers, of unspecified qualifications, for some unspecified length of time, and on an unspecified number of occasions, would justify the conclusion that the computer was thinking—he simply asserts it.
Turing’s test should be viewed as a pragmatic challenge rather than as a metaphysical statement concerning the nature of thinking or understanding.
This argument brushes aside both Turing and his critics: Turing’s operational approach to AI is treated as just another fuzzy-minded, metaphysical piece of wool-gathering, and his critics are rejected because, true or false, their negativity dampens the enthusiasm of AI workers, and thus impedes the progress of computer science.
www.thenewatlantis.com /archive/11/halpern.htm   (7522 words)

 What is Turing Test? - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: imitation game
In artificial intelligence (AI), the Turing Test is a method for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human.
In Turing's test, if the human being conducting the test is unable to consistently determine whether an answer has been given by a computer or by another human being, then the computer is considered to have "passed" the test.
The Turing Test has been criticized, in particular because the nature of the questioning must be limited in order for a computer to exhibit human-like intelligence.
whatis.techtarget.com /definition/0,,sid9_gci886577,00.html   (462 words)

 Turing Test
Turing conjectured that, initially, at least, computers might be suited to purely symbolic tasks, those presupposing no 'contact with the outside world,' like mathematics, cryptanalysis, and chess-playing (for which he himself worked out the first programs on paper).
The Turing test, in spite of its intuitive appeal, is vulnerable to a number of justifiable criticisms.
The authors, who consider Turing to be one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century, examine problems with the Turing Test and conclude that a goal of passing the test is harmful to the field of AI research.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/html/turing.html   (3488 words)

 Reverse Turing test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Arguably unlike the conventional Turing test, this is most interesting when the judges are very familiar with the art of conversation programs, meaning that in the regular Turing test they can very rapidly tell the difference between a computer program and a human acting normally.
The judges of the test are typically not aware in advance that a reverse Turing test is occurring, and the test subject attempts to elicit from the 'judges' (who, correctly, think they are speaking to a human) a response along the lines of "is this really a human?".
Since Turing test judges are sometimes presented with genuinely human subjects, as a control, it inevitably occurs that a small proportion of such control subjects are judged to be computers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reverse_Turing_test   (857 words)

 The Turing Test Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Why The Turing Test is AI's Biggest Blind Alley Whitby argues that AI should not be too distracted into direct copying of human performance and methods.
Chatterbots, Tinymuds, And The Turing Test: Entering The Loebner Prize Competition This paper describes the development of a program and its performance on the first three Loebner Prize competitions.
Preliminary Turing Test Analysis Interesting paper drawing a parallel between the Turing Test and GIS/spatial technologies research.
cogsci.ucsd.edu /~asaygin/tt/ttest.html   (1646 words)

 Turing Machines and Universes
In 1936 an American (Alonzo Church) and a Briton (Alan M. Turing) published independently (as is often the coincidence in science) the basics of a new branch in Mathematics (and logic): computability or recursive functions (later to be developed into Automata Theory).
What Church and Turing did was to construct a set of all the functions whose values could be obtained by applying effective or mechanical calculation methods.
Turing went further down Church's road and designed the "Turing Machine" –; a machine which can calculate the values of all the functions whose values can be found using effective or mechanical methods.
samvak.tripod.com /turing.html   (1702 words)

 The Turing Test
Thinking that the goal of AI should be to pass the Turing Test is such the wrong way to think that I don't know where to start.
So the Turing Test may be unimportant, but AI carries on.
The Turing Test Is Just As Bad When Inverted, Kenneth M. Ford and Patrick J. Hayes, 1996.
www.compapp.dcu.ie /~humphrys/turing.test.html   (639 words)

 News Indexed by Topic - TURING TEST
In 1950, Turing wrote a paper that proposed a test in which a person in one room would ask questions of both a human and a computer in another to try to determine which of the respondents was human.
Turing invoked the notion of a 'universal machine' that could be given instructions to perform a variety of tasks.
Visual tests in a sense turn that theory on its head, assuming that a machine is defined by its inability to perform a task that is easy for most humans to accomplish.
www.aaai.org /AITopics/newstopics/turing.html   (14078 words)

 What is Turing test? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
A test devised by the English mathematician Alan M. Turing to determine whether or not a computer can be said to think like a human brain.
The test is simple: a human interrogator is isolated and given the task of distinguishing between a human and a computer based on their replies to questions that the interrogator poses.
After a series of tests are performed, the interrogator attempts to determine which subject is human and which is an artificial intelligence.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/T/Turing_test.html   (256 words)

 turing test
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The commitment to accurately reproducing this sound means that turing test travels with 4 fully automated mixers and a complete, tri-amped PA system that enable the band to create a true stereo live experience.
Melancholy melodies that impel the listener to wander an internal landscape, sometimes aimlessly, sometimes with conviction are at the core of the songs turing test is currently recording.
www.turingtest.com   (405 words)

Turing's rationale: "The question and answer method seems to be suitable for introducing almost any one of the fields of human endeavor which we wish to include" (Turing 1950, p.435).
Turing's analysis: "The [imitation] game may perhaps be criticized on the ground that the odds are weighted too heavily against the machine.
Turing's Second Prediction: I believe that at the end of the century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted." (Turing 1950, p.452)
members.aol.com /lshauser/turingho.html   (1074 words)

 computing machinery and intelligence - a.m. turing, 1950
According to the most extreme form of this view the only way by which one could be sure that a machine thinks is to be the machine and to feel oneself thinking.
The game (with the player B omitted) is frequently used in practice under the name of viva voce to discover whether some one really understands something or has 'learnt it parrot fashion'.
The situation could be regarded as analogous to that which would occur if the interrogator were talking to himself and one of the competitors was listening with his ear to the wall.
www.abelard.org /turpap/turpap.htm   (11247 words)

 MAW 97 CIPHERS The Turing Test   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Emulating a Turing machine, an article by George McMurdo of Queen Margaret College, Edinburgh.
References to the Turing Test, with responses to various objections.
RoBots and the Turing Test from MDA Computing Ltd's glossary of computing terms.
www.math.arizona.edu /~dsl/ttest.htm   (97 words)

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