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Topic: Twelve tone system

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In the News (Sat 15 Jun 19)

  Music-Science Glossary
For instance, in twelve tone equal temperament, the twelve chromatic pitch classes are the gamut from which the various major and minor scales are chosen.
The term "overtone" implies that the frequency component in question is part of a complex tone with harmonic characteristics, whereas the term "partial" implies that the frequency component in question may be part of a complex tone with inharmonic characteristics.
The perceptual quality of a tone as determined by relative intensity of the frequency or frequencies of which it is composed.
www.music-science.net /Glossary.html   (2511 words)

  Artistopia Music -
The tone row is chosen by the composer, and consists of all twelve different tones of the chromatic scale.
Twelve tone, as all atonal music - in spite of the simplicity of its rules - is not an easy system to use.
Twelve tone composers choose their initial row of tones, and then draw up a grid or matrix which contains all the transpositions of the row, all the inversions, retrogrades and retrograde inversions.
www.artistopia.com /Music-Forums/ReadThread.asp?forumid=4&threadid=1911   (1304 words)

 Twelve-Tone System - Search Results - MSN Encarta   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
System, any collection of component elements that work together to perform a task.
Solar System, the system consisting of the Sun; the nine planets and their satellites; the asteroids, comets, and meteoroids; and interplanetary...
Endocrine System, associated organs and tissues of the body that collectively release substances known as hormones.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Twelve-Tone_System.html   (176 words)

 Stockhausen's New Morphology of Musical Time, Serialism: C. Koenigsberg December 1991
Schoenberg's twelve-tone system, of course, is his method of composition in which all twelve notes of the equal-tempered chromatic scale are given equal prominence, so that no rules of tonal harmony govern the choice of pitches in musical material.
The twelve pitch classes are arranged into a specified order called a "tone row" or "series", which is then used to generate all pitches of a given composition.
Stockhausen's need for a system of proportions that is perceivable as the fundamental organizational characteristic of his music is, in part, a reaction to these and other perceived shortcomings of the "pointillist" style which lacked such a characteristic.
www.music.princeton.edu /~ckk/smmt/serialism.3.html   (4966 words)

 Twelve-tone technique - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The basis of twelve-tone technique is the tone row, an ordered arrangement of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale (the twelve equal tempered pitch classes).
P, R, I and RI can each be started on any of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale, meaning that 47 permutations of the initial tone row can be used, giving a maximum of 48 possible tone rows.
For instance, in some pieces two or more tone rows may be heard progressing at once, or there may be parts of a composition which are written freely, without recourse to the twelve-tone technique at all.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/12-tone_system   (1302 words)

 History Channel Search Results
A composition is then built by using each tone of the row in turn, beginning again with the first tone each time the end of the row is reached.
Tones may be used one after another, as melody, or simultaneously, as chords.
The twelve-tone system was the first and most famous formulation of the concept of serialism, which is the most far-reaching innovation of 20th-century music.
www.historychannel.com /thcsearch/thc_resourcedetail.do?encyc_id=224691   (361 words)

 Twelve-Tone Composition
Note that each repeating unit is a collection of all of the pitch values commonly employed in the Western harmonic system.
f# and g) is a "semitone." A tone is the distance between two pitches seperated by one pitch (eg.
The original ordering of the twelve tones is referred to as the prime (P) form of the row.
www.geocities.com /al6an6erg/serial.html   (1085 words)

 Stichting Huygens-Fokker: Theory
This means, evidently, that the distance from one tone to the next is smaller than in the usual twelve tone system.
But by the use of microtonal tone systems usually music originates that has a wholly new sound, which cannot be brought under the usual denominators of the music of the twentieth century.
We call a tone system microtonal if it contains intervals which are smaller than a minor second (semitone), or are not a multiple of it, in other words: "fall between the piano keys".
www.xs4all.nl /~huygensf/english/theory.html   (932 words)

 [No title]
Because there is more than one system in use, it would be simply wrong to argue that one is the Òbest.Ó But still, given the success of this system, there exists the argument that we have arrived at this system for reasons other than arbitrary conventions and continued tradition.
The distance between half tones is not equal, but that is not important; the goal of Just Intonation is not to satisfy equal temperament, but to make the intervals with respect to the first tone sound as pure as possible.
Variables x and y represent the tone of the scale closest to the 3/2 ratio, and the quantity of tones in the scale, respectively.
www.math.niu.edu /~rusin/uses-math/music/proj2/WhyXTwelveXTonesX.doc   (5420 words)

 twelve-tone system
Method of musical composition invented by Arnold Schoenberg about 1921 in which all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are arranged in a particular order of the composer's choice, without repeating any of the notes.
Such an arrangement is called a ‘series’ or ‘tone row’.
The initial series may be transposed, divided, and otherwise mutated to provide a complete resource for all melodic and harmonic material in a work.
www.tiscali.co.uk /reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0019080.html   (233 words)

 What Is "The Matrix"?
To Schoenberg and his students, the purpose of twelve-tone technique was primarily avoidance of tonality through the systematic creation of a "democracy of tones." Experimental music without tonality prior to the development of the twelve-tone process seldom succeeded in offering enough musical cohesion to allow for movements of considerable length.
As this upside down and backwards presentation of a tone row is simply the inversion form in reverse, it is found on the matrix by reading the desired transposition of the inversion form backwards (from bottom to top).
The process of serializing musical elements other than pitch involves the selection of twelve (or however many elements are in the series used in the piece) rhythmic values, dynamic levels, types of attacks, etc. The row orderings are then followed in adding all of these parameters to the music.
www.robertkelleyphd.com /12-tone.htm   (3502 words)

 US School Bulletin
Renaissance European culture employed Arabic algebra to evolve a twelve-tone system after hundreds of years of five and seven-tone modal music taught in the Church by means of vocal solfeggio.
Note that a tempered twelve-tone system was used by the Chinese over 3000 years ago, as proven by the unearthing of sets of bronze bells.
The solfeggio system was expanded to include twelve tones, and musical training in Europe continued to be taught vocally before instrumentally.
www.usschoolofmusic.com /catalog/history1.html   (864 words)

 The Tone Clock, Theo Hoogstins
This system is based on three chords taken from this scale: tonic, dominant and subdominant, and their relation to each other.
Melodies and twelve tone sequenses are very well supported by these harmonies, and allthough there is no recognizible tone center, a very transparent opennes can be derived from this way of composing.
In bar 21 till 26 the melody is a twelve tone sequence, harmonised with tetrads of the seventh hour.
www.xs4all.nl /~duodenum/triosonic/docs/toonklok-e.html   (1429 words)

 Sonic Glossary: Twelve-Tone Composition
A technique in which the twelve pitches of the Western chromatic scale are ordered in a series and used to generate the harmonic material for a piece of music.
Twelve-Tone Composition is a technique in which the twelve pitches of the Western chromatic scale are ordered in a series and used to generate the harmonic material for a piece of music.
Homophonic and polyphonic textures (of both the imitative and non-imitative variety) may be created, by either dividing up the notes of a single series or simultaneously employing more than one form of the series.
www.columbia.edu /ccnmtl/draft/paul/sonic/ttc.html   (1025 words)

 The Music Chamber - The 12-Tone Series
This way, the tones are now interpreted in terms of their relation to each other, and not to any one key tone.
This was what Schoenberg had in mind when he originally called the system a "Method of Composing with Twelve Tones Which are Related Only One with Another." The technique makes it impossible for any one tone to assume more importance than any other.
It's important to remember that the twelve-tone system has been refined and varied by different composers, much like the traditional methods of composition had also been changed and modified.
library.thinkquest.org /27110/noframes/periods/twelvetone.html   (478 words)

 [No title]
All twelve pieces are based on the same series, and the four basic forms of the series are utilized in a manner which is quite consistent with Schoenberg’s conception of twelve-tone theory.
In the seventh piece in the set, as Carlson notes, Krenek repeats tones before the series has been completely stated, a practice not permitted in strict twelve-tone writing, in order to achieve the desired level of energy and intensity (109).
In his notes on the compositional technique of this collection, Krenek observes that “in the subsequent four pieces the basic tone row is used in different, less rigid ways, showing more recent developments of the twelve-tone technique.” In these pieces, the row is divided into groups of tones (into three four-tone groups in No.
www.oglethorpe.edu /faculty/~r_blumenthal/liner_notes.htm   (1877 words)

 Historical Overview
In 1904, some twenty years before Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone system, another Austrian, Johann Ailler, devised and published a notation system suited to the twelve semitones of the equally tempered octave.
Albert Brennink, the developer of the notation system under discussion, managed to trace Ailler's descendants to a family farm in the Village of Stetteldorf am Wagram, where he lived at the beginning of the century.
What is significant is that Ailler's preoccupation with the twelve chromatic notes of the scale as a separate notation system, occurred well before Schoenberg finalised his dodecaphonic system.
www.islandnet.com /~chroma/Historical_Overview.html   (681 words)

 [No title]
Some of the promoters of the 31-tone system point to the major third, which is so much better than that of the 19-tone system that they cannot understand why anyone would want to use 19 at all if they could afford 31.
Difference tones of the first order are the strongest, being equal in frequency to the difference of the two original frequencies, hence the name.
The summational tone has a frequency equal to the sum of the two tones generating it, and when heard, is more annoying than difference tones.
sonic-arts.org /darreg/XHB5.HTM   (6636 words)

 Twelve-tone technique - Wikiquote
Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg.
The ordering principle is the basis of the twelve-tone system formulated by Schoenberg, the partitioning principle the basis of the system formulated around the same time by Hauer.
In Schoenberg's compositional practice, however, the concept of a segmental pitch-class content is represented as well, as a basis for the association of paired inversionally related set forms.
en.wikiquote.org /wiki/Twelve-tone_technique   (350 words)

 The Twelve-Tone Method of Musical Construction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In this system all 12 pitches are equally important.
There are various ways of arriving at a tone row and some rows are thought to have less potential than others.
You may be interested to know that there are a great many possible tone rows.
atschool.eduweb.co.uk /westonroad/musicnet/twelvetone_1.htm   (719 words)

 The New Yorker: The Critics: A Critic At Large   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In Berg's "Über die Grenzen," or "Beyond the Bounds," the twelve tones of the chromatic scale sounded simultaneously, as if all the strings on a piano were being made to vibrate without any of the keys being struck.
The tonal system, he says, has given in to "inbreeding and incest." Romantic chords such as the diminished seventh are "hermaphroditic," "vagrant," and "cosmopolitan." "The end of the system is brought about with such inescapable cruelty by its own functions.
His new means of expression was the twelve-tone system, which he introduced in the early twenties, in the Suite for Piano and the Serenade for baritone and chamber ensemble.
www.newyorker.com /critics/atlarge/?020218crat_atlarge   (4035 words)

 twelve-tone technique
A method of composing developed by Schoenberg; it is presented in his textbook Method of Composing with Twelve Notes Which are Related Only to One Another.
the twelve-tone system is a “set of elements, relations between elements and operations upon elements” (Milton Babbitt, The Function of Set Structure in the Twelve-Tone System, PhD, Princeton University, 1946, published in 1992).
One means, by ‘permutational’, that the primary structural focus is on configurations of all twelve possible pitch-classes (in time), and on the relations among such configurations; this as opposed to primary structural focus on combinations of some of the twelve pitch-classes.”
www.termisti.refer.org /data/settheory/113.html   (347 words)

 Thoughts on composition
There is no social agreement about musical ideals today in contrast to centuries past, so the modern composer has to find his own personal esthetics and musical ideals and is unable to rely solely on traditions from the past.
My tonality can be described as an enlarged modality and I have always believed the impulse of the avant-garde to enforce a new musical experience, even a new consciousness in general, through experimentation and extreme practices, a vain pursuit.
I conclude that only a tonal system extended in the direction of microtones based on a 'just' intonation will provide a solution acceptable to the majority of people.
members.aol.com /musikstamm/komposen.htm   (784 words)

 Perle6   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Nobody's ears are that bad that they would accept the 7th as given to you by the overtone system as the 7th of a dominant 7th.
So in a whole tone scale you have a lot of intervals that are the same, so you constantly hear a major second, a major third, and you're constantly getting a kind of self-similarity in the structure.
The sort of axiomatic sense of the twelve-tone system, on the other hand, is one in which you've got all twelve pitch classes.
www.admin.ias.edu /air/words/Perle6.html   (802 words)

Thus the tonality of classical music reflected in its structure the sociopolitical context that gave rise to it: both were “closed systems” (92) that found their philosophical counterpart in Hegel.
The development of the twelve-tone system was intended to emancipate music from the hierarchical tyranny of tonality, but this “liberation” resulted in a rigid system that limited the composer’s options even more severely.
Furthermore, the socioeconomic and political implications of the twelve-tone system were fatal for humanity.
www.humanities.ualberta.ca /seminar/display.cfm?ReviewID=109   (769 words)

 Webern, Anton,   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Webern was born Dec. 3, 1883, in Vienna, where he studied under the eminent Austrian musicologist Guido Adler (1855-1941) at the University of Vienna and, beginning in 1904, privately with Schoenberg.
His music during the period between his Six Pieces (1910) for orchestra and the Five Canons (1924) for soprano and two clarinets was marked by sparse textures, small instrumental ensembles, and highly compact musical construction.
His use of shifting tone colors is remarkably illustrated in his 1932 orchestration of the Ricercar from Johann Sebastian Bach's Musical Offering.
cartage.org.lb /en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/W/Webern/e1.html   (322 words)

 Day 5 - Math 290
The twelve note sequence {5, 0, 7, 2, 9, 4, 11, 6, 1, 8, 3, 10}, translated to the common musical note system becomes {F, C, G, D, A, E, B, F#, C#, G#, D#, A#} and is known as the circle of fifths.
Hard to say, but since clashing of tones which do not form ratios of frequencies very close to natural tunings is inevitable, it should be a given that music performed in this system will sound harsher or more dissonant than music performed in the familar twelve tone system in common use.
By combining the twelve rotations with the two reflections--essentially reflection or no reflection--there are twenty-four different such 12-gons of notes, thus the term dihedral group of order twenty-four.
soucc.southern.cc.oh.us /home/jdavidso/Math/Math290Project/Day5.html   (1592 words)

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