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Topic: Ultrahard fullerite


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  Fullerite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Polymerized single walled nanotubes (P-SWNT) are a class of fullerites and are comparable to diamond in terms of hardness.
Specifically, it is a unique version of fullerene (which is a class of spherical, ellipsoidal, or tubular carbon molecules) with three-dimensional polymer bonds.
Ultrahard fullerite has a hardness value of 310 GPa, though the actual value may range ±40 GPa, since testing done using an ultrahard fullerite tip on ultrahard fullerite will lead to, like diamond on diamond, distorted values.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ultrahard_fullerite   (374 words)

  
 Fullerite
Fullerite sind Substanzen, welche aus einem Gemisch eines bestimmten oder unterschiedlicher Fulleren...
Ultrahard fullerite (C60) is a unique version of buckminsterfullerene with three-dimensional polymer bonds.
On a Possible Melting Curve of C60 Fullerite On a Possible Melting Curve of C60 Fullerite We study thermodynamic properties of the high-temperature modification of fullerites on the basis of the Girifalco intermolecular potential.
www.toprocks.net /MineralList/33/Fullerite.asp   (606 words)

  
 Physics - Numericana
Ultrahard fullerite is a polymerized phase of fullerene discovered in 1995, which is the object of several patents awarded to Dr. Michael Yu.
Because ultrahard fullerite is so much harder than diamond, we may venture the guess that it's harder than carbon nitride as well, but we won't know for sure until someone manages to make a carbon nitride crystal big enough to test...
This is also the correct way to extend to diamond (and/or substances like ultrahard fullerite, the hardest stuff known to Man) a scale like the Vickers scale, which is normally based on direct readings from instruments with diamond indenters (valid for ordinary materials, compared to which diamond may be considered "infinitely hard").
home.att.net /~numericana/answer/physics.htm   (4879 words)

  
 Harder than Diamond
In 2000 a team at Northwestern University, Illinois claimed to have created atom-thick layers of the material by magnetron sputtering: creating at least partially sp³-bonded crystalline carbon nitrides at the junction of successive layers of titanium nitride and carbon nitride.
The hardest substance known today is ultrahard fullerite, C
It has been shown that ultrahard fullerite when testing diamond hardness with a scanning force microscope can scratch diamond.
www.24carat.co.uk /harderthandiamond.html   (622 words)

  
 lulprsp
In 1989, investigations were started on ultrafast processes in solids, such as the relaxation of charge carriers in semiconductors [6, 7], metals [9], high-temperature superconductors [9 16], fullerites [17 27], polymers and other carbon-bearing compounds [28 30], and semiconductor microcavities [31 33].
It can be a metal in the form of graphite, a semiconductor in the form of diamond or fullerite, a superconductor, when doped with suitable materials, and a polymer, when bonded with hydrogen and other elements.
In this connection, the laboratory has been engaged, in collaboration with the laboratory of nonophysics, with investigations into the ultrafast (femtosecond-scale) processes of relaxation of electronic excitations in various carbon-bearing materials fullerens and fullerites, polymers, and various carbon films.
www.isan.troitsk.ru /dls/laulpsp.htm   (3243 words)

  
 Ultrahard fullerite - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music
Ultrahard fullerite - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music
It has been shown 1 2 that ultrahard fullerite when testing diamond hardness with a scanning force microscope can scatch diamond.
A Type IIa diamond (111) has a hardness value of 167±6 GPa when scratched with an ultrahard fullerite tip.
www.music.us /education/U/Ultrahard-fullerite.htm   (415 words)

  
 Information on diamond rings diamond grading diamond clarity diamond quality diamond buying diamond cut information on ...
The material boron nitride, when in a form structurally identical to diamond, is nearly as hard as diamond; a currently hypothetical material, beta carbon nitride, may also be as hard or harder in one form.
Furthermore, it has been shown 1 (http://www.mrs.org/publications/jmr/jmra/articles/1997/nov/p03109.pdf) 2 (http://www.mtu-net.ru/nanoscan/files/article_03.pdf) that ultrahard fullerite (C60) (not to be confused with P-SWNT Fullerite) when testing diamond hardness with a scanning force microscope can scratch diamond.
A Type IIa diamond (111) has a hardness value of 167 GPa (±6) when scratched with an ultrahard fullerite tip.
diamond-information.tripod.com   (864 words)

  
 The Infinite Cat Project - Slide #55 Zsa
Diamond is the hardest material known to man and one of the two best known forms (or allotropes) of carbon, whose hardness and high dispersion of light make it useful for industrial applications and jewelry.
(The other equally well known allotrope is graphite.) Diamonds are specifically renowned as a mineral with superlative physical qualities — they make excellent abrasives because they can be scratched only by other diamonds, Borazon, ultrahard fullerite, or aggregated diamond nanorods, which also means they hold a polish extremely well and retain luster.
About 130 million carats (26,000 kg) are mined annually, with a total value of nearly USD $9 billion.
www.infinitecat.com /infinite/cat-html/1-100/55.html   (359 words)

  
 Boron nitride Information Center - boron nitride powder   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Structurally, it is isoelectronic to carbon and takes on similar physical boron nitride bond order forms: a hexagonal, graphite-like one, and a cubic, boron nitride nickel boron nitride spray diamond-like one.
Cubic boron nitride is one of the hardest materials boron cabide & boron nitride & manufacturer known, behind pollycrystaline cubic boron nitride products only cubic boron nitride diamond and ultrahard fullerite.
It is widely used for grinding and as a material boron nitride powder for tools in industry.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Chemistry_Topics_Ap_-_B/Boron_nitride.html   (241 words)

  
 Believe it or not! - The Naked Scientists Science Discussion Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
1) Ultrahard fullerite, which is roughly twice as hard as diamond, is a network solid containing buckyballs that are interconnected with one another.
There are several different varieties of fullerite, one of them is called superhard fullerite.
I have read from other sources that ultrahard fullerite has been used in a scratch test with diamond.
www.thenakedscientists.com /forum/index.php?topic=533   (1026 words)

  
 HIGH-PRESSURE POLYMERIZATION
Polymerization of nanotubes is possible by analogy with ultrahard fullerite, since the nanotube is a graphite sheet curved into a cylinder, while fullerene is that curved to sphere.
Success in ultrahard fullerite synthesis using stress tensor variation in a shear diamond anvil cell (SDAC) demonstrates the advantages of this procedure.
The application of shear deformation (stress tensor variation) decreases the hysteresis of a phase transformation and makes it possible to obtain a homogeneous phase.
www.eng.auburn.edu /department/ee/ADC-FCT2001/ADCFCTabstract/101.htm   (560 words)

  
 E-sangha, Buddhist Forum and Buddhism Forum > Geshe Michael Roach
However, aggregated diamond nanorods, an allotrope of carbon first synthesized in 2005, are now believed to be even harder than diamond.
Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are an allotrope of carbon believed to be the least compressible material known to humankind, as measured by its isothermal bulk modulus; aggregated diamond nanorods have a modulus of 491 gigapascals (GPa), while a conventional diamond has a modulus of 442 GPa.
This isnt as esoterical data as it may sound - the actual figures were unknown to me but i remember we did mention fullerite and nanotubes in highschool chemistry as being harder...
www.lioncity.net /buddhism/lofiversion/index.php/t9832-1250.html   (8950 words)

  
 Hardness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The hardest substance known today is ultrahard fullerite which has an estimated Hardness 1.17-1.52 times that of diamond.
However, this material is currently available only in microscopic quantities: its Scratch Hardness had to be measured under the atomic force microscope.
Estimates from proposed molecular structure indicate the Hardness of beta carbon nitride should also be greater than diamond (but less than ultrahard fullerite).
hardness.iqnaut.net   (379 words)

  
 Steerable horizontal subterranean drill bit having offset cutting tooth paths - Patent 6810973   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
An apparatus as recited in claim 1 wherein at least one of said elevated wear protectors has a material selected from the group consisting of tungsten carbide, cubic boron carbonitride, cubic boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, polycrystalline diamond, monocrystalline diamond, quartz, cubic zirconium oxide and ultrahard fullerite.
An apparatus as recited in claim 15 wherein at least one of said elevated wear protectors has a material selected from the group consisting of tungsten carbide, cubic boron carbonitride, cubic boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, polycrystalline diamond, monocrystalline diamond, quartz, cubic zirconium oxide and ultrahard fullerite.
An apparatus as recited in claim 15 wherein said drill bit mounting face is situated at an angular orientation with respect to said drill bit longitudinal axis that is selected to be an angular orientation other than perpendicular and parallel.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6810973.html?highlight=6186251   (7849 words)

  
 Steerable horizontal subterranean drill bit having elevated wear protector receptacles - Patent 6814168
An apparatus as recited in claim 16 wherein not less than about 20% of said shank may be covered by elevated wear protectors placed in said receptacles.
An apparatus as recited in claim 16 further comprising a plurality of elevated wear protectors; wherein at least one of said elevated wear protectors has a material selected from the group consisting of tungsten carbide, cubic boron carbonitride, cubic boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, polycrystalline diamond, monocrystalline diamond, quartz, cubic zirconium oxide and ultrahard fullerite.
When installing underground cables, wire and pipe, it is often uneconomical or even impossible to employ traditional excavation methods in order to bury the cable, wire or pipe.
www.freepatentsonline.com /6814168.html   (8051 words)

  
 Main Page - Buckyrules
In the Parchment model, a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself, resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled up newspaper.
Polymerized single walled nanotubes (P-SWNT) are a class of fullerites and are comparable to diamond in terms of hardness (see also ultrahard fullerite).
A nanotorus is a carbon nanotube bent into a torus (donut shape).
www.buckyrules.com   (7427 words)

  
 Mysteria Onera: Grand Theory of Physics, Music Analyzer, The Diamond Age
The ability to produce composites means you can (for example) combine diamond and Teflon to produce a super-strong surface that nothing sticks to.
* Finally, you also get fullerene in all its various incarnations:- including buckyballs, buckytubes, and ultrahard fullerite - which happens to be even harder and stronger than diamond, but unfortunately, there may be toxicity issues.....
At the moment, all the above materials are comparatively rare and expensive to produce, though prices should drop over time.
www.skytopia.com /project/tech/6tech.html   (2175 words)

  
 Gundanium vs. Adamantium - Wizards Community
Boron-Carbide is *exceptionally* hard; it's often referred to as 'Black Diamond' and is used in modern Tank Armor.
I tend to conisder Diamond and Carbon Fullerane (Ultrahard Fullerite anyone?) the top tier of feisable hardnesses without magic, so since anything based on Boron Carbide's hardness (Which is something like only 30 Gigapascels less then a Type III ballistic diamond) is by default in that range.
So for a non-magical matieral, said cermet would canonically be in whatever continuity, similar or riviling Adamantine.
boards1.wizards.com /showthread.php?goto=lastpost&t=717305   (3159 words)

  
 ULTRAHARD FULLERITE Articles from AMAZINES.COM - The Article Database and EZine Publishers Database
ULTRAHARD FULLERITE Articles from AMAZINES.COM - The Article Database and EZine Publishers Database
Read about the most recent changes and happenings at Amazines.com
Showing 1 to 25 of 0 Articles matching 'Ultrahard fullerite' in related articles.
www.amazines.com /Ultrahard_fullerite_related.html   (488 words)

  
 Topica Email List Directory
they can be scratched only by other diamonds, Borazon, ultrahard
fullerite, or aggregated diamond nanorods, which also means they hold a
Are diamonds really as rare and valuable as you think?
lists.topica.com /lists/Rondout/read/message.html?mid=812324569&...   (3123 words)

  
 Answers from RedJohn - Answerbag.com
Yes, diamond is the hardest naturally-occuring mineral known.
There are a handfull of synthetic materials that are harder than natural diamond, including artificial diamond, ultrahard fullerite, aggregated diamond nanorods, and borazon....
Why are the neutrino detectors built deep in the Earth?
www.answerbag.com /user/sub_review.php?list=a&sort=rating_count&order=desc&id=36531   (1317 words)

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