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Topic: Umar II

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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  Islam and Fragmentation, to 1200 CE
Umayyads Caliphs from Yazid to Umar II In the late 670s the aging caliph Mu'awiyah nominated as his successor the son of his favorite wife, a Christian.
The third was the grandson of the former caliph Umar (Omar).
Umar II died in 720, at the age of thirty-nine, after less than three years in office.
www.fsmitha.com /h3/h08is.htm   (5112 words)

  Umar II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Umar was a great-grandson of the second Rightly Guided Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom the Sunnis regard as one of the Prophet's closest and most prominent companions.
Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman.
Umar learned of this on his death bed and pardoned the culprit, collecting the punitive payments he was entitled to under Islamic Law but depositing them in the public treasury.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Umar_ibn_Abd_al-Aziz   (1171 words)

 Umar II: bio and encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Umar confiscated all estates seized by Ummayad "royalty" and redistributed it to the people, while making it a personal goal to attend to the needs of every person in his empire.
On the military frontier, the armies of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz were successful in beating off an attack from Turks (A native or inhabitant of Turkey) in Azerbaijan (A landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet).
Umar would find out about this on his death bed, and pardoned the culprit, only seizing the bribe money and sending it to the public treasury.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/u/um/umar_ii1.htm   (827 words)

 Umar II - Wikipedia
Umar II (lengkap: Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, lahir Halwan, Mesir 63H/682, wafat 719) adalah putra Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan, gubernur Mesir saat itu, dan Umm Asim, cucu Umar ibn Khattab.
Umar II dibesarkan di Madinah, dibawah bimbingan Abdullah ibn Umar ibn Khathab, salah seorang periwayat hadis terbanyak.
Umar II menjadi khalifah menggantikan Sulaiman bin Abdul-Malik yang wafat pada tahun 716.
id.wikipedia.org /wiki/Umar_II   (206 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Umar II
Umar was a great-grandson of the second Rightly Guided Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab.
As a reward, Umar brought this woman to his court and offered to marry her to his son Asim.
Umar instead preferred to live in modest dwellings and wore rough linens instead of royal robes.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Umar_II   (988 words)

 Umar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
`Umar was part of the first emigration (Hijrah) to Yathrib (renamed Medīnat an-Nabī, or simply Medina shortly thereafter) in 622 C.E. He was present at Badr, Uhūd, Khaybar, and the raid on Syria, as well as many other engagements.
In 625, `Umar's daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad.
`Umar's killer (Abū Lū`lū`ah) was a Persiann slave who is said to held a personal grudge against Umar; he stabbed the Caliph six times as `Umar led prayers in the Masjid an-Nabawī mosque in Medina and then committed suicide.
www.abitabouteverything.com /files/u/um/umar.html   (1544 words)

 Encyclopedia: Umar II
Encyclopedia: Umar II Only two countries in the world are doubly landlocked: Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan.
Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.
His 1974 missive to King Hassan II, "Islam or the Deluge," [2] which called on the king to step down, landed Yassine in a psychiatric hospital for three years and was the beginning of his ongoing confrontation with the regime.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Umar-II   (2792 words)

 Encyclopedia: Umar ibn al Khattab   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Umar belonged to a family of average class, but he was able to become literate and was well known for his physical strength, becoming a champion wrestler.
Umar was initially angered by this and began threatening them and accidentally struck his sister, but their resolve and fearlessness and the sight of his sister bleeding led Umar to a change of heart.
Umar's conversion to Islam strengthened its standing in the city of Mecca due to Umar's reputation as a great warrior and many of the Quraish who would torture the Muslims began to stop out of fear of Umar.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Umar-ibn-al_Khattab   (237 words)

 Middle Eastern History
In 720, 'Umar II died at the age of 59, and Sulaiman's brother, Yazid II, became caliph.
Many of 'Umar II's reforms were rescinded under his administration, and all land assessed as kharaj was taxed at the kharaj rate, irrespective of the race or religion of it's owner.
Financial problems: Hisham became unpopular because he was considered miserly; 'Umar II's reforms had depleted the revenue to the state and Hisham was forced to tighten the purse strings.
freepages.history.rootsweb.com /~batsto/Arab5.html   (950 words)

Ibn Thawban reported that 'Umar collected the zakat correctly and distributed it correctly and he gave to the agents according to the amount of work they did in it, at the same rate as he paid those who did similar work.
Arta' ibn al-Mundhir said, "Some people who were with 'Umar II told him to be cautious about his food, and they asked him to have a guard when he did his prayers, so that no one could assassinate him.
Wuhayb ibn al-Ward said, "We heard that when 'Umar II died, the fuqaha' came to his wife to console her and they said to her, 'We have come to give you our condulences regarding 'Umar.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/ABewley/Tabaqat.html   (2366 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Umar was concerned about this and is reported to have repeatedly warned his governors not to set the rates oppressively high.
Umar's involvement in land distribution was aimed at decentralization and the prevention of the rise of a feudalistic system.
In the Umayyad dynasty, Umar II felt that state participation in commerce is a form of unintended abuse of trust: "I am of the view that the ruler should not trade.
www.minaret.org /malaysia.htm   (11649 words)

 The History of the Muslims
Many of the later Caliphs and rulers acted unjustly, nor were they rightly guided, but the majority of Muslims developed the attitude of accepting their fate, as long as the ruler did not publicly go against the basic commandments of God and disrupt peace and unity among them.
'Umar was fifty-two years old when he was assassinated by a Persian craftsman who had been brought to Medina to embellish the formerly humble mud dwellings of the inhabitants.
One notable exception to the tribally focused Arabian style of rule was that of 'Umar Ibn `Abdul 'Aziz, generally known as 'Umar II (717-720).
www.nuradeen.com /Reflections/ElementsOfIslam51.htm   (2274 words)

 Secular Islam.NET: The Pact of Umar, and the status of non-Muslims in Muslim lands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
From domini.org, here is the text of the Pact of Umar, which spelled out exactly the "tolerance" granted (note the term "granted") to Christians (and Jews) in Muslim lands, and was the guideline for dhimmitude, the "pact of protection" Jews and Christians were bound to live under, or face death.
For that matter, his predecessor Umar I was infamous for his fanatical zeal for Islam and desire to destroy the unbelievers.
Umar ibn al-Khittab replied: Sign what they ask, but add two clauses and impose them in addition to those which they have undertaken.
www.secularislam.net /archives/000017.html   (1770 words)

 Occultation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
ii) The Prophet is reported to have said: "I and eleven of my descendants and you, O 'Ali, are the axis of the earth, that is, its tent pegs and its mountains.
Umar, was expected to be al-Qa'im al-Mahdi, since all the signs concerning the rise of al-Qa'im al-Mahdi related by al-Sadiq occurred during the revolt.
Umar died in 250/864, the Abbasids' fear increased because of the continuation of this revolt and al-Hasan b.
www.yamahdi.com /books/occultation/chap1.htm   (6379 words)

 PAR246 Hadith Criticism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The movement to finally record hadiths initiated by `Umar II and Ibn Shihab, though begun somewhat haphazardly, culminated with the six canonical collections after having received impetus from the establishment of the sunna as the second source of law in Islam, particularly through the efforts of the famous jurist Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi`i (d.
The report that the Umayyad caliph `Umar II commissioned the first collection of hadiths must be dismissed as untrustworthy because of the number of contradictions in the account and the absence of references to Abu Bakr ibn Hazm’s work in later literature.
With the death of `Umar and the successful promulgation of the `Uthmanic recension of the Qur'an, the two major fears regarding the use of hadiths were significantly diminished.
people.uncw.edu /bergh/par246/L21RHadithCriticism.htm   (16022 words)

 Umar II - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Umar II - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
During one of his frequent disguised journeys to check on the condition of his people, Umar overheard a milkmaid refusing to obey her mother's orders to sell adultered milk.
Umar II, External link, Umayyad caliphs, 682 births and 720 deaths.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Umar_II   (1169 words)

 Temporary Marriage in Islam (Part II)
The reason that in the original tradition, Imran Ibn Husain did not mention the name of Umar is that he was mindful of the bad temper of Umar, and because Umar said he will stone anyone who does that.
Even after the death of Umar, and even after Uthman, many companions did not accept the order of Umar and insisted that temporary marriage is lawful.
We believe that he was one of the companions of the Prophet, but we do not put him in a high position since, as you witnessed partially, there are strong proofs that he did some innovations based on his own Ijtihad which were terribly wrong.
al-islam.org /encyclopedia/chapter6a/2.html   (2396 words)

 Islam and Hadith (Sunnah of the Prophet) - The History of Hadith and the third stage of collection of Hadith
'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, commonly known as 'Umar II, the Umayyad Caliph, who ruled towards the close of the first century of Hijra, was the first man who issued definite orders to the effect that written collections of Hadith should be made.
I, p.174) But 'Umar II died after a short reign of two and a half years, and his successor does not seem to have interested himself at all in the matter.
Guillaume thinks that the issuing of orders by 'Umar II for the collection of Hadith is a later invention.
www.islamic-paths.org /Home/English/Hadith/History/Stage3.htm   (664 words)

 Rxpress - Caliph - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
After the first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn Abi Talib) the title was claimed by the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, as well as by other, competing lineages in Spain, Northern Africa, and Egypt.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz - Umayyad caliph considered by some (mainly Sunnis) to be a fifth rightly guided caliph.
Abdul Mejid II - 1922 - 1924 (ceremonial Caliph under the patronage of the Republic of Turkey and its president Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha)
www.rxpresspharmacy.com /wiki/index/Caliph   (3839 words)

 Islamic-World.net:Khalifah site for Muslims who love Allah and Jihad.
During Umar's reign, the Persians were defeated in Iraq and eastern Iran, effectively wiping out the Sassanid dynasty, while the Byzantines were defeated in Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
Umar was feared rather than loved: he had a harsh disposition and lived an ascetic lifestyle.
Abdülhamid II (ruled 1876-1909) developed strong ties with Germany, and the Ottomans fought on Germany's side in World War I. Russia hoped to use the war as an excuse to gain access to the Mediterranean and perhaps capture Constantinople.
www.islamic-world.net /khalifah/caliphate.htm   (6568 words)

 Lessons in Islamic Jurisprudence
The expansion of Muslim rule brought legal questions that had to be sorted out immediately, and the Islamic legal tradition would later consider the decisions on these legal questions to be an exercise in ijtihad, the effort to derive rulings from their proper sources.
While the first four caliphs had an enormous share in making the decisions which would become law, their successors, the dynasty of Umayyad caliphs, continued to promulgate their own rulings as binding legal decisions for matters as various as marriage, the law of sale, and blood-money.
The well-known “fiscal rescript” written by ‘Umar II (caliph from 99 A.H./717 A.D. to 101 A.H./720 A.D.), usually counted as the most pious of the Umayyads, shows this caliph ruling on the tax status of converts and kindred matters.
www.oneworld-publications.com /samples/lessons-in-islamic-jurisprudence.htm   (2992 words)

 Section II: History - Age of Umar Khitai   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Upon her coronation, Umar rechristened her capital city Khitain and she and Taranith Gestalt immediately set out to correct the flaws in the Imperial Portals that her brother Dhorman Khitai had begun.
The single greatest threat to the Empire during the Age of Umar was certainly the revelation that Taranith Gestalt was in fact a Darklord.
Before she fell, Umar called upon the Timelord Melchisidec to become regent and was then laid to rest under the Heart Place in Albion.
members.aol.com /swmyers/ii-6.htm   (446 words)

Hardships such as those they endured during the short reign of the zealous Umar II (717-720) and the repressions, which occurred under Mutawakkil (847-861) were, however, exceptions.
However, during the rule of the Ummayad caliph Umar II (717-720) there arose the concern to summon conquered peoples to Islam and to create favorable conditions allowing an equitable or better participation of all Muslims in the social and political life of the community.
For example, when Umar II tried to dismiss all dhimmis from government services, such confusion resulted that the order was ignored.
www.chaldeansonline.net /Banipal/English/dilemma-part2.html   (5647 words)

 Jewish History Sourcebook: Islam and the Jews: The Pact of Umar, 9th Century CE
Islam and the Jews: The Pact of Umar, 9th Century CE THE Pact of Umar is the body of limitations and privileges entered into by treaty between conquering Muslims and conquered non-Muslims.
There are many variants of the text and scholars deny that the text as it now stands could have come from the pen of Umar I; it is generally assumed that its present form dates from about the ninth century.
This is a writing to Umar from the Christians of such and such a city.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/jewish/jews-umar.html   (466 words)

 Shattered Christian Minorities in the Middle East
The outstanding consequence of this period, however, was the impressing on the masses of ordinary Muslims the view that Christianity was corrupt and unreliable.This, together with the death penalty for apostasy, kept the Muslims in lands ruled by the scimitar effectively insulated from Christian propaganda.
However, during the rule of the Ummayad caliph Umar II (717-720) there arose the concern to summon conquered peoples to Islam and to create favorable conditions allowing an equitable or better participation of all Muslims in the social and political life of the community.
For example, when Umar II tried to dismiss all dhimmis from government services, such confusion resulted that the order was ignored.
phoenicia.org /christiansmea.html   (10080 words)

 Umar II --  Encyclopædia Britannica
His father, 'Abd al-'Aziz, was a governor of Egypt, and through his mother he was a descendant of 'Umar I (second caliph, 634–644).
Mohammad II (Mehmed the Conqueror) (1432–81), Ottoman sultan, born in Adrianople (now Edirne); during rule (1444–46 and 1451–81), captured Constantinople and thus completed the Ottoman destruction of the Byzantine Empire; fourth son of Murad II; restored and repopulated Constantinople after capture in 1453; reorganized Ottoman administration, codified laws, encouraged scholarship...
Details the history of World War II in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines the role of the U.S. Army in the conflict.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9074189   (822 words)

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