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Topic: Umayyad


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  Umayyad
The Umayyads were the descendants of Ummayya ibn Abdi sh-Shams, a member of the Quraysh family of Mecca.
The time of the Umayyads was not a time of conversion to Islam, as people converting to Islam, were exempted from certain taxes, like the jizya, the tax of the dhimmis.
The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids.
lexicorient.com /e.o/umayyad.htm   (407 words)

  
  Umayyad
The Umayyads were the descendants of Ummayya ibn Abdi sh-Shams, a member of the Quraysh family of Mecca.
The time of the Umayyads was not a time of conversion to Islam, as people converting to Islam, were exempted from certain taxes, like the jizya, the tax of the dhimmis.
The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids.
i-cias.com /e.o/umayyad.htm   (399 words)

  
  Umayyad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads.
This established the Umayyad dynasty, and the capital of the caliphate was moved to Damascus.
The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab in 750, following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Umayyad   (475 words)

  
 c. The Umayyad Caliphate. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History
MU’AWIYA I, THE FOUNDER OF THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY.
The isle of Rhodes was taken by the Umayyads.
In 685–87 the Umayyads also faced the revolt organized in Kufa by al-Mukhtar on behalf of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya, a son of Ali by a concubine.
www.bartleby.com /67/289.html   (720 words)

  
 Umayyad - FREE Umayyad Biography | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information!
During the Roman and Umayyad periods, the average distance to the...
The Umayyad congregational mosque of Jarash in Jordan and its relationship to early mosques.(Research)
Muawiya ibn Abu Sufyan (died 680) was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty of caliphs.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-Umayyad.html   (1162 words)

  
 Umayyads
The Umayyad house was one of the major clans of the Quraysh tribe.
Discontent with the Umayyad regime manifested itself with the rebellion of Zayd b.
The last Umayyad caliph of Syria, Marwan II (744-750), attempted to restore order, but by this time the Abbasid revolutionary movement had gained momentum in the eastern provinces of the empire.
www.princeton.edu /~batke/itl/denise/umayyads.htm   (650 words)

  
 Wikipedia: Umayyad
The Umayyad Dynasty (ummawiyy) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Makkan tribe, the Quraish.
The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty.
An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.
www.factbook.org /wikipedia/en/u/um/umayyad.html   (190 words)

  
 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The shift in power to Damascus, the Umayyad capital city, was to have profound effects on the development of Islamic history.
With the advent of the Umayyads, how ever, secular concerns and the problems inherent in the administration of what, by then, was a large empire began to dominate the attention of the caliphs, often at the expense of religious concerns - a development that disturbed many devout Muslims.
The criticisms that religious men in Medina and elsewhere had voiced of Umayyad policy - particularly the pursuit of worldly goals - were not lost on 'Umar who, reversing the policy of his predecessors, discontinued the levy of a poll tax on converts.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Sec4.htm   (1225 words)

  
 Umayyad Dynasty --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The Umayyads, headed by Abu Sufyan, were a largely merchant family of the Quraysh tribe centred at Mecca.
It overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in AD 750 and reigned as the 'Abbasid caliphate until destroyed by the Mongol invasion in 1258.
The Lower Frontier (modern central Portugal) had enjoyed a measure of autonomy after the death of the Umayyad caliph al-Hakam II (976), when it was ruled by his freed slave, Sabur...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9074193   (787 words)

  
 The Jerusalem Archaeological Park - homepage   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Umayyad period (660-750 CE) is characterized by the reorganization of the Arab empire.
This period of continuous fighting ended in 692 CE, when the Umayyad kingdom was united under the rule of the great caliph `Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, whose major success was the realization of an administrative reform and the reorganization of the caliphate.
The Umayyad caliphate ended in 750 with the assassinations of Marwan II in Egypt and of the rest of the dynasty in Ramla by the Abassids.
www.archpark.org.il /netscape/article.asp?id=239   (317 words)

  
 Results for Umayyad   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest...
This established the Umayyad dynasty, and the capital of the caliphate was moved to...
One of them, apparently the palace of the Umayyad ruler, was attached to the wall of El-Aksa Mosque and contained a direct passage into it.
www.gogoglo.com /buscar/search/Umayyad   (177 words)

  
 Post Umayyad Spain & North Africa
Independent Umayyad rule in Spain began with the arrival in the Iberian peninsula of 'Abd al-Rahman I, al-Dakhil, in I38/755-6 and his successful assumption of authority there, with the defeat of both the incumbent governor and subsequent 'Abbasid attempts to reassert central control from Baghdad.
This last feature of Umayyad reaction to the 'Abbasids is worthy of note, for it in fact implied acceptance that there existed, indeed could exist, but a single caliphal institution; since the 'Abbasids occupied that institution, though as usurpers, the Umayyads themselves could not do so; but they could refuse explicit recognition.
It is clear that the Fatimid, in impugning the legitimacy of the Umayyad, both as a member of that family and as a caliph, had in mind his own Sunni subjects and other Sunnis farther west, among whom the Umayyad might win, or had already won, support against him.
islamiccoins.ancients.info /spain/PUSandNA.htm   (8581 words)

  
 Pilot Guides.com: The Road to Mecca: Umayyad Mosque
There are many minarets and pavilions on the Umayyad grounds that are worth a visit as well - the Minaret of the Bride, the Minaret of Qayt Bey, the Dome of the Clocks, the Minaret of Jesus and also the legendary burial site of the head of John the Baptist (from the famous Salome story).
In 661 AD under the Umayyad Dynasty, after Damascus became the capital of the Islamic Empire, the mosque became a purely Muslim place of worship.
Umayyad remains an extremely unique monument to this day - perhaps because of all the different influences and modifications over the centuries.
www.pilotguides.com /destination_guide/middle_east_and_north_africa/syria_jordan_and_lebanon/umayyad_mosque.php   (778 words)

  
 Umayyad: Just the facts...   (Site not responding. Last check: )
This established the Umayyad dynasty, the capital was moved to Damascus (An ancient city (widely regarded as the world's oldest) and present capital and largest city of Syria; according to the New Testament, the Apostle Paul (then known as Saul) underwent a dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus).
The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid (additional info and facts about Abbasid) dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab (additional info and facts about Battle of the Zab) in 750 (additional info and facts about 750), following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids.
An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I (additional info and facts about Abd-ar-rahman I), took over the Muslim territory in Spain (A parliamentary monarchy in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula; a former colonial power) and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/u/um/umayyad.htm   (934 words)

  
 Grabar. Ceremonial and Art
First, as later chapters will show, the Umayyads were conscious of being rulers of an "Empire" in the Byzantine or Sasanian sense of the word; that is, rulers of a great agglomeration of lands and cultures which they had united into one body.
Mu'awiyah and the Umayyads are thus exonerated from the accusation of having been the first ones to sit while pronouncing the khutbah.
All one can add is that, in their attempts to centralize and to organize the newly created empire, Mu'awiyah and his successors emphasized the political importance of the salat jama'ah and attempted to increase the prestige of the dynasty by surrounding their persons with a greater ceremonial than was customary in preceding times.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/med/grabar1.html   (5750 words)

  
 Umayyads - History for Kids!
After the death of Mohammed in 632 AD, the leadership of the new religion, and of the newly united Arab tribes, was taken over by Mohammed's upper-class father-in-law (through his second wife) Abu Bakr.
The Sunnis won, and established the Umayyad dynasty, with its capital at Damascus in Syria.
In Jerusalem, the Umayyads built the first major mosque, the Dome of the Rock, on the site of Solomon's Temple (and the place where Abraham almost sacrificed Isaac).
www.historyforkids.org /learn/islam/history/umayyads.htm   (568 words)

  
 Umayyad Dynasty   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Umayyads were able to change the caliphate from an elected position to one that was in effect hereditary.
The immense financial resources of the Islamic state, whose exchequer was swollen by the accumulated booty of the Arab conquests, were at the disposal of the Umayyad builders.
The capital of Umayyad Spain was at Cordoba.
users.telerama.com /~jdehullu/islam/more_006.htm   (325 words)

  
 Aanjar: Commercial Hub of the Umayyad Dynasty   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Umayyad Dynasty, which flourished for 100 years (660-750 AD) in the first century after Mohammed, was the first of two dynasties of the Arab Islamic empire.
The Umayyad caliphs were notable for establishing a large empire, which extended from Spain, through North Africa, to Central Asia.
It was built at a strategic location on the main caravan routes between the inland Umayyad capital of Damascus (Syria) and the coast, close to the abundant spring of Ain Gerrha and near the rich agricultural land of the Bekaa.
www.destinationlebanon.com /anjarmore.asp   (303 words)

  
 Civil War and the Umayyad Dynasty
The Umayyads continued to pass the Caliphate down through the ages among their family; but their now existed in Iraq a separate Islamic community that did not recognize the authority of the Umayyad Caliphs.
Throughout the Umayyad and the early Abassid period, the Kharjite movement was the center of almost all the opposition to these two caliphate dynasties.
But the Umayyads seem to be fairly uninterested in religious questions or the religious obligations of their position—it is rather as secular and secularizing rulers that their interest and greatness lies.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/ISLAM/UMAY.HTM   (2249 words)

  
 The Art of the Umayyad Period (661–750) | Thematic Essay | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The shaded portion indicates the greatest extent of the Umayyad caliphate.
The Umayyad period is often considered the formative period in
As with the arts, the Umayyad period was also critical in the development of Islamic architecture.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/umay/hd_umay.htm   (737 words)

  
 The Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyads in charge of the various governments would not accept this arrangement and rose up in rebellion and named Mu'awiyya caliph.
The Umayyads do not fare well in Islamic history which tells a tale of an unremitting line degenerate and weak caliphs; western historians have for the most part accepted this history.
This is not to say that the Umayyad caliphate was not unmarred by degeneracy and downright cruelty.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Umayyad.html   (2260 words)

  
 Damascus Old City and the Umayyad - by travel authority Howard Hillman
The Umayyad is renowned for the immense prayer hall.
Other Umayyad Mosque marvels include the vast courtyard (for scale, notice the blue-robed person in the photo) and the stunning mosaic work on the walls and archways.
Today the Umayyad Mosque is the fourth holiest site of Islam (after Mecca, Medina and the Dome of the Rock).
www.hillmanwonders.com /damascus/damascus.htm   (218 words)

  
 Archaeological Sites in Israel - Jerusalem: Umayyad Administration Center and Palaces
The new rulers, of the Umayyad Dynasty (660-750), aimed at changing the character of the city — from a Byzantine-Christian city of many churches, to a Muslim religious center and the administrative seat for a subdivison of their empire.
It was obviously the seat of the Umayyad caliph whenever he visited Jerusalem.
The palace was apparently constructed during the reign of the Umayyad caliph El-Walid I (705-715) and is similar to other fortified Umayyad palaces on the fringe of the desert in Transjordan and Syria.
www.newyork.israel.org /mfa/go.asp?MFAH00vd0   (630 words)

  
 Caliph Yazid and the Umayyad dynasties
It was charistically Umayyad that he should have passed a third of his nights listening to the history of the Arabs.
The tolerant policies of the Umayyads and their cooperation with the native Christian populations enabled the latter to play an important role by handing on to the conquerors much of their Greco-Aramaic culture and civilization.
The five military areas into which the Umayyads divided the country corresponded closely to the earlier Byzantine districts, and the general survival of pre-Arab machinery is reflected in the names for coins, weights and measures, which the Arabs adopted.
www.arabicnews.com /ansub/Daily/Day/980323/1998032326.html   (841 words)

  
 755 - 1002 Umayyad Dynasty   (Site not responding. Last check: )
A sub-branch of the Umayyad family ruled Spain from 755 until 1030.
Although puppet Caliphs lingered on until 1031, the power of the Umayyad's was broken by 1002 when the vizier Al-Mansur died.
The Umayyad Abd al-Rahman I crosses to Spain, defeats Yusuf al-Fihri, and becomes independent emir of Spain (Collins, 1983).
www.balagan.org.uk /war/0711/0755.htm   (981 words)

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