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Topic: Umayyad Caliphate

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  caliphate - HighBeam Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
CALIPHATE [caliphate], the rulership of Islam; caliph, the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state.
One Umayyad, Abd ar-Rahman I, escaped the general massacre of his family and fled to Spain; there the emirate of Córdoba was set up in 780.
A third competing contemporaneous caliphate was established by the Fatimids in Africa, Syria, and Egypt (909-1171).
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-caliphat.html   (568 words)

The Umayyad house was one of the major clans of the Quraysh tribe.
Discontent with the Umayyad regime manifested itself with the rebellion of Zayd b.
The last Umayyad caliph of Syria, Marwan II (744-750), attempted to restore order, but by this time the Abbasid revolutionary movement had gained momentum in the eastern provinces of the empire.
www.princeton.edu /~batke/itl/denise/umayyads.htm   (650 words)

 Caliphate - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Caliphate, office and realm of the caliph as supreme leader of the Muslim community and successor of the Prophet Muhammad.
Sokoto Caliphate, sometimes referred to as the “Fulani Empire”, ruled the Hausa lands of northern Nigeria for most of the 19th century.
Umayyad Caliphate (Arabic, Umawi), dynasty of caliphs which ruled the Arab caliphate of Islam from 661 until 750.
uk.encarta.msn.com /Caliphate.html   (113 words)

 Umayyad   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Umayyads were the descendants of Ummayya ibn Abdi sh-Shams, a member of the Quraysh family of Mecca.
The time of the Umayyads was not a time of conversion to Islam, as people converting to Islam, were exempted from certain taxes, like the jizya, the tax of the dhimmis.
The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids.
lexicorient.com /e.o/umayyad.htm   (399 words)

 [No title]
The Umayyad period (660-750 CE) is characterized by the reorganization of the Arab empire.
This period of continuous fighting ended in 692 CE, when the Umayyad kingdom was united under the rule of the great caliph `Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, whose major success was the realization of an administrative reform and the reorganization of the caliphate.
The Umayyad caliphate ended in 750 with the assassinations of Marwan II in Egypt and of the rest of the dynasty in Ramla by the Abassids.
www.archpark.org.il /article.asp?id=239   (317 words)

In the mid-eighth century the Umayyad Caliphate was displaced by the Abassids and the centre of power moved to Bagdad.
From the Umayyad Caliphate to the Kingdom of Granada
The Umayyad caliphs restored order in the interior of Al-Andalus, reinforced the borders with Christian centres, and extended their power through North Africa.
www.geocities.com /capitolhill/lobby/2679/al_andal_english.htm   (645 words)

 History of THE CALIPHS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Persia is the region in which resistance comes to a head against the caliphate of the Umayyads in Damascus.
Male members of the Umayyad family are hunted down and killed (though one survives to establish a new Umayyad dynasty in Spain).
There are times in the 10th century when the caliphs have little power outside the confines of Baghdad itself, but from the 11th century their prestige is to some degree restored.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?paragraphid=edq   (1144 words)

 Wide Angle. Printable Pages | PBS
Eventually Abu Bakr was appointed to the new position, known as the Caliphate (from "khalifa," the Arabic term for successor), and assumed spiritual and political leadership.
Muawiyah, the Umayyad governor of Syria, challenged Ali's authority as Caliph, and the empire fragmented, with both men claiming to be Caliph.
Baghdad itself served as the capital of the Sunni Caliphate on several occasions from the 8th through the 13th centuries; it was only part of a Shia state for the first few decades of the 16th century, when it came under Safavid rule.
www.pbs.org /wnet/wideangle/printable/iran_map_print.html   (2800 words)

 Follower Network --Imam Al-Sajjad [a.s]--
The Caliphate then passed onto the hands of Yazid's governor in Medina, the old Marwan b.al-Hakam, nephew of the third Caliph Uthman and who, together with his father, had been extended by the Prophet [pbuhandhf] from Medina.
Hanifa as the Imam Mahdi or Deliverer from the tyranny and injustice of the Umayyad.
Restricted by Ibn Zubayr and the successive Umayyad Caliphs who wrestled back Hijaz after Ibn Zubayr's death at the battle against Hajjaj, the Umayyad viceroy in Iraq, in 73 AH / 692 CE, Imam Zayn al-'Abidin [a] spent his time in worship and was known for his long prostrations.
follower.4t.com /i5.html   (1140 words)

 The Pride of Haroon
The Umayyad Caliphs of course had their own party of religious supporters, the Sunnis, who believed that doctrinal authority changed with the Caliphate, which itself was elective and any Quraysh – a member of the Prophet's tribe – was eligible.
Throughout the whole period of the Caliphate the Syrians, the Persians, the Egyptians and others, as Moslem converts or as Christians and Jews, were the foremost bearers of the torch of enlightenment and learning...
Caliphs upheld one theological view against another and demanded adherence to it on political grounds, with the inevitable result that theology soon became the handmaid of politics...
www.shunya.net /Text/Islam/PrideHaroon.htm   (5163 words)

 Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Cordovan Umayyad caliphate can truly be said to be fruit of his political and social genius, and it is to him and to his work that these short pages are dedicated.
However, the arguments brandished for the proclamation of the new Umayyad caliphate were of a religious nature, being “above all, the inheritance of the forefathers of the new caliph and the decadence of the ‘Abbasid caliphate” (Fierro 2001: 173).
The palace of the caliph and the administrative district were strategically situated on the highest of the three terraces, and the others contained the mosque, the zoco or markets, gardens, and some 400 houses for the court.
perso.wanadoo.es /neil/Caliph.htm   (13205 words)

 The Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyads continued to pass the Caliphate down through the ages among their family; but their now existed in Iraq a separate Islamic community that did not recognize the authority of the Umayyad Caliphs.
Throughout the Umayyad and the early Abassid period, the Kharjite movement was the center of almost all the opposition to these two caliphate dynasties.
But the Umayyads seem to be fairly uninterested in religious questions or the religious obligations of their position—it is rather as secular and secularizing rulers that their interest and greatness lies.
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/History/Umayyad.html   (2260 words)

 Islamic-World.net:Khalifah site for Muslims who love Allah and Jihad.
Uthman was a member of the wealthy Umayyad clan; his early conversion is noteworthy since most members of his clan did not convert until the conquest of Mecca in 630.
The Umayyad were the first to mint coins, such as this gold dinar of the Umayyad Caliph Hishâm(735 AD).
The upshot of this revolt was Mamoon's ascension to the Caliphate.
islamic-world.net /khalifah/caliphate.htm   (6568 words)

 The First Horseman of the Apocalypse
- The Dome of the Rock is built in Jerusalem by the Umayyad caliph 'Abd al-Malik to the identical dimensions of the dome on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Thus, there were three caliphates in the world of Islam at this time (the Abbasids, the Fatimids and the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba).
Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba falls; European Crusaders invade Jerusalem; Islamic Turks invade central Asia and India.
members.aol.com /firetruth/1stHorseman.htm   (3422 words)

 Royalty.nu - Royalty and Religion - The Caliphate, Fatimids, Aga Khan
The History of Al-Tabari: The Reunification of the Abbasid Caliphate, the Caliphate of Al-Ma Mun A.D. by Al-Tabari, translated by C.E. Bosworth.
Harun al-Rashid, the caliph portrayed in The Thousand and One Nights, was the son of a Yemenite slave who cleared his path to power.
Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography: Harun al-Rashid and the Narrative of the Abbasid Caliphate by Tayeb El-Hibri.
www.royalty.nu /history/religion/Caliphate.html   (818 words)

 Chronological Timeline
750-1258 The caliphate of the 'Abbasid dynasty (Banu l-'Abbas).
The last Umayyad caliph Marwan II was defeated in the decisive battle on the Great Zab and fell in Egypt (751).
934-40 Caliphate of al-Radi, during whose reign the power of the weakened caliph is usurped by the commander-in-chief of the army(amir al-umarÉ) (936).
www.princeton.edu /~batke/itl/chron.html   (6732 words)

 Umayyads (First caliphate dynasty) & Spanish Umayyads
The Spanish Umayyads were founded by Abed l-Rahman the 1st (756-788), a grandson of the Umayyad caliph Hisham, the only survivor of the Abbasid massacre of the Umayyads (750), who fled to Spain and seized power there.
He was able to expand the Umayyad territory towards the Fatimids in North Africa, becoming overlord of Fez and Mauritania in 932, and ruled over the state.
During the subsequent decline of the caliph's office under his young son Hisham the 2nd (976-1013), power was transferred to the victorious Amirids under the regent Al-Mansor (978-1002).
www.islamicarchitecture.org /dynasties/umayyads.html   (997 words)

 History of the Muslims, empires of Islam
The institution of the caliphs is called the "Caliphate." The office of caliph was held first by the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, then by the Umayyads, and then the Abbasids.
When Ali was elected Caliph, they believed that their views would finally dominate, but after Ali’s assassination, the leadership of the umma moved to the Umayyads.
The Umayyads were relatives of Uthman, the Third Righteous Caliph, and presented themselves as continuing the authority of the four preceding leaders.
biblia.com /islam/history.htm   (2490 words)

The Umayyads had always been outsiders—as a wealthy clan in Mecca, they had opposed Muhammad—and the secularism and sometime degeneracy that accompanied their caliphate delegitimized their rule for many devout Muslims.
The Umayyad caliphate flourished in Spain for the next three centuries and the Islamic culture that grew on this fertile soil, the Moorish culture, was dramatically different from the Iranian-Semitic culture that grew up around the 'Abbasid Caliphate.
An uprising in Mecca in 786 led to a massacre of Shi'ite 'Alids—the survivors, however, fled to the western region of Africa, or the Maghreb, and established a new and independent kingdom, the Idrisid kingdom.
islamiccoins.ancients.info /abbasid/abbasidcaliphs.htm   (1976 words)

For in the oriental part of the Arab empire, the Abbasid Caliphate was rapidly decaying and the real power increasingly shifting towards the army officers and palace guards who were mainly Turks and Daylamites, while in the occidental part, a new caliphate rule was proclaimed in north Africa by the Shiite Fatimids.
This undertaking was, of course, destined to provoke the other two caliphates and render him vulnerable to a double-thronged onslaught, not to mention the ever present threat posed by the Christian kings in the north.
But it was the Umayyads themselves, in a struggle for power who began digging the ditch underneath the new khalifa, thus encouraging other elements of the population to follow suit.
www.artopedia.com /chapter4.html   (7072 words)

 Syria - Umayyad Caliphate   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Umayyad Muslims established a military government in Syria and used the country primarily as a base of operations.
In the administration of law, the Umayyads followed the traditions set by the Hellenistic monarchies and the Roman Empire.
The Umayyads minted coins, built hospitals, and constructed underground canals to bring water to the towns.
countrystudies.us /syria/5.htm   (451 words)

 Maps of the Moselm/Hasemite Kingdom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
From 639 the governor of Syria was Mu'awiyah of the Meccan house of the Umayyads.
He was the first of the Umayyad line, which ruled the empire, with Syria as its core and Damascus its capital, for almost a century.
It overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in AD 750 and reigned as the 'Abbasid caliphate until destroyed by the Mongol invasion in 1258.
www.chn-net.com /teaching/endtimes/mapmusl.html   (4429 words)

 Umayyad Mosque   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The Umayyad mosque's religious significance was reinforced by its renowned in medieval manuscripts and ranking as one of the wonders of the world due to is beauty and scale of construction.
The caliph negotiated with Christian leaders to take over the space, and in return al-Walid promised that all the other churches around the city would be safe, with the addition of a new church dedicated to the Virgin granted to the Christians as compensation.
Recently, the original Umayyad level was restored with the stone patterns of the paving.
archnet.org /library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=7161   (1329 words)

 The Abassid Dynasty
For the most part, the Islamic impetus to the Abassid revolution lay in the secularism of the Umayyad caliphs.
The history of early Islam is a history of the spread of a single cultural force throughout the Iranian, Semitic, North African, and to a lesser extent, the Hellenistic and European worlds.
During the latter years of the Umayyad caliphate, that cultural and political unity began to break down.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/ISLAM/ABASSID.HTM   (1383 words)

 WHKMLA : History of Spain : Umayyad Spain, 755-1031
In 755, the UMAYYAD DYNASTY was ousted in Damascus, replaced by the ABBASID DYNASTY which resided in Baghdad.
Warfare between the Caliphate and the christian statelets of the north continued throughout the 10th century.
After eliminating all rivals, he reestablished the Caliphate as the dominant force on the peninsula, sacking SANTIAGE DE COMPOSTELA in 997 and forcing the Kingdom of Leon into submission.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/spain/umayyadspain.html   (494 words)

 THE HISTORY OF AL-TABARI: The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate
After the death of the caliph Hisham in 743-/125, the process of decay at the center of the Umayyad power--the ruling family itself--was swift and devastating.
Three Umayyad caliphs (al-Walid II, Yazid III, and Ibrahim) followed Hisham within little more than a year, and the subsequent intervention of their distant cousin Marwan b.
Sayyar was serving as the last Umayyad governor of Transoxiana and Khurasan, the very area from which the 'Abbasid Revolution was to spring.
www.bysiness.co.uk /tabari/vol26tabari.htm   (574 words)

 Tthornton : Umayyad Spain ( al-Andalus )
The caliphate of al-Hakam II (961-976) marked the high point of Islamic civilization in Muslim Spain (initiated by the exiled Umayyad caliph Abd al-Rahman in 756).
The Umayyad capital from 929 to 1031 was Cordoba.
However, the fact is he was forced out of Cordoba during a purge by the puritanical Muslim al-Mohads about 1165 after which he moved to Cairo where he served as court physician to Salah al-Din (Saladin) and where he died.
www.nmhschool.org /tthornton/mehistorydatabase/umayyad_spain.htm   (1238 words)

 The Umayyads   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Upon the accession of Ali to the caliphate, Muawiya refused to pay him allegience, and in 658 the Syrians acknowledged Muawiyah as caliph.
Under Muawiyah (661-680) the capital of the Muslim empire was transferred to Damascus.
Under Hisham's successors, Walid II, Yazid III, and Ibrahim, a series of rebellions paralyzed the caliphate: Kharijites seized Kufa, and feuds between the Qaysites and Kalbites erupted.
islamic-world.net /islamic-state/umayyads.htm   (845 words)

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