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Topic: Unequal Temperament


  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Temperament is the setting of the exact pitch level in all 12 pitches in the octave.
Equal temperament was not accepted during the baroque era since equal temperament lacks the pure interval sound based on the harmonic series interval ratios.
Equal temperament was and is widely used in romantic and modern music because of the modulation and transposition possibilities in equal temperament.
people.cs.uchicago.edu /~dtshoda/CS295_files/working_dir/physics_of_sound.html   (2417 words)

  
 [No title]
The temperament is then set by tuning the middle strings, of the twenty-five trios comprised in the two-octave temperament as demonstrated in a previous lesson.
When through with the temperament, the next step is usually that of tuning the bass; but while we are in the treble we will proceed to give the method of setting the mutes in the upper treble beyond the temperament.
In setting the temperament in the square piano, simply mute the string farthest to the left and tune the one to the right until the temperament is finished, then set the mutes in the bass the same as in the upright.
www.gutenberg.org /files/17571/17571-0.txt   (20857 words)

  
 Understanding Temperaments
The need for temperament arises because it is impossible to have octaves, fifths, thirds, etc., all pure at once, or, in other words, because the ratios of the different pure intervals are incompatible.
Temperaments in which the good fifths (11) are all the same size (except for the wolf), such as Aaron's meantone we have just seen, are called regular.
But it is atypical of irregular temperaments because it is completely regular and all keys are musically equivalent with their uniform and active thirds (and no stable thirds as in meantone).
pages.globetrotter.net /roule/temper.htm   (4098 words)

  
 Peterson Tuners Forum 2006 - Temperament and tuning
Equal temperament enables all combinations of notes (two notes played together is an interval, three is a triad) to be played.
Unequal temperaments (of which there are many) favour particular combinations of notes, which are more "in tune" or consonant than in Equal temperament, but their uses are limited to certain specified keys, heres what an Unequal temperament would look like as a ruler:
There are books on temperament, but none that actually address guitar, as the subject of temperament for guitar (other than plain Equal temperament) is pretty new.
www.petersontuners.com /forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=1362   (351 words)

  
 Goldberg Variations BWV 988 - General Discussions - Part 6 (2006)
I wonder about the re-discovered temperament applied to the Goldberg Variations, which on harpsichord in equal temperament always sounds with a timeless sparkle all in equal intervals.
The main point of any unequal temperament is to let the instrument and music sound better than it does in equal.
to equal temperament, and the music is consequently dull to listen to.
www.bach-cantatas.com /NVD/BWV988-Gen6.htm   (1958 words)

  
 Temperament: A Beginner's Guide
Temperament is one of those subjects that attracts a) buffs and b) incomprehensible jargon.
This temperament is easy to explain and to tune, but it leaves a lot of the notes of the scale in quite odd positions.
Other circulating temperaments have been devised in modern times, almost all of them suffering from the grave defect that they are difficult to commit to memory and therefore difficult to use in practice (you can't tune an organ with a book in one hand).
www.albany.edu:8080 /faculty/bec/piporg-l/tmprment.html   (1630 words)

  
 FanFiction.Net : Dictionary & Thesaurus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
This scale, although in so far artificial, is yet closely suggestive of its origin in nature, and this system of tuning, although not mathematically true, yet satisfies the ear, while it has the convenience that the same twelve fixed tones answer for every key or scale, C[sharp] becoming identical with D[flat], and so on.
[1913 Webster] Equal temperament (Mus.), that in which the variations from mathematically true pitch are distributed among all the keys alike.
Unequal temperament (Mus.), that in which the variations are thrown into the keys least used.
www.fanfiction.net /dictionary.php?word=Temperament   (305 words)

  
 UnequalTemp
Temperament refers to the specific frequency (pitch) intervals placed between notes in a musical scale.
You may never have considered before that it is the adherence to this temperament that allows one to unthinkingly transpose a musical piece to any key on a piano with no ill effects.
Sometimes unequal temperament can be used to help correct inherent deficiencies in certain types of instruments.
www.marcandella.ch /WG5/peterson/UnequalTemp.htm   (781 words)

  
 [No title]
Temperament sheets — User Experiments If you wish to analyse a new temperament, simply copy the sheet of any other temperament: possibly with a graph or with a basic definition that is similar so you have an easier starting point.
If your temperament is precisely defined in terms of 5th deviations or commas, you refer to the comma values computed in the general sheet, you use sum formulae to close the circle, and normally you have your new temperament sheet ready within a matter of minutes.
Unequal temperaments are by their nature defined by careful balancing of fifths and thirds, thus are the result of mathematics involving interval ratios and their logarithms, not offsets.
temper.braybaroque.ie /ut_spreadsheet.doc   (1482 words)

  
 A Dorset Temperament
Detractors of equal temperament point not only to the slightly impure fifths but, with more justification, to the considerably sharpened thirds which are an unfortunate by-product of the process.
In most unequal temperaments it seems that the designer of the temperament was concerned mainly to ensure that as many of the commonly used keys as possible were as well tuned as possible.
It must be remembered that this temperament is a relatively minor perturbation of equal temperament, with the main object of enabling different key flavours to be enjoyed.
www.pykett.org.uk /a_dorset_temperament.htm   (2790 words)

  
 [No title]
With the revival of unequal temperament for organs and harpsichords, this leaves the piano as the only keyboard instrument where equal temperament is the standard tuning.
One of the more amusing claims in favour of equal temperament is that J.P. Kirnberger tried to persuade musicians to adopt it, when in fact his tuning systems, which were published near the end of his life are very different from equal temperament, favour the popular keys, and contain at least one pure major 3rd.
If one listens to a Scarlatti sonata on a harpsichord tuned to unequal temperament, and then listens to the same sonata played on a similar instrument tuned to equal temperament, the difference is most pronounced: in equal temperament, both the instrument, and in consequence the music, lose much of their expression and character.
www.kirnberger.fsnet.co.uk /Temps3.htm   (1972 words)

  
 Das Wohltemperirte Clavier - Pitch, Tuning and Temperament Design [by Charles Francis]
The rationale behind the construction of the temperament is presented and the theoretical framework corresponding to the practical equal-beating tuning method is described.
However, if unequally tempered instruments at cammerton and cornet-ton pitch are tuned identically to an identical temperament, then there will be inevitable intonation problems as the tuning of one instrument is two places removed from the other on the circle-of-fifths.
The pitch and temperament are summarised in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively, proving that the circles in Figure 1 and Figure 3 are exact transpositions.
www.bach-cantatas.com /Articles/Das_Wohltemperirte_Clavier.htm   (2304 words)

  
 Microtonal music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some Western composers have embraced the use of microtonal scales, dividing an octave into 19, 24, 31, 53, 72, 88, and other numbers of pitches, rather than the more common 12.
The intervals between pitches can be equal, creating an equal temperament, or unequal, such as in just intonation or linear temperament.
The American hardcore punk band Black Flag (1976-86) made interesting vernacular use of microtonal intervals, via guitarist Greg Ginn, a free jazz aficionado also familiar with modern classical.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Microtonal_music   (550 words)

  
 Chapter Temerous <i>to</i> Templed of T by Webster's Dictionary (1913 Edition)
However, I forejudge not any probable expedient, any temperament that can be found in things of this nature, so disputable on their side.
Bodies are denominated "hot" and "cold" in proportion to the present temperament of that part of our body to which they are applied.
A system of compromises in the tuning of organs, pianofortes, and the like, whereby the tones generated with the vibrations of a ground tone are mutually modified and in part canceled, until their number reduced to the actual practicable scale of twelve tones to the octave.
www.bibliomania.com /2/3/257/1211/24288/3.html   (348 words)

  
 Temperaments and the circle of fifths
The restricted temperaments, give generally good results in the popular keys: in churches, for example, generally only the popular keys are used during worship, so one of the mean tone temperaments would be ideal.
The well tempered tunings are circulating (no wolf) temperaments, some of the modified mean tone temperaments such as 18th century English, contain very small "wolves" where the comma has been slightly exceeded, and some 5ths have been widened by 1/12th or 1/6th of a comma.
However, unequal temperament has now returned to stay, and equal temperament is no longer the standard tuning for harpsichords and other kindred instruments, and it is being superseded by unequal tunings for organs.
www.kirnberger.fsnet.co.uk /TEMPS4.html   (2428 words)

  
 CAUT Newsletter Un-equal Temperaments Questionnaire
In addition to these temperaments, two technicians mentioned special temperaments given to them by modern composers for the performance of their compositions, and one mentioned "By Request".
These ranged from using unequal temperaments almost all the time and in almost all situations, to considering un-equal temperament to be a giant step backward and completely misguided.
A number of technicians felt unequal temperaments should only be used on "period" instruments and not on modern pianos.
www.ptg.org /caut/Newsletter/2_97/unequal.htm   (583 words)

  
 A beginner's guide to temperament
In this temperament the major thirds are perfectly in tune and the fourths and fifths slightly compromised - except for one hideously catastrophic fifth, usually between G sharp and E flat, the famous 'wolf'.
However, this is now a 'regular' temperament, for in keys with less than four accidentals the notes of the major scale are in the same relative positions, the thirds all pure.
These forty-eight pieces are designed to exhibit the full range of key-colour available from a circulating temperament, and careful examination of the texts shows that Bach varied his compositional technique according to the key he was writing in.
www.oneskull.dircon.co.uk /3.6.04.htm   (1780 words)

  
 Tuning Methods - Yonley's Piano Tuning
A temperament consists of the first 12 notes that are tuned.
This can be done by by raising the C slightly or lowering the E. Then some of the other notes in the temperament are also offset slighltly to accomodate this change.
The same applies to temperaments except that a temperament is determined by 12 notes and then they are extended out by octaves to the rest of the keyboard.
www.pianotuneronline.com /tuning-meth.html   (547 words)

  
 An EBVT Quest 2/Unequal Temperaments
In my response to the "Unequal Temperament" thread, I asked if it did not make sense to also vary the octaves as well as the temperament.
It is the *combination* of a temperament loaded with Equal Beating properties AND the Equal Beating octaves that create such astounding clarity and such a pleasing resonance.
Yes, it is true that many professionals are doing the HT's and other temperaments this way but that does not mean that there is not a better way that as it turns out, is easier, less tedious and less prone to error.
www.ptg.org /pipermail/pianotech/2000-June/065902.html   (746 words)

  
 Unequal Temperaments
Unequal Temperaments and their Role in the Performance of Early Music.
My temperament spreadsheet was first developed about 10 years ago for Lotus 1-2-3 v.3.x under DOS and some years afterwards converted into Excel for Windows.
The work’s extension, its harmonic scope and the range of possible temperaments were ideal for the application of John Barnes’s statistical method (see: John Barnes.
temper.braybaroque.ie   (1333 words)

  
 [No title]
Certain of the 12-tones-per-octave-only-and-no-more UNequal temperaments would not be called xenharmonic because the deviation from 12-equal is too trivial to be heard in a normal performance.
Obviously quartertones (the 24-tone equal temperament) is tied to 12 and cannot be as xenharmonic as 23-tone or 25-tone.
So the present definition of XENHARMONIC says that nearly all just intonation is xenharmonic and most equal and unequal temperaments are xenharmonic and most pitch-deviations caused by organ vibrato and effect-box chorusing and flanging and most slight bends by violinists are not xenharmonic because they do not leave the 12-equal standard tolerance range.
sonic-arts.org /darreg/dar27.htm   (7115 words)

  
 The Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments - Dr. Smith's "Equal-Harmony"
He realised that the only sensible way forward was not the retention of the tuning and the alteration of the keyboard, but precisely the reverse situation, and that some modification to the traditional Mean-tone tuning was inevitable.
This, for the very first time in an English source, corroborates the fact that, already well before the end of the 17th Century, unequal temperament was the accepted alternative to Mean-tone on conventional keyboards.
The enormous contribution that a good unequal temperament can make to the realization of the true musical concept of key and tonality, will, I hope, be obvious: equally obvious will be the full realization of this musical potential in the hands of such a musical dramatist as Handel.
www.music.ed.ac.uk /russell/conference/mackenzieonsmith.html   (1301 words)

  
 Tuning History
Equal temperament should continue to be used as a standard of comparison, especially as it has interesting properties related to blurring, and therefore avoiding the perception of, beating between upper partials of two or more tones.
Lindley's conclusion was that equal temperament was probably the most usual way to tune a lute, though for some periods and places (e.g., early 16th century Spain) some adjustment of the frets to obtain better tuning might have been used.
Other scholars believe that the term "well temperament" was used in the eighteenth century to describe temperament in which all keys were usable and in which the main consonances of the most central keys kept their just forms.
www.musemath.com /miscellany/tuninghistory.html   (3449 words)

  
 MozartForum - Well tempering
The use of the more remote key-signatures, or modulation to remote keys during the course of a composition, produced combinations of tones so out of tune as to be unacceptable to the ear.
Many modern dictionaries define well temperament as equal temperament (an adjustment of tuning in which the octace is divided into 12 equidistant semitones).
A variety of tuning systems also coexisted during the period, many theorists recognizing that a good, unequal temperament could realize the particular qualities of different keys (see Steblin, 1983), [bold is mine] while others (notably Marpurg, 1776) favoured the greater unity of character offered by equal temperament.
www.mozartforum.com /VB_forum/printthread.php?t=280   (985 words)

  
 Equal Temperament is not a myth
The principle of Equal Temperament is that it 'divides' the octave into 12 equally sized semitones.
The 'real thing' (which is quite distinct from pseudo-equal temperament) is the most difficult to tune of all the temperaments.
Those who can tune precision Equal Temperament really understand what it is and what it means, whilst theoreticians have their own criteria that in reality, have very little to do with it.
www.amarilli.co.uk /piano/nomyth.asp   (593 words)

  
 Frilsham
By straightening the pipes and carefully resetting the speech and regulation, I was able to arrive at the original unequal temperament with D-flat and A-flat instead of C-sharp and G-sharp.
A semblance of unequal temperament was to hand.
The final temperament is certainly very close to the original used as there is very little tolerance available once all aspects of voicing regulation and pipe lengths have been considered.
www.bowerorgans.co.uk /frilsham.html   (407 words)

  
 Johann Sebastian Bach: the well tempered tuning is unequal
Towards this aim, equal temperament is by no means a prerequisite.
Identified in 1975 the unequal temperament of Johann Sebastian Bach for Das wohltemperirte Clavier; up to that time it had been mostly assumed, equal temperament was meant.
Temperaments for all 24 Keys - A Systems Analysis, Acustica 52/2, 1982/83, Hirzel Stuttgart, 106-113; Publication of the lecture delivered July 1980 at the Bruges 6th International Harpsichord Week.
plaza.ufl.edu /wnb/baroque_temperament.htm   (1615 words)

  
 Meaning of Music words   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The term is also used to describe the pulsation caused by the vibrating together of two tones not quite in unison.
In music an unequal temperament is that in which the variations are thrown into the keys least used.
In music, the term unison describes a coincidence of sounds proceeding from an equality in the number of vibrations made in a given time by two or more sonorous bodies.
abbreviations.virtualsplat.com /meaning/music/meaning-of-music-words-u.asp   (255 words)

  
 NewMusicBox
Fretted instruments such as guitars and lutes have the oldest history of playing equal temperaments, since you have to have equal temperament if the frets are going to go straight across the fretboard.
Just intonation on guitar (or any other unequal temperament) requires jagged frets that shift up and down for each string.
Incidentally, in 31-tone equal temperament the perfect fifth is a slightly flat 696.77 cents, almost exactly the same size as the meantone fifth Vincentino was used to.
www.newmusicbox.org /page.nmbx?id=17tp03   (840 words)

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