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Topic: Unequal Treaties

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In the News (Wed 16 Jan 19)

  Unequal Treaties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, 열강) during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
China considered these treaties "unequal" because in most cases China saw itself as being forced to pay large amounts of reparations, open up ports, cede lands, and make various concessions to foreign "spheres of influence," following military defeats in wars initiated against her will.
Japan was the first to throw off the shackles of its treaties during the mid 1890s, when its performance in the First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that Japan had indeed entered among the body of "civilized nations".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Unequal_Treaties   (372 words)

 Edo, Treaty of - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Edo, Treaty of
Because the conditions were unfavourable to Japan, the 1858 agreements are counted among the unequal treaties.
Under these treaties, foreign nationals in Japan were not subject to Japanese jurisdiction: if they committed offences they could be tried only by the consular courts of the treaty powers.
Treaty ports were opened (Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Hakodate from 1859, Niigata from 1860, and Kōe from 1863).
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Edo,+Treaty+of   (196 words)

 Grotius: On the Law of War and Peace: Book II Chapter 15
Treaties of the former kind are, in general, made, not only between enemies, as a termination of war; but in ancient times were frequently made, and, in some degree, thought necessary among men in the formation of every contract.
Treaties founded upon obligations added to those of the law of nature are either equal, or unequal Equal treaties are those, by which equal advantages are secured on both sides.
Unequal treaties may be made not only between the conquerors and the conquered but also between mighty and impotent states, between whom no hostilities have ever existed.
www.constitution.org /gro/djbp_215.htm   (2742 words)

 [No title]
All the conditions of unequal treaties are not of the same nature; some there are, which, though burdensome to the inferior ally, yet leave the sovereignty intire; others on the contrary, include a diminution of the independence, and sovereignty of the inferior ally.
Thus, In the treaties between the Romans, and the Carthaginians, at the end of the second Punic war, it was stipulated, that the Carthaginians should not begin any war, without the consent of the Roman people; an article, which evidently diminished the sovereignty of Carthage, and made her dependent on Rome.
Every treaty of peace is real in its own nature, and ought to be kept by the successor; for so soon as the conditions of the treaty have been punctually fulfilled, the peace effectually effaces the injuries, which excited the war, and restores the nations to their natural situation.
www.constitution.org /burla/burla_2409.txt   (1802 words)

 Richard S. Horowitz | International Law and State Transformation in China, Siam, and the Ottoman Empire during the ...
These treaties were unequal in several senses: they were forced at gunpoint; they expressed the economic and political interests of Britain and other powers; and key provisions, including extraterritoriality and restrictions on tariffs on foreign trade, were not reciprocal.
While much more research is needed, it seems that a key to the endurance of the treaty system as a structure for semicolonial systems was that it provided a framework that various powers were able to live with, even if it did not fulfill all of their desires.
Treaty systems were an obvious manifestation of European power over indigenous Eurasian states, but international law also played an important role in a more subtle and enduring phenomenon: the emergence of the territorially defined sovereign state as the key participant in international society.
www.historycooperative.org /journals/jwh/15.4/horowitz.html   (14657 words)

 Sun Yat Sen's speech on Pan-Asianism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The day when the Unequal Treaties were abolished by Japan was a day of regeneration for all Asiatic peoples.
They realized that the only way to power was to struggle with the Europeans and to abolish all Unequal Treaties, which they did, thus turning Japan into an independent country.
Even after Japan abolished the Unequal Treaties and attained the status of an independent country, Asia, with the exception of a few countries situated near Japan, was little influenced.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Sun_Yat_Sen's_speech_on_Pan-Asianism   (3683 words)

 A Short History of the Opium Wars
In 1842 China agreed to the provisions of the Treaty of Nanking.
It would be a mistake to view the conflict between the two countries simply as a matter of drug control; it was instead the acting out of deep cultural conflicts between east and west.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858) the Chinese opened new ports to trading and allowed foreigners with passports to travel in the interior.
www.druglibrary.org /schaffer/heroin/opiwar1.htm   (702 words)

 Invasion and illegal annexation of Tibet: 1949-1951
Treaties in international law are binding on the countries signing them, unless they are imposed by force or a country is coerced into signing the agreement by the threat of force.
The law governing treaties is based on the universally recognised principle that the foundation of conventional obligations is the free and mutual consent of contracting parties and, conversely, that freedom of consent is essential to the validity of an agreement.
Treaties brought about by the threat or the use of force lack legal validity, particularly if the coercion is applied to the country and government in question rather than only on the negotiators themselves.
www.tibet.com /WhitePaper/white2.html   (2031 words)

 Treaty of Nanjing - Britannica Concise
Treaty that ended the first Opium War, the first of the unequal treaties between China and foreign imperialist powers.
The treaty was supplemented in 1843 by the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, which allowed British citizens to be tried in British courts and granted Britain any rights in China that China might grant to other countries.
Edirne, Treaty of - (Sept. 14, 1829), pact concluding the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, signed at Edirne (ancient Adrianople), Tur.; it strengthened the Russian position in eastern Europe and weakened that of the Ottoman Empire.
concise.britannica.com /ebc/article-9373002   (593 words)

 The Second Opium War
Treaty negotiations followed and resulted in an agreement opening numerous new ports for trade, legalising the opium trade and various other provisions as demanded by the westerners.
The treaty was agreed locally but the Emperor’s court in Beijing refused to ratify it.
In due course, the Emperor was obliged to ratify the treaty and attempt to begin to repair the damage caused.
www.suite101.com /article.cfm/east_asian_history/111392   (449 words)

 United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce - Psychology Central   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan was signed July 29, 1858.
The Treaty was negotiated for the U.S. by Townsend Harris with the Tokugawa Shogunate and is often called the Harris Treaty after him.
This is one of the treaties which came to be known as the "Unequal Treaties".
psychcentral.com /psypsych/Harris_Treaty   (390 words)

 de Vattel: Of Treaties of Alliance, and Other Public Treaties
The violation of a treaty is an act of injustice.
Treaties cannot be made contrary to those already existing.
How inequality of treaties and a alliances may be conformable to the law of nature.
www.lonang.com /exlibris/vattel/vatt-212.htm   (366 words)

 Session 45:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Centering around the politically charged propaganda war between the warlords and the Nationalist Party, this paper examines the use, rhetoric as well as connotation of "the unequal treaties" as a political cultural symbol, intertwined with the competitive and fluctuating politics of Republican China.
Replete with political meanings, the propaganda war around "the unequal treaties" in connection with "down with imperialism" featured some of the attributes of the factional and political culture then, indicative of what the important concepts and slogans were and what the deep reasons for China’s backwardness were in the minds of the Chinese people.
By reinterpreting China’s past, the propaganda war in the early twentieth century made the unequal treaties become a cultural symbol with political implications, and thus played a significant role in reshaping the political landscape of Republican China.
www.aasianst.org /absts/1998abst/china/c45.htm   (1634 words)

 Hugo Grotius: On Treaties and Sponsions
Treaties which add something beyond the rights of the law of nature; what treaties are on equal terms VII.
That treaties with those who are strangers to the true religion are permissible by the law of nature IX.
That treaties with those who are strangers to the true religion are not, generally speaking, prohibited by the Hebraic law X.
www.lonang.com /exlibris/grotius/gro-215.htm   (295 words)

 Pacific Affairs - Abstracts (Volume 76, Issue 3)
This paper examines a symbol, bupingdeng tiaoyue (Unequal Treaties), that has received no attention in the current literature on the role of political ceremonies and symbols in China's national awakening and the formation of Chinese nationalism.
Part of the vocabulary, style, rhetoric and argumentation of the Unequal Treaties discourse became integrated as a perpetual element in the common inheritance of Chinese-ness.
Third, the discourse on the Unequal Treaties alerts us to the continuing relevance of the subtle distinction between the political state and national culture, a distinction that both the GMD and the CCP have attempted to obliterate.
pacificaffairs.ubc.ca /recent/ab76-3.html   (830 words)

 Amur Case
On December 30, 1999, China and Vietnam signed in Hanoi the Treaty between the People?s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on Land Boundary.
The cleaning up of treaties is to confirm, revise or terminate the validity of the treaties signed between states, based on the theory of the international law, particularly the theory of the treaty law and in view of the actual situation of the state.
This work is of positive significance in clarifying the validity of the treaties, resolving the state of uncertainty of the validity of the treaties and promoting the development of relations between China and the relevant countries.
www.american.edu /ted/amur.htm   (4383 words)

Indeed, the unequal treaties themselves were abandoned by 1894, and Japan did achieve acceptance as a civilized state..
The treaties of alliance signed with France and Britain dramatically improved the Japanese security environment, while the 1894 abolition of the unequal treaties marked Japan's emergence as a fully sovereign state.
In September of 1936, the Japanese government secretly signed a treaty with the Soviet Union with the intent of limiting the possibilities of Soviet involvement on the side of the Chinese Nationalists, partially demilitarizing the Far Eastern Republic in exchange for Soviet recognition of the Japanese sphere of influence in Manchuria.
www.ahtg.net /TpA/modjapan.html   (7456 words)

 Chinese History - Qing Dynasty 清 event history (www.chinaknowledge.de)
In the Nanjing Treaty, the Qing government granted the British free (opium) trade in the harbors of Xiamen (Amoy), Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou and Guangzhou (see map), abolishing the monopol of the Chinese merchant guilds in these cities.
In 1858 Russia occupied the territory north of the River Amur and clamied this territory as Russian, ensured in the Aigun Treaty (Aihui Tiaoyue 璦琿條約).
The Treaty of Shimonoseki 下闢 (Chinese: Maguan Tiaoyue 馬關條約) was another treaty of shame and disgrace for the Chinese government.
www.chinaknowledge.de /History/Qing/qing-event.html   (4545 words)

 MSN Encarta - Japan
Under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed in April 1895, China ceded Taiwan and the P’enghu Islands to Japan, gave Japan a huge monetary indemnity, and allowed Japan to trade in China under the same unequal treaty privileges that the Western powers enjoyed in China.
The Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated with the help of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, gave Japan control over the Liaodong Peninsula, the railroad line in southern Manchuria, and the southern half of the island of Sakhalin (later known as Karafuto).
By the time of his death in 1912, the Meiji emperor, whose reign had begun when the humiliation of Japan’s unequal diplomatic status was still fresh, stood among the ranks of the world’s leading monarchs.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761566679_18/Japan.html   (1521 words)

Said to be a treaty of peace and friendship, in reality this treaty is a fl mark upon the name of peace and friendship.
Treaty of "Peace and Friendship" between the Government of India and the Government of Nepal, The unequal Treaty of 1950.
It is known as Sugouli (Segowlee) Treaty of 1816.
www.humanrights.de /doc_de/archiv/n/nepal/treaty/front.html   (390 words)

 The new unequal treaties; Bangko Post 1/22/98
The circumstances under which the new treaties have been forged between East Asia's beleaguered economies and the IMF bear a striking familiarity to those of the 'unequal treaties' signed around 150 years ago by the western powers and China and Japan.
The agreements and treaties signed by regional leaders in recent months are the modern day equivalent of the 19th century "unequal treaties".
Under the original treaties, western citizens were bequeathed extraterritoriality, meaning they were not subject to the laws of the country where they lived.
www.geocities.com /rainforest/7813/0206_imf.htm   (1283 words)

 EastSouthWestNorth: Anti-Imperialism and Anti-Feudalism in Modern Chinese History
Between 1842-1860, after the two Opium Wars, with the Treaty of Nanjing and the Treaty of Beijing as the milestones, China was forced to sign a series of unequal treaties which were the basis of an unequal treaty system that strangled the development of China.
Article 34 stipulated: "The treaty has been signed and both countries should abide by it; amendments should not be taken lightly; since the port conditions are different, the various trade and seaway clauses may require modification; after twelve years, the two nations shall send officials to fairly negotiate again.
The various unequal treaties and the treaty documents were either provided by the invaders or else enforced by the invaders.
www.zonaeuropa.com /20060302_1.htm   (5726 words)

 CEP: discussion papers
These treaties were re-negotiated with the individual countries in the 1890s and the new treaties came into effect in July-August 1899.
The four speakers covered the full period from the conclusion of the first treaties in the 1850s to the re-negotiation of the treaties in 1911.
Dr James Hoare, in dealing with the working of the early treaties and the attitudes of the foreign communities in the treaty ports, pointed out that the treaties had been modified many times.
cep.lse.ac.uk /pubs/abstract.asp?index=1341   (336 words)

 Foreign Affairs - Book Review - Negotiating With Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Negotiating With Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy.
From 1858 to 1872, the years of Japan's opening, no Western power was in a position to conquer and colonize Japan, so its interactions with the West focused on diplomacy--and its negotiators were as strategically and tactically sophisticated as their American, British, Dutch, and French counterparts.
He reinforces the point that the Japanese were not helpless treaty signers by including a copy of the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, which makes clear that they were able to protect their own interests.
www.foreignaffairs.org /20050301fabook84256/michael-r-auslin/negotiating-with-imperialism-the-unequal-treaties-and-the-culture-of-japanese-diplomacy.html?mode=print   (170 words)

 The Emergence of Japan as a Western Text, 4
The road to revision of the unequal treaties was understood to be in modernisation, and the results were remarkable.
China capitulated in March 1895 and in the Treaty of Shimonoseki ceded to Japan the Liaotung Peninsula, Taiwan, and the Pescadores, along with most-favoured-nation status, four treaty ports, and an indemnity twelvefold the Japanese military budget of 1894.
By the end of the century the last of the unequal treaties was revised, and the Times and other determiners of the Western discourse were taking notice of a national progress ‘unexampled in the history of the world’.
themargins.net /bib/front/intro4.htm   (2070 words)

While 'free trade' treaties like the GATT are basically unequal treaties, social and environment clauses attached to them can make them completely one-sided.
As part of trade treaties, they are inadequate instruments of social justice, do not reverse the logic of deregulation and do not address the issue of restructuring of production and dispensability of workers.
Trade treaties are between governments, not people, nor corporations that are pushing them; they function primarily as conditionalities pushed by the Northern governments on Southern governments.
www.sunsonline.org /trade/areas/environm/07210195.htm   (1803 words)

 H-Net Review: Joseph M. Henning on Japan Comes of Age: Mutsu Munemitsu and the Revision of the ...
Familiar to diplomatic historians as the foreign minister who revised Japan's unequal treaties with the Western powers in the 1890s, he was known to his contemporaries as "the Razor": an argumentative and "disagreeable misanthrope" (pp.
These unequal treaties imposed extraterritoriality on Japan, making its foreign residents subject only to the legal jurisdiction of their home nations' consular courts.
With Mutsu in office, leaders of the political opposition continued to proclaim that the continuing humiliation of the unequal treaties proved that the cabinet was ineffectual and unpatriotic.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=18283962307923   (1465 words)

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