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Topic: The unification of Italy

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  Italian unification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or "Resurgence") was the political and social process that unified disparate countries of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy between the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
Among these monarchs were the viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais, who tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the Kingdom of Italy, and Joachim Murat, who called for Italian patriots' help for the unification of Italy under his rule (See the Proclamation of Rimini).
Italian unification was completed at the end of World War I with the annexation of Trieste and Trento, with the respective territories of Friuli Venezia Giulia and Trentino.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Italian_unification   (5033 words)

 Encyclopedia: Unification of Italy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The first part of this process ended in 1861 with the declaration of the Kingdom of Italy; the unification was later completed by the conquest of Rome, capital of the Papal States, on September 20, 1870.
Italian unification was perceived to be especially a struggle against the Austrian Empire and the Hapsburgs, since they controlled directly north-eastern Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification.
The basis of the revolutionary movements in Italy was the secret political association known as the Carboneria, formed early in the nineteenth century and including in its ranks members of all classes.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Unification-of-Italy   (3114 words)

 Italian unification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Italian unification, also known as the Risorgimento, was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by Savoy dynasty - capital Turin) conquered the Italian peninsula with the inclusion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Duchy of Tuscany, the Marches, the Abruzzi, and the Papal States.
The first part of this process ended in 1860 with the declaration of the Kingdom of Italy; the unification was completed by the conquest of Rome, capital of the Papal States, on September 20, 1870.
The basis of the revolutionary movements in Italy was the secret political association known as the Carbonari, formed early in the nineteenth century and including members of all classes in its ranks.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/italian_unification_1   (2932 words)

 Italian unification Cavour Garibaldi Italy German unification
In February 1834 he was active as a propagandist for Young Italy whilst employed as a sailor in the royal Piedmontese navy, his subversive activitiies were reported to the authorities and, although he evaded capture by the authorities, was sentenced to death in absentia by a Genoese court.
Italy was poor, since its establishment in 1861 the Italian kingdom had experienced great difficulty in balancing its budgets and the liberal, Piedmontese, administrators of the Kingdom of Italy insisted on financial responsibility.
When Italy unified in the 1860s the question of languages other than Italian was never considered (several regional dialects continue to survive as 'household' languages) and the administrative model chosen was designed to annex a dispersed and disconnected plethora of pretty states to Piedmont.
www.age-of-the-sage.org /history/italian_unification.html   (7146 words)

 Italian unification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Most leaders of the unification movement were members of this organization.
Two prominent figures in the unification movement were Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi.
In 1820, Spaniards revolted successfully over their constitution, which spurred a similar movement in Italy.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Italian_unification   (5033 words)

 PlanetPapers - Unification of Italy
It was thus decided that Italy would be divided among different monarchs, all associated with the Habsburgs (except for Piedmont Sardinia, which was to be ruled by Victor Emmanuel, an independent monarch, and Papal States, ruled by the pope.).
Rome seemed to be the natural capital of the unified Italy, and was held by the French, and Venetia, a large territory in the North East part of Italy held by the Austrians.
This was the final end of the legendary unification of Italy, a story of great disappointments, surprises, and a happy ending.
www.planetpapers.com /Assets/3183.php   (2500 words)

 Italian Unification
It was his leadership and accommodating policies that led to the unification of Italy in little more than a decade.
With the annexation of Umbria and Marches from the papal government, a united Italy was finally established in 1861 with Victor Emmanuel as its king.
Venice was added to Italy in 1866 after Prussia defeated Austria in the Seven Weeks' War, in which Italy sided with Prussia; Venice was its reward.
www.arcaini.com /ITALY/ItalyHistory/ItalianUnification.htm   (1463 words)

 Heraldry in Pre-Unification Italy
In 1848, the tricolor became the flag of the kingdom of Sardinia (with the arms of the house of Savoie in center) and in 1860 that of the kingdom of Italy.
The Pope then switched to or and argent, the tinctures of the two keys: on Sept. 17, 1825 the flag per pale or and argent was adopted, and it became on June 7, 1929 the flag of the State of the City of the Vatican.
It was Napoleon's expressed intention to pass on the crown of Italy to one of his sons and to maintain France and Italy as separate realms.
www.heraldica.org /topics/national/italy2.htm   (5752 words)

 Barron’s Chapter 8: The Unification of Italy, 1861; The Unification of Germany, 1871   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Barron’s Chapter 8: The Unification of Italy, 1861; The Unification of Germany, 1871
To gain support of liberals in Italy, Cavour reformed the government of his state by weakening influence of papacy, investing in public works like railroads and harbor improvements, abolishing internal tariffs, encouraging growth of industry, emancipating peasantry from vestiges of manorialism, and by making Sardinian government a model of progressive constitutionalism.
Subdued Sicily and Naples, Two Sicilies joined Sardinia, and in March 1861, Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emanuel II on the throne.
members.tripod.com /nitro13/c8.htm   (509 words)

 Rome Unleashed - The Unification of Italy
This did not effect the Romans much as for the rest of the 4th century BC they steadily expanded their political and millitary influence through central Italy.
They took over Italy by a astute mixutre of warfare and diplomacy, they used fighting only where necessary.
In 280 BC he landed in sourthern Italy with an army of 25,000 men and 20 elephants.
www.classicsunveiled.com /romeh/html/unifyitaly.html   (232 words)

 Europe in Retropsect: International Order & Domestic Strife - The Age of Revolution
In Italy, still divided into several kingdoms and also containing provinces ruled by Austria, reflection on former Roman greatness led to hope for a "New Rome," once the land was unified.
One state was the principal agent of unification: Piedmont in Italy, Prussia in Germany.
As historians are generally concerned with the unusual and the irregular-the "fact"-the variations in details by which the unification of Germany and Italy took place are very important to a close understanding of diplomatic and political developments of the time.
www.britannia.com /history/euro/1/3_2.html   (2932 words)

 Italy: Unification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Between 1861 (the year when Italy became a united nation) and 1946 the official anthem was the March of the House of Savoy.
At the time of Unification (1861), the state of the country's economy was far different.
After the grave financi al crisis of the 1890s, ending in restructurization of the banking system (1893), economic development continued with renewed vigour, initially at an average rate of 4% (during the early part of this century) later rising to 7.5%, stimulating agriculture, which still provided employment for half the active population.
idcs0100.lib.iup.edu /modernera/newpage5.htm   (2232 words)

 Unification Of Italy Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
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Inspired by the Spaniards, a regiment in the army of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, commanded by Guglielmo Pepe, a Carbonari, revolted, conquering the peninsular part of Two Sicilies.
www.stardustmemories.com /encyclopedia/Unification_of_Italy   (5239 words)

 Unification of Italy
This is the first of two complementary lectures that deal with the first major phase of Roman expansion (in Italy).
Little in the way of authentic record survives of this period beyond the tradition of continuous warfare (on a seasonal basis) and the gradual extension of Roman domination first through Latium and then to all of central Italy (509; 380).
By 264, she is the dominant power in Italy south of the Po.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~klio/rr/04-italy_conq.htm   (580 words)

 4.2 The Unification Of Italy
The Unification of Central Italy and the abolition of the smaller states was what he advocated.
And the law of Guarantees was even made in the parliament of Italy in 1896 which proved contrary to the interest of the Pope.
Philips, "Italy as a nation is the legacy of Cavour.
www.pinkmonkey.com /studyguides/subjects/euro_his/chap4/e0404202.htm   (391 words)

 Garibaldi and the Unification of Italy | Doing my Homework
The unification of Italy is inextricably bound up with the ‘Risorgimento’ - an Italian word which suggests the idea of awakening and the recovery of strength – and was perhaps the most important event in modern Italian history.
At this time, the term “Italy”, as the Austrian Chancellor Metternich said, “was no more than a geographical expression” in that its boundaries were clearly defined, with three sides bounded by the sea and the fourth following the long chain of the Alps.
Italy, before 1861, was a defenseless “free for all” for the Spanish, French and Austrians.
www.doingmyhomework.com /show_essay/3057.html   (376 words)

 Dissertations, Essays on Explanation of the role of Guiseppe Garibaldi in the Unification of Italy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Explanation of the role of Guiseppe Garibaldi in the Unification of Italy
King Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Italy and thus Garibaldi had achieved his practical goal, saluting his new monarch as 'the first King of Italy'.
Therefore, in conclusion it is evident that Giuseppe Garibaldi's role in the Unification of Italy was a most distinctive and important one, whereby his heroic and courageous actions where most vital in bringing about the proposed 'Risorgimento' of Italy.
www.essayboom.com /essay/Explanation_of_the_role_of_Gui-173636.html   (223 words)

 Free Term Papers on Unification of Italy and Germany
Italy, led by Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Prime Minister of Sardinia Camillo de Cavour unified in 1861; and Germany, led by Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismark unified in 1871.
The unification of these two countries leads to massive social change and the beginning of what would be the biggest war the world had ever seen.
To guarantee unification, however, Cavour was going to have to face Austria who held territories throughout the area and had a strong social influence on the whole Italian peninsula.
www.freefortermpapers.com /show_essay/5995.html   (300 words)

 Essay on How important was leadership to the unification of Italy?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The unification of Italy very much depended on the leadership of three important figures.
Giuseppe Mazzini, the soul of the unification, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the sword of the unification and finally Camillo di Cavour, the brains of the unification.
Evidently, leadership is an inevitably crucial factor to the unification of Italy.
www.dedicatedwriters.com /paper/How_important_was_leadership_t-171402.html   (215 words)

 Lecture 24: Unification of Italy and Germany   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
This lecture is looking at the unification of Italy and Germany—two weak areas up til this point.
Cavour wanted to place Victor Emmanuel II as the king of North Italy (he was already king of a section of Northern Italy called Sardinia-Piedmont—he rules there from 1849-1861).
Most of North Italy was united under Victor Emmanuel II (former king of Sardinia-Piedmont in Northern Italy) around 1859.
www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us /maplewoods/socsci/westciv/stock/wc2/lectures/24.htm   (1400 words)

 Modern History Sourcebook: Documents of Italian Unification
As for the defense of the rights of Italy, that was our task in the course of the Congress of Paris.
The Emperor started by saying that he had decided to support Sardinia with all his forces in a war against Austria, provided that the war was undertaken for a non-revolutionary cause, which could be justified in the eyes of diplomacy and still more of public opinion in France and Europe.
Italy herself, too, will become a guarantee of order and peace, and will once more be an efficacious instrument of universal civilization.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/mod/1861italianunif.html   (610 words)

 What were the obstacles to the unification of Italy and how were they overcome?
Coursework and Essays: By Level: A2 and A-Level: History: By Country or Region: Italy: What were the obstacles to the unification of Italy and how were they overcome
Below is a short sample of the essay "What were the obstacles to the unification of Italy and how were they overcome?".
Another major obstacle to the unification of Italy was the disagreements between the supporters of unification on the matter of how it should be achieved.
www.coursework.info /i/32916.html   (346 words)

An uncompromising republican and democrat, Mazzini became the “soul of Italian unification.” In 1821, the sight of unsuccessful revolutionaries emigrating from the docks of Genoa so impressed him that he swore to wear fl until Italy could be unified and independent.
Because, without unity, there is no real strength; and Italy, surrounded as she is by powerful, united and jealous nations, has need of strength before all things.
Young Italy would have the administrative organization designed upon a broad basis of religious respect for the liberty of each commune, but the political organization, destined to represent the nation in Europe, should be one and central.
www.dickinson.edu /~rhyne/232/Four/Mazzini_instructions.html   (1056 words)

 Guardian Unlimited | Arts Friday Review | How Verdi's Un Ballo in Maschera and Rigoletto nearly didn't make it to the ...
In the end, the authorities capitulated on condition that the opera's action be transferred from Renaissance France to "an independent duchy in France or Italy," and that Verdi jettison a scene in which the monarch uses his keys to open the door to his bedroom, in which the jester's daughter has barricaded herself.
A product of the years that saw Italy brace itself for its final war of liberation, it was commissioned by the Teatro San Carlo in Naples, originally for performance early in 1858.
After the unification of Italy, Verdi was free from troubles with the censors.
www.guardian.co.uk /arts/fridayreview/story/0,12102,1449097,00.html?gusrc=rss   (1384 words)

 Dissertations, Essays on Unification of Italy and Germany   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
There were many similarities in the unification of both Germany and Italy.
Prussia had more of a military way of gaining its unification, while Italy just gathered up its little pieces and placed them in a big group uniting itself.
Also the people of Italy wanted to become united while the 38 states that Prussia took over that belong to Germany weren’t sure they wanted to be dominated.
www.essayboom.com /essay/Unification_of_Italy_and_Germa-7597.html   (172 words)

 The Majesty of Rome From Napoleon to the Unification of Italy
The Majesty of Rome From Napoleon to the Unification of Italy
The exhibition is dedicated to the artistic civilization that formed in Rome prior to the unification of Italy, documenting what was a period of transition, a period influenced by both the ancient and the modern.
This fertile, complex historical period, prior to Unification, is analyzed through several themes which link the majority of the artists.
www.italica.rai.it /eng/principal/topics/art/maesta.htm   (769 words)

 4.2 The Unification Of Italy
From the 15th to the 19th century, European kingdoms were squabbling to grab the smaller kingdom of Italy.
However, after the downfall of Napoleon I in 1815, Vienna divided Italy, and once again, the successors of old royal families were made rulers of these tiny kingdoms.
People of Italy still worship Mazzini and he is considered the founder of the Italian nationalism.
www.pinkmonkey.com /studyguides/subjects/euro_his/chap4/e0404201.htm   (400 words)

 Free-CliffNotes.com - Unification Of Italy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
He is interested in politics and the status of Italy so he goes to England to read the free press.
By discovering what is happening in the world he goes back to Italy and becomes a philanthropist and builds railroads in Italy and shows the peasants how to turn there subsistence farming to cash crops.
The reason for Austria’s presents was it wanted to keep Italy spread apart so it wouldn’t have two enemies to deal with on both borders, the north (Prussia) and the south (Italy).
www.free-cliffnotes.com /data/dd/hte251.shtml   (553 words)

 Unification of Italy and Germany essays & term papers
Unification of Italy and Germany essays & term papers
By 1871 both the kingdom of Italy and the empire of Germany were united.
The end result was Germany emerging as a strong nation and Italy appropriately, the weaker.Italys problems started with the fact that it didnt have one main ruler, but two people and a concept, resulting in a different approach to the unification.
www.essaylink.com /essay1709/unificationofitalygermany.html   (242 words)

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