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Topic: Unitary state


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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  
  Unitary state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A unitary state is a state or country that is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state with a series of parliament-created devolved assemblies, for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, all of which were created in between 1998 and 1999.
The high proportion of the world's countries which are unitary states results in large part from the fact that most are insufficiently large enough to produce the complexity necessary to demand the devolution of power on distinct internal territories.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Unitary_state   (527 words)

  
 Unitary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In Christian doctrine, unitarianism is the belief in a "unitary God" as opposed to the concept of the Trinity.
Unitary state and Unitary authority - types of political regions.
Note:Some authors use the word "unitary" synonymously with unital, which for a module implies the underlying ring has multiplicative identity which acts as the identity on it, and for an algebra implies that the algebra itself has a mutliplicative identity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Unitary   (177 words)

  
 [No title]
Although each state of the United States is itself a unitary state each state government also has the feature of "Separation of Powers" whereby the Governor of the State is elected on a vote separate from the vote used to determined which party has a majority in the State Legislature.
In addition the states are prohibited from exercising powers that the national government can exercise that are considered prerogatives of independent nation-states: states may not declare war, conduct diplomatic relations or make treaties with other nations, nor may they issue their own currency (except silver and gold coins).
Nonetheless many state ratifying conventions required a Bill of Rights to protect those rights of the people that were not mentioned in the original seven article of the constitution as well as a more explicit guarantee of the rights and powers of the states.
www.isu.edu /~andesean/fedsim.htm   (4258 words)

  
 Allocation and apportionment of state income taxes to foreign source income: final regulations under Sec. 861. ...
States A, B, and C each determine X's income subject to tax within their states by adjusting X's federal taxable income, and apportioning such income on the basis of the relative amounts of X's payroll, property, and sales.
Step 1 is the determination of state F taxable income (after adjustment for portfolio dividends and other income which, under separate accounting, would have been attributed to other members of the unitary group) on a non-unitary basis.
The safe harbors placate taxpayers because less of the state deduction is apportioned to foreign source income than would otherwise be required by a strict analysis of the factual relationship between the state tax deduction and the income subject to state tax.
www.nysscpa.org /cpajournal/old/11356694.htm   (2037 words)

  
 Mass. Dept. of Revenue - TIR 92-5: Effect of Allied-Signal on Apportionment Under G.L. c. 63, § 38
The crucial inquiry is the delineation of the in-state and out-of-state activities that are sufficiently interconnected to justify apportionment.
Interstate activities are unitary, and therefore are taxable in all the states with which they have nexus, if there is a flow of value among the activities, as demonstrated by the presence of "functional integration," "centralization of management," and "economies of scale." F.W. Woolworth Co. v.
When a taxpayer challenges a state's authority to apportion and tax its income, the burden is on the taxpayer to establish that the state is seeking to tax income from activities that are not unitary with the business conducted in the taxing state.
www.dor.state.ma.us /rul_reg/tir/TIR_92_5.htm   (1080 words)

  
 ipedia.com: Unitary state Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
A unitary state is a state or country that is governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created parliament.
Unlike in federal systems, where assemblies in those states comprising the federation have a constitutional existence and a set of constitutional functions which cannot be unilaterally changed by the central government; in a unitary state, any sub-governmental units can be created or abolished, and have their powers varied, by the central government.
The United Kingdom is a particularly striking example of a unitary state with a series of parliament-created devolved assemblies, for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, all of which were created in between 1998 and 1999.
www.ipedia.com /unitary_state.html   (260 words)

  
 New Page 2
The preservation of that particular form of state seemed more important to him than any serious engagement with the reasons why that state had been the theatre for the disastrous turmoil of two civil wars and the secessionist war that have bedeviled the country’s history in the last 31 years of independence.
The state is invested with powers to safeguard and extend its own security at the expense of the rights of the people because the state itself is in cahoots with the majority.
The construction of a new state needs to be preceded by agreement among the disparate peoples living on the island on a social compact as to the nature of the country.
www.sangam.org /ANALYSIS_ARCHIVES/Adrian_11_25_02.htm   (1390 words)

  
 Sinhala Anti Federalism & Political Bankruptcy
The increasingly authoritarian response of the State produced a multi-dimensional political crisis: civil society was militarised, political institutions and traditions were emasculated, and freedom of dissent and protest was diluted in the extreme.
This observation is equally true for the unitary State in Sri Lanka, where constitutional and legal provisions have tragically failed to stem the rising Tamil and Muslim nationalisms and spreading civil war.
The unitary State controlled by the Sinhalese ruling fraction has deliberately and systematically denied precisely the "proper recognition and respect" to Tamil and Muslim nationalities which the Appraisal implied could exist and the lack of which was well documented (Jayawardena, 1985).
www.tamilnation.org /selfdetermination/tamileelam/9209satha.htm   (5468 words)

  
 Federalism
Unlike a unitary state, sovereignty is constitutionally split between at least two territorial levels so that units at each level have final authority and can act independently of the others in some area.
The confederate American states moved to a federation largely for the first of these reasons, since the center powers of the Confederacy were too weak for protection from external threats.
The political scientists Linz and Stephan may be seen as finding support for the Federalists’ hypothesis: Compared to unitary states in the OECD, the ‘coming together’ federations tend to have higher child poverty rate in solo mother households and a higher percentage of population over-sixty living in poverty.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/federalism   (5089 words)

  
 UNITARY GOVERNMENT
The United States is one of the few nations that does not have a unitary government.
Their report was critical of the state's affluent property owners whose low taxes resulted in limited funds for public schools (still unchanged).
One outcome is the April, 1999 state senate failure to reappoint the state attorney general who had been prosecuting trustees of the estate.
www.lava.net /~manis/unit.htm   (2025 words)

  
 Articles - Unitary state   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Unitary state is also known as The ´´Non-federal´´ government.
In some such cases, such as in the United States, it is the ´´federal´´; government that has only those powers specifically delegated to it.
The process in which sub-government units and/or regional parliaments are created by a central government is known as ´´devolution.´´; A unitary state can broaden and narrow the functions of such ´´devolved (sub-)governments´´ without formal agreement from the affected bodies.
www.pointgathering.com /articles/Unitary_state   (535 words)

  
 CHAPTER VI
The idea of a common state was deformed by politicians, including those from Slovakia, in their keen endeavor to stabilize the new state along the lines of the ideology of Czechoslovakism, which should be justified by a conception of Czechoslovak national unity.
But a state ideology or doctrine had to be constructed on other foundations than the ideology of the pre-Munich republic, since democracy had been rejected along with Masaryk's formulation of the humanistic ideal as the bearer of the idea of the Czechoslovak state.
The totality of the nation (not the state!) and concentration upon the principle of unity were to be the leading motifs of the organization of social life and of political practice.
www.crvp.org /book/Series04/IVA-5/chapter_vi.htm   (5268 words)

  
 The Constitution of Kenya Review Commission   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
It reads "as the most articulate voice of the unitary state, we are inviting you and DP to make a case for a unitary state with emphasis on its economics...
the Unitary State: it is about the extent and scope of the devolution, the structures of devolution, and die level of the local unit to which power is to be devolved.
Despite the democratic pretences, state power in the village is still a crude personalized author authoritarianism of the local chief.
www.kenyaconstitution.org /docs/11d008.htm   (1749 words)

  
 THE ROAD TO THE UNITARY STATE OF CAMEROON 1959-1972
In late 1959, the UN invited the Northern and Southern Cameroonians to choose between Nigeria and Cameroun, i.e.
Northern Cameroons became the Sardauna Province of Northern Nigeria and Southern Cameroons became the State of West Cameroon, and Cameroun became the State of East Cameroon.
In October 1961 the West and East Cameroon States federated to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon.
lucy.ukc.ac.uk /Chilver/Paideuma/paideuma-Introdu.html   (875 words)

  
 LECTURE 18
There are about 40 landlocked states in the world; 14 of the 54 states in Africa are landlocked because of colonialism.
The colonial powers tried to overcome this by building railroads that connected interior states to seaports so they could move resources and equipment to and from the places where the minerals and other natural resources were located.
States are organized differently and the categories of National and Multi-National State are important in seeing how states are organized.
www.geo.utep.edu /pub/nick_miller/1310/LECTURE_18.html   (1956 words)

  
 Significant unitary developments in California may provide refund opportunities. (unitary tax)(State and Local ...
The Appeal of Sierra Production Service, Inc. (State Board of Equalization, September 12, 1990), followed Mole-Richardson in supporting the California regulations, holding that functional integration is not a new test, but is merely a descriptive term covering the basic elements of a unitary business, including strong centralized management and meaningful centralized services.
In fact, the State Board of Equalization criticized the Franchise Tax Board for failing to apply its own regulations, i.e., when strong centralized management is present, the diverse activities of a taxpayer are presumed to be unitary.
Breaking a unitary relationship is generally more difficult, especially if a substantial flow of value exists between the members of the corporate group.
www.nysscpa.org /cpajournal/old/11287212.htm   (1082 words)

  
 Stalking the Wild Taboo - Donald W. Livingston's Secession and the Modern State
The idea of a modern unitary state goes back to the philosophers of the seventeenth century, but its first appearance in the world was the work of the French Revolution.
And it was a liberal regime, the United States under Abraham Lincoln, that broke with the European code of civilized war by demanding unconditional surrender and launching total war against the civilian population of the South, resulting in 1,500,000 killed, missing, and wounded.
The States must once again become constitutional members of a genuine federative polity as they were during the ante-bellum period and beyond when states throughout the union interposed their authority and even nullified actions of the central government that they judged unconstitutional.
www.lrainc.com /swtaboo/taboos/dwliv01.html   (8572 words)

  
 US CODE: Title 28,2265. Application to State unitary review procedure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
(a) For purposes of this section, a “unitary review” procedure means a State procedure that authorizes a person under sentence of death to raise, in the course of direct review of the judgment, such claims as could be raised on collateral attack.
No counsel appointed to represent the prisoner in the unitary review proceedings shall have previously represented the prisoner at trial in the case for which the appointment is made unless the prisoner and counsel expressly request continued representation.
References to State “post-conviction review” and “direct review” in such sections shall be understood as referring to unitary review under the State procedure.
www.law.cornell.edu /uscode/28/usc_sec_28_00002265----000-.html   (234 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The states that Piedmont would inherit with unification were starkly different in their organization and in their relationship with society than the states Prussia would inherit ten years later in Germany.
The dissolution of six existing states and creation of an all-encompassing apparatus of a unitary state centered first in Turin, Piedmont and later in Rome was above all a response to the lack of embeddedness, institutionalization and low infrastructural capacity of the pre-existing states of the Italian peninsula.
In sum, well-developed state structures allowed for the gradual unification of Germany to be achieved with lower chances of revolt, less risk of foreign intervention, and without having to undertake the financially costly project of dissolving existing states and creating new state structures.
www.people.fas.harvard.edu /~dziblatt/federalism.doc   (8378 words)

  
 Indonesia's Future Prospects: Separatism, Decentralisation and the Survival of the Unitary State (Current Issues Brief ...
This paper argues that the unitary state of Indonesia, while experiencing a period of deep political, economic and national identity crisis at the moment, is unlikely to disintegrate.
It was viewed as a means of extending Dutch influence after the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic-making the federated states puppets of the colonial regime-and thus, as one observer has noted, ensuring that support for the unitary state became an article of nationalist faith.
In the South Moluccas, for instance, resistance to the central Government was led by pro-federalist elements unhappy with the dismantling of the Dutch-sponsored federal state in 1950.
www.aph.gov.au /library/pubs/cib/1999-2000/2000cib17.htm   (8283 words)

  
 THE ROAD TO THE UNITARY STATE OF CAMEROON 1959-1972 - Title Page
It must be said at the outset that the perspectives on the Cameroon state represented in the papers included here are limited to views both of and from the former West Cameroons, the anglophone section of the modern state of Cameroon.
Such a view of the state may be interpreted as forcing African history to fit within an evolutionary framework: polities must develop in a fixed sequence before attaining the golden goal of a democratic modern state.
The problems of the modern ship of state in Africa is not so much that the structures defining identity are nesting, overlapping or simply interchangeable but rather that the status of the person is very different.
lucy.ukc.ac.uk /Chilver/Paideuma/paideuma.html   (4566 words)

  
 Exposed Agendas - by Nebojsa Malic
"Building a unitary state, strengthening the institutions of the state, should be an ambition that all the people of this country have … all the members of NATO are single unitary states, and I think it's true that the European Union and all the members of the European Union are single unitary states, as well.
Surely the "states" that united to form the USA were never really sovereign, as their name might mistakenly suggest.
All police in America are controlled by the unitary national government, and police districts are drawn on criteria of efficiency, having nothing to do with city, county, or state borders.
www.antiwar.com /malic?articleid=7677   (1636 words)

  
 Online edition of Sunday Observer - Business   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Looking at the present crisis Liberals feel that the country is facing a decisive period in its constitutional development history.
"The pure unitary state that came into being in 1833 as a consequence of the Colebrooke Report and then followed by 1947, 1972 and 1978 constitutions underwent a fundamental change in 1987 with the introduction of the 13th Amendment, and thereafter Sri Lanka became a semi-unitary state.
The willingness of the ultra Sinhalese Nationalists and ultra left nationalists to go back to a pure unitary state is a result of the poor understanding of the constitutional development history of the island.
www.sundayobserver.lk /2001/08/05/pol04.html   (221 words)

  
 Sri Lanka Constitution 1972
The Republic of Sri Lanka is a Unitary State.
The National State Assembly so summoned shall be kept in session until the termination of the emergency or the conclusion of the general election whichever occurs earlier and shall thereupon stand dissolved.
All resolutions of the National State Assembly, including resolutions required or authorised to be made under the provisions of the Constitution Or of any law, may be passed in accordance with the procedure prescribed therefor by the Standing Orders of the National State Assembly.
www.tamilnation.org /srilankalaws/72constitution.htm   (6840 words)

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