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# Topic: Universal Turing machine

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 Turing Machines (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) The action of a Turing machine is determined completely by (1) the current state of the machine (2) the symbol in the cell currently being scanned by the head and (3) a table of transition rules, which serve as the “program” for the machine. The actions available to a Turing machine are either to write a symbol on the tape in the current cell (which we will denote with the symbol in question), or to move the head one cell to the left or right, which we will denote by the symbols « and » respectively. The complete state of a Turing machine at any point during a computation may be described by the name of the state that the machine is in, the symbols on the tape, and the cell that is currently being scanned. plato.stanford.edu /entries/turing-machine   (5463 words)

 Turing machine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The thesis that states that Turing machines indeed capture the informal notion of effective or mechanical method in logic and mathematics is known as the Church-Turing thesis. Turing machines shouldn't be confused with the Turing test, Turing's attempt to capture the notion of artificial intelligence. Turing tarpit, any computing system or language which, like the Turing machine, is not only Turing-complete but also useless for practical computing. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Universal_Turing_Machine   (2343 words)

 Turing machine -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) The concept of the Turing machine is based on the idea of a person executing a well-defined procedure by changing the contents of an infinite number of ordered paper sheets that can contain one of a finite set of symbols. Every Turing machine computes a certain fixed (A harmonic with a frequency that is a multiple of the fundamental frequency) partial (Click link for more info and facts about computable function) computable function from the input strings over its alphabet. Turing machines would actually only be equivalent to a machine that had an infinite amount of storage space. www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/t/tu/turing_machine.htm   (2569 words)

 PlanetMath: universal Turing machine The set of all Turing machine encodings must be prefix-free, so that no special end-marker or `blank' is needed to recognize a code's end. The first kind is a plain Universal Turing machine; while the second is a prefix Universal Turing machine, which has the nice property that the set of inputs on which it halts is prefix free. This is version 2 of universal Turing machine, born on 2003-07-02, modified 2003-07-03. planetmath.org /encyclopedia/UniversalTuringMachine.html   (190 words)

 Turing completeness - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) While such machines may be physically impossible as they require unlimited storage and zero crashing probability, Turing completeness is often loosely attributed to physical machines or programming languages that would be universal if they had indefinitely enlargeable storage and were absolutely reliable. Turing completeness is significant in that every plausible design for a computing device so far advanced (even quantum computers) can be emulated by a universal Turing machine. Thus, a machine that can act as a universal Turing machine can, in principle, perform any calculation that any other computer is capable of (in other words, it is programmable). encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /turing-complete.htm   (592 words)

 What is a Turing Machine? A Turing machine is an automaton which moves along a linear strip of data and performs certain actions according its state, which depends upon the data it has 'seen,' and the datum symbol that it is viewing. Turing and Emil Post independently proved that determining the decidability of mathematical propositions is equivalent to asking what sorts of sequences of a finite number of symbols can be recognized by an abstract machine with a finite set of instructions. Turing machines are restricted to a finite number of states. www.science.gmu.edu /~jsteidel/801-prj/turing.html   (907 words)

 Universal Turing Machine in XSLT The Turing machine moves its tape head one symbol to the left or to the right, or does not move the tape head, depending on the value of the 'movement' attribute that is returned by the transition function. If the Turing machine moves the tape head to the right of the rightmost symbol, then a blank symbol is appended to the end of the tape and this new blank symbol becomes the current symbol. If the Turing machine moves the tape head to the left of the leftmost symbol, then a blank symbol is inserted at the beginning of the tape and this new blank symbol becomes the current symbol. www.unidex.com /turing/utm.htm   (914 words)

 Turing machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) Since a machine has only a finite number of internal states and of tape symbols, the state table of a machine is finite in length and can be stored on a tape. Turing machines may be thought of as conceptual devices for enumerating the elements of an infinite set (e.g., the theorems of a formal language), or as decision machines (e.g., deciding of any truth-functional formula whether it is a tautology). Turing's definition of a machine was theoretical; it was not a practical specification for a machine. www.ilstu.edu /~kfmachin/phi281/turing_machine.htm   (557 words)

 Turing Machine [Definition]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) The Turing machine is an abstract machine introduced in 1936 by Alan TuringAlan Mathison Turing (June 23, 1912–June 7, 1954) was a British mathematician, logician, cryptographer, and war hero, and is widely considered to be the father of computer science. The concept of a Turing machine was used as an educational tool in the science fictionScience fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. Equivalently, it can be defined as a deterministic Turing machine having an additional "write" instruction where the value of the write is uniformly distributed in the Turing Machine's alphabet (generally, an equal likelihood of writing a '1' or a '0' on to the tape.)... www.wikimirror.com /Turing_machine   (2831 words)

 Universal Turing Machine The input is given in binary form on the machine's tape, and the output consists of the contents of the tape when the machine halts. The problem with Turing Machines is that a different one must be constructed for every new computation to be performed, for every input output relation. This is why we instroduce the notion of a universal turing machine (UTM), which along with the input on the tape, takes in the description of a machine M. The UTM can go on then to simulate M on the rest of the contents of the input tape. web.mit.edu /manoli/turing/www/turing.html   (745 words)

 CS451 Perl Assignment: A Universal Turing Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) So, in effect your script simulates the finite state control of the UTM until the program is read to completion after which the UTM transforms into the turing machine as described by the program. The output of any turing machine is the final state of the tape along with the informtion about the position on the tape where the turing machine head comes to a halt. Test your script with a turing machine program that you will have to come up with for simulating the string search operation given binary data and the string to be searched known to the finite state control of the turing machine as it will be defined (hard-coded) in your program. www.cs.unm.edu /~luger/cs451/assignments/a7.html   (335 words)

 Turing Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) In 1937, Turing suggested a theoretical device, since called a Turing Machine, that became the basis of modern computing. More precisely, a Turing machine consists of: # A tape which is divided into cells, one next to the other. The Turing test and intelligencedocument clarifing the meaning of the Turing test and suggests that meeting the Turing test is already in the process of being achieved www.wikiverse.org /turing-machine   (1858 words)

 The Turing Machine and Universal Computation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) Turing put forward the question that if M is a Turing Machine and S a sequence of 0's and 1's, is there a Turing Machine that can decide if M ever halts when given S as input. An oracle Turing Machine is described as a machine that is connected to an oracle. Turing showed that the Turing Machine could simulate any other computing machine and human beings are also like computers, (Before the publication of Turingâ€™s 1936 paper the term computer was generally applied to human begins), thus the Human computer could also be successfully simulated by the Turing Machine. www.rit.edu /~maa2454/turing1.html   (2867 words)

 Alan Turing: PopSubCulture.com's The Biography Project - Creator of the Turing Test Turing then becomes obsessed with the problem of how the human mind is embodied in matter; of how the mind might be preserved after the death. Turing's solution involves defining the "definite method" as a mechanical process in which a machine "reads" paper tape with symbols printed on it. Turing's Ace Report of 1946 and Other Papers (Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series for the History of Computing, Vol 10) by Alan Turing, et al. www.popsubculture.com /pop/bio_project/alan_turing.html   (1302 words)

 universal Turing machine Definition: A Turing machine that is capable of simulating any other Turing machine by encoding the latter. See also alternating Turing machine, nondeterministic Turing machine, oracle Turing machine, probabilistic Turing machine. Algorithms and Theory of Computation Handbook, CRC Press LLC, 1999, "universal Turing machine", in Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures [online], Paul E. Black, ed., U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. www.nist.gov /dads/HTML/universalTur.html   (132 words)

 Alan Turing: a short biography - 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) Turing worked in isolation from the powerful school of logical theory centred on Church at Princeton University, and his work emerged as that of a complete outsider. The concept of 'the Turing machine' is like that of 'the formula' or 'the equation'; there is an infinity of possible Turing machines, each corresponding to a different 'definite method' or algorithm. Additionally, the abstract Universal Turing Machine naturally exploits what was later seen as the 'stored program' concept essential to the modern computer: it embodies the crucial twentieth-century insight that symbols representing instructions are no different in kind from symbols representing numbers. www.turing.org.uk /turing/bio/part3.html   (932 words)

 JavaScript Turing Machines Continue to the Scrapbook page on Alan Turing and his Turing machines for more general information on the machine concept. Machine 2 performs a divisibility test: the machine will stop with an X printed in the original blank square separating the numbers if and only if the number on the left divides exactly into the number on the right. Machine 3 uses this divisibility test as the basis for a primality test: the machine stops with an X in the original square if and only if the number on the right is prime. www.turing.org.uk /turing/scrapbook/tmjava.html   (246 words)

 UTM Self Portraits Documentation By convention a Turing Machine is understood to be a definition of a procedure, namely an "algorithm", for example, the detailed step by step procedure for controlling the automatic drive on my automobile. Turing's negative solution was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society in 1936. Turing reduced his procedure to simple steps that could be carried out, one step at a time, by a disciplined procedure. www.verostko.com /tur-doc.html   (1320 words)

 generation5 - An In-Depth Look at Turing Machines The small letters are the states, the left-hand one referring to the state the machine is in, and the right-hand one referring to the state to change to. The concept of the Universal Turing Machine is a relatively simple one to grasp, with some incredibly complex implications. By universal algorithm, I mean an algorithm that works for all Turing Machines, and on all numbers and instructions possible. www.generation5.org /content/2000/idturing.asp   (899 words)

 Drawings Gallery :: The Universal Turing Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) This is a biographical illustration and portrait of a man named Alan Turing, drawn as and titled after the creation for which he is most famous. Alan Turing was a shy and tragic man. One of the founders of modern computer science and the field of artificial intelligence, he dreamed of an abstract idea which came to be known as the Turing Machine — something we would recognize today as a computer, before such a thing ever existed. Turing, he was openly homosexual at a time when such things were unacceptable. www.jinwicked.com /en/art/drawings/turing.html   (388 words)

 Alan Turing Scrapbook - Who invented the computer? The University of Pennsylvania and the Smithsonian made a great deal of it as the "birth of the Information Age". The parallel between Turing and Zuse is explored by Thomas Goldstrasz and Henrik Pantle. This writer fails to distinguish the Universal Turing machine from the general Turing machine concept; he believes the Colossus was used by Turing on the Enigma and was 'essentially a bunch of servomotors and metal'... www.turing.org.uk /turing/scrapbook/computer.html   (1851 words)

 A Universal Turing Machine The book also discussed what is known as a universal Turing machine: a Turing machine that, given the description of any Turing machine and its starting tape, will simulate that machine. With the modification of a transition or three, the universal Turing machine ran correctly. While they are a fundamental part of computing theory, creating a Turing machine that does anything but the simplest operations is an exercise in extreme bookkeeping and tedium. www.rdrop.com /~half/General/UTM   (839 words)

 Manchester Illuminated Universal Turing Machine The logic for this algorithm by Alan Turing (1912-54) was written in 1936 and published in 1937 in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. The form enhancements celebrating the algorithm are generated with the artist’s code that requires the logic of a UTM for its execution, thus being a form of “Turing on Turing”. UTM as a Self Portrait This page includes further documentation with several UTM versions. www.verostko.com /manchester/manchester.html   (630 words)

 Hatch's Hit List #18 - Universal Turing Machine: Corante > The Importance of... > A Universal machine is a Turing machine with the property of being able to read the description of any other Turing machine, and to carry out what that other Turing machine would have done. Turing gave an exact description of such a Universal machine in his paper (though with a few bugs). Clearly, these "Universal" Turing Machines need legal controls, such as the INDUCE Act, in order that they not be abused for copyright infringement by those who would simulate copyrighted descriptions of other Turing machines. www.corante.com /importance/archives/005475.php   (1060 words)

 A Turing Machine in Conway's Game of Life, extendable to a Universal Turing Machine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) It is a very simple Turing Machine as it is limited to 3 states and 3 symbols. The design for this Turing Machine is extendible by expanding the size of the Finite State Machine part and storing different numbers in the memory cells. This is sufficient for a Universal Turing Machine. rendell.server.org.uk /gol/tm.htm   (567 words)

 What is the minimum number of states in a Universal Turing Machine? | Ask MetaFilter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) What is the absolute minimum number of states required in a Turing Machine (that uses binary tape) for it to be able to serve as a Universal Turing Machine? I'm looking into designing a visual aid to help explain the Turing machine, and I want the system it depicts to be as simple as possible, yet sufficient (in theory at least) to operate as a UTM. (The internet is loaded with UTM information, and references to "a minimum finite number of states" abound, but nothing seems to mention what that number actually happens to be, and I don't really have the time or the ability to reinvent the wheel) ask.metafilter.com /mefi/18208   (287 words)

 Citations: Logical depth and physical complexity - Bennett (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-04) formally de ned the s signi cant logical depth of an object x as the time required by a standard universal Turing machine to generate x by a program that is no more than s bits longer than the shortest descriptions of x. formally de ned the s signi cant logical depth of a string x as the time required by a standard universal Turing machine to generate x by a program that is no more than s bits longer than the shortest descriptions of x. However, Bennett [2, 3] has defined a complexity measure based on programs for universal Turing machines that does capture the desired complexity criteria and is universal for all objects that can be digitally encoded. citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/95295/0   (3018 words)

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