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Topic: Universal grammar

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  Universal grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans.
The concept of a universal grammar or language was at the core of the 17th century projects for philosophical languages.
Some linguists oppose the universal grammar theory; it is outspokenly opposed by Geoffrey Sampson, who maintains that it is possible for children to learn a language without being born with grammatical rules.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Universal_grammar   (559 words)

By using universal semantic primes as a vocabulary for semantic description we can achieve semantic analyses which are maximally intelligible, testable, and intertranslatable, as well as enabling the maximum possible resolution of semantic analysis.
These are highly concrete and testable claims about universal grammar, and it is the goal of this two‑volume collection of studies to test them, and many other equally concrete claims, against data from a set of divergent languages.
In short, the goal of this set of studies is to establish empirically that there is a universal core of grammar which is based on ‑ indeed, inseparable from meaning, and in this way to lay the foundations for an integrated, semantically-based approach to universal grammar and linguistic typology.
www.wordtrade.com /society/grammar.htm   (1741 words)

 Universal Grammar and Linguistics
Universal grammar, therefore, is part of the knowledge that resides in the human mind of a person who knows a language.
For Chomsky and his fellow linguists argue that universal grammar is not learned by mimicry or lessons or examples and correction, but is instead innate in the mind of every human being, a part of our genetic endowment, like the basic structure of our livers or spleens.
Language knowledge including universal grammar, the parameter settings, and the lexicon, becomes the child's in a very short span despite the fact that linguists working in the field for decades have only just begun to enumerate what this knowledge consists of.
www.zmag.org /ZMag/grammar.htm   (4464 words)

 Universal Grammar
This paper contends that a universal grammar is not to be found by the usual method of studying words, abstracting categories of words, and overlaying a structure based on those categories.
Grammar, and generally the organizing principles of language, can be seen as sharing biological rules of constraint and are subject to evolutionary principles.
The imposition of grammar upon language is generally speaking a top-down enterprise that labels linguistic phenomena in discreet units with rules extrapolated from the relationship of those units.
informatics.indiana.edu /rocha/univgram.html   (5882 words)

 The innateness of a Universal grammar principle in L2 users of English
The existence of this principle in the L1 is often taken to demonstrate the innateness of Universal Grammar.
Universal Grammar is, however, a theory of grammars not of languages; that is to say, the aim is to account for the grammar in the mind of an individual, not the social construct of a language shared by a community of speakers: "The grammar in a person's mind/brain is real...
Since Universal Grammar theory concerns individual minds not a collective body of language, the results were stated in terms of individuals as well as groups.
homepage.ntlworld.com /vivian.c/Writings/Papers/SD&UG.htm   (5204 words)

 leif . writing . papers . empirical constraints for universal grammar
Universal Grammar, then, is often thought of in terms of a generational grammar like that described in Table 1.
One of the largest problems with Universal Grammar comes when one remembers that humans (and all other organisms) are not built at random; instead, they carry with them a set of information that is necessary for constructing the proteins that either make up or build the rest of the body.
Another argument constraining the potential nature of Universal Grammar comes from interesting studies of children who were deprived of language for whatever reason during the early period of their lives (e.g., [Pinker 95], pp.
ambient.2y.net /leif/writing/papers/grammar   (4377 words)

 Wikinfo | Universal grammar
Universal grammar is a theory of linguistics postulating that all languages have underlying principles of grammar.
This theory does not attempt to claim that all human languages have the same grammar, or that all humans are "programmed" with a structure that underlies all surface expressions of human language.
Rather, universal grammar proposes that there exists an underlying set of rules that helps children to acquire their particular language(s).
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Universal_grammar   (186 words)

 Androidal Systems
ASI technology operates by defining universal "moments of language" that are understood innately and are not dependent on any particular language or culture for their structure.
The result of ASI’s research on the universal grammar is the definition of a grammatical form that describes knowledge according to the mind’s action on it, a universal structure referred to as the "epistemic moment" of language.
This universal structure is referred to as an "epistemic moment of language." This smallest unit of language is considered the grammatical basis of all knowledge and the foundation for any technology.
www.androidal.com /pages/thedscvry.html   (3618 words)

 Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar:0521796474:Lydia White:eCampus.com
It argues for a role for Universal Grammar in second language acquisition.
Theories as to the role of Universal Grammar and the extent of language transfer are presented along with relevant empirical research.
Properties of early developmental stage grammars are examined, as well as the nature of the final outcome of the acquisition process.
www.ecampus.com /bk_detail.asp?isbn=0521796474   (74 words)

 Androidal Systems
Since any conventional hardware utilized by the KP is configured under the universal grammar, the resulting integrated system allows conventional computing paradigms to be realized on the basis of function (in addition to structure) to meet the user's unique software needs.
Because machine languages are viewed through the universal grammar as "high-level languages," both the source and object codes are construed simply as ordinary languages translated by the system's universal translation capabilities.
Because both the physical system and the model are understood by the KP from the standpoint of the universal grammar, and because the model system is embodied in the hardware of the knowledge processing platform, the KP accomplishes both the design and implementation of a physical system in the same technological scenario, as illustrated below.
www.androidal.com /pages/prodapps.html   (2543 words)

 Evolution Of Universal Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology.
The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population.
We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars.
www.comdig.org /send_article.php?id_article=3499   (168 words)

 Universal Grammar and Multi-Competence by Vivian Cook
If most people, or indeed everybody, has multiple grammars in their minds, the idealisation to the monolingual native speaker is misleading, as inaccurate as saying we should study the breathing of human beings by looking at those with one lung rather than two.
UG theory has to account for this universal ability of the mind to have two, possibly conflicting, grammars at the same time; universals cannot be established by studying the minds of people who know one language, only those who have fulfilled the multilingual potential of the human language faculty.
Multi-competence, far from the denying the existence of Universal Grammar, insists that it has to be based on the final language state of the normal human being, which includes more than one language.
homepage.ntlworld.com /vivian.c/Writings/Papers/multi-competence&UG.htm   (1370 words)

 BrainConnection.com - Evolution of Language: Summary - Part 4
These mental grammars are not the grammars we learn in school, but rather they are the unconscious process by which we decide whether a sentence is well-formed.
Chomsky called this set of constraints "the universal grammar." This set of constraints is like those on a die used to generate a random number.
According to Chomsky, invented languages, creoles, and all other human languages (both spoken and gestural) are in part defined by a grammar necessary for generating well-formed sentences, and these grammars share many properties according to the constraints of a universal grammar that all humans, and only humans, carry in their genetic code.
www.brainconnection.com /topics?main=fa/evolution-language4   (563 words)

 Chomsky and the Universal Grammar
Wigner concluded that the structure of mathematics and the structure of the physical universe are disturbingly similar.
All ideas and concepts, therefore, have a universal or 'public' content in addition to the private content which we give them when we marry them, correctly or incorrectly, to our private world of percepts, and to the mental content, true or false, that we have already made into our own 'world-view'.
Grammar is the logic of language, and by claiming that a Universal Grammar exists, Noam Chomsky is drawing attention to the same problem that so worried Einstein, Morowitz, Wigner et al.
www.southerncrossreview.org /9/chomsky.htm   (2221 words)

 Introduction / Grammar / Universal Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Grammar as we use it in typical language creation is known as generative grammar.
Grammar consists of the sounds and sound patterns, words, and the rules to combine these to form sentences with the intended meaning.
Grammar and meaning are independent: We can create sentences that are grammatical but meaningless, that is, we can create sentences that sound like nonsense, but are still recognized as structurally viable.
www.arts.uwaterloo.ca /~mjmcnult/212/intro_grammar.htm   (1389 words)

 universal grammar - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library
His was a...iconic elements, a "visual grammar" that was proletarian in spirit...high standard of living, near-universal literacy, and excellence in...assimilated the basic precepts of Universal Constructivism: distillation...
It is a universal characteristic of the...transformational (or generative) grammar, introduced by Noam...deep structures," a universal grammar underlying all languages...in transformational grammar has led in turn to increased...
...known as transformational-generative grammar received wide acclaim through the works...rewrite rules, i.e., a series of (possibly universal) rules that generates the underlying...result of a transformational-generative grammar is a surface structure that, after the...
www.questia.com /search/universal-grammar   (1582 words)

 ESL Glossary: Definitons of common ESL/EFL terms: Universal Grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
This is not to say we are born with knowledge of the particular rules of our own language, but rather general or universal principles of all languages.
One example of a kind of principle proposed by universal grammar theorists is the innate parameter.
Essentially, we are born with parameters of language and minimal instances of input will allow us to figure out how to set the parameters for our own language (keep in mind this is a subconscious process).
bogglesworld.com /glossary/universalgrammar.htm   (327 words)

 LINGUIST List 5.222: Universal grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Certainly, within the currently dominant paradigm (Chomskian generative grammar), the use of the term Universal Grammar presupposes a particular approach to the explanation of language universals: the explanation from innateness.
The functional-typological approach takes Universal Grammar to be the set of universals that can be discovered from cross-linguistic comparison.
It seems that the former usually use the initials UG, whereas the latter use the term 'universal grammar'.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/5/5-222.html   (423 words)

 20th WCP: On Universal Grammar and its Formalization
At the beginning of this paper, to avoid misunderstanding, we explain that considerations concerning universal grammar should be understood as a theoretical and very general, formal-logical approach to the logic of language.
The term 'logical syntax' introduced by Carnap is understood here in the narrower sense, namely as a field of the logic of language to which belong issues connected with the classification of expressions and their syntactic structure.
In order to present such a grammar, Tarski gives the first deductive theory of strings in which the relation of concatenation of strings is a primitive concept characterized by axioms and serves to generate concatenations of strings from the vocabulary of a given language.
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Logi/LogiWybr.htm   (7277 words)

 Is Universal Grammar Innate?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Indeed, the idea of language being in some sense universal to the species, and hence presumably partly inborn rather than entirely learnt, was noted by Roger Bacon in the thirteenth century.
This is not to criticise the authors of these books; the problem is merely that the information transmitted to the learners is inadequate because the authors do not fully understand the way their own arguments are constructed.
Based on a study of this kind of language, we speculate that Universal Grammar must be confusing, expressible in 1200-1500 words and have nothing whatsoever to do with any divine power.
www.srcf.ucam.org /~camw3/Studies/UG.htm   (630 words)

 grammar theory - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library
Essays on Grammatical Theory and Universal Grammar Essays on Grammatical Theory and Universal Grammar EDITED BY Doug Arnold Martin...Publication Data Essays on grammatical theory and universal grammar 1.
Although grammar is only one of the...communicative competence theory, it is as important...communicative competence theory suggests to us that...not focus only on grammar.
She draws a connection between the concept of universal grammar found in James Harris Hermes, or a Philosophical Inquiry Concerning...
www.questia.com /search/grammar-theory   (1668 words)

 Universal Grammar in Second-Language Acquisition - More Information
From the ancient Mediterranean world to the present day, our conceptions of what is universal in language have interacted with our experiences of language learning.
This book tells two stories: the story of how scholars in the west have conceived of the fact that human languages share important properties despite their obvious differences, and the story of how westerners have understood the nature of second or foreign language learning.
Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition is a remarkable contribution to the history of linguistics and will be essential reading for students and scholars of linguistics, specialists in second language acquisition and language teacher-educators.
www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk /html/moreinfo.asp?etailerid=19&bookId=536911055   (299 words)

 Gene Expression: The children of Universal Grammar
There are many flavors of "innate" conceptions of language capacity/aptitude, and even disagreemants among "Universal Grammarians." Last year I posted an exchange between Chomsky et.
...many of the language universals reflect semiotic constraints inherent in the requirements for producing symbolic reference rather than innate predispositions.
Deacon basically forwards the proposition that languages were selected and constrained, some would say "canalized," toward certain universal structures (which UG theorists posited emerge out of UG), but these structures are only byproducts of cognitive biases and limitations of the human symbolic mind.
www.gnxp.com /MT2/archives/003550.html   (929 words)

 Gene Expression: Universal Grammar [part I]
So he invented something called 'universal grammar' which is somehow programmed into us at birth.
Children must learn the rules of their native grammar (whatever it might be) through a limited set of sample sentences that they hear.
And no, you can't believe in some sort of universal grammar or innate language acquisition device (or even foundational mental structures for language) without giving Chomsky a measure of proper credit.
www.gnxp.com /MT2/archives/000570.html   (2800 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-19)
Applicative Universal Grammar is a semiotic theory of linguistics that uses combinatory logic (a higher order logic) as its formalism.
Applicative Universal Grammar can explain certain linguistic difficulties more eaily and more parsimoniously than can other linguistic theories.
Nancy Tinkman and I here at Rowan University are beginning a project that will extend work done at Yale University to build a computerized parser using AUG's principles and theory.
elvis.rowan.edu /~bps/ling/ling.htm   (581 words)

 Universal Grammar (UG)
Universal Grammar (UG): an innate, genetic endowment of language-specific knowledge consisting of the principles and parameters of language.
On the one hand, it must be compatible with the diversity of existing (indeed, possible) grammars.
At the same time, UG must be sufficiently constrained and restrictive … to account for the fact that each of these grammars develops in the mind on the basis of quite limited evidence … What we expect to find.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~guion/444notes/ug.html   (760 words)

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