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Topic: Universality (philosophy)


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 Howard University Libraries
In this brief essay, I wish to speak of the universality of philosophy or philosophizing as a human enterprise and of the significance of this universality for the advancement of inquiry and the unity of mankind.
Philosophy, one may say, arises with the sense of wonder and quiet perplexity of the stargazer and it is concerned with being and primary causes, and with the chain or catenation of causes and effects in the realm of mutable things.
Philosophy itself is the continual vision of being and order, sustaining both the integrity of scientific inquiry and the good faith of moral effort and social reform.
www.founders.howard.edu /bannerWA

  
 iqexpand.com
This is a danger in any field of knowledge that claims objectivity and universality, such as philosophy and the natural sciences.
This is a danger in any field of knowledge that claims objectivity and universality, such as philosophy and...
As one might expect, the effects on philosophy are profound, and not merely limited to ethics.
cultural_bias.iqexpand.com   (864 words)

  
 Universal class - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Universal class is a category derived from the philosophy of Hegel, redefined and popularized by Karl Marx.
For Marx, the opportunities for further human progress could be realized or lost, depending on the extent to which the universal class of the moment directed social developments.
So, for a period, Marx characterizes the bourgeoisie as the universal class.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Universal_class   (864 words)

  
 Hegel - History of Philosophy
Hume is a sceptic; the Scottish philosophy opposes the scepticism of Hume, the French philosophy has in the "enlightenment" of Germany (by which expression is indicated that form of German philosophy which is not Wolffian metaphysics) an appendage of a feebler form.
Philosophy is thus become a matter of universal interest, and one respecting which each can judge for himself; for everyone is a thinker from the beginning.
The concrete, in itself determining Thought, is, with Plato, the still abstract Idea, but in the form of universality; while with Aristotle that Idea was conceived of as the self-determining, or in the determination of its efficacy or activity.
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/hegel/works/hp/hpconten.htm   (864 words)

  
 Political Philosophy [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Political rationalism emphasizes the employment of reason in social affairs: that is, individuals ought to submit to the logic and universality of reason rather than their own subjective or cultural preconceptions.
The political philosophies of liberalism, socialism, conservativism and anarchism — and all of their variants — agree that the good life sought by political philosophy ought to be the good life for human beings.
Students of political philosophy ought to be aware of the two schools of thought that reside under the same banner to avoid philosophical confusions that can be resolved by a clarification of terms.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/p/polphil.htm   (6111 words)

  
 IV SECOND ATTITUDE OF THOUGHT TO OBJECTIVITY
The principles of the metaphysical philosophy gave rise to the belief that, when cognition lapsed into contradictions, it was a mere accidental aberration, due to some subjective mistake in argument and inference.
The main effect of the Kantian philosophy has been to revive the consciousness of Reason, or the absolute inwardness of thought.
It is in these apercus alone that the Kantian philosophy rises to the speculative height.
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/hegel/works/sl/sl_iv.htm   (11689 words)

  
 PetersNet: Joseph Barrett, Old Problems with Modern Philosophy
The intrusive philosophy, here, tends to rely, not upon science as such, but upon "scientific theory" as its first principle and is therefore bound to it; and laid open to the charge that, as I have remarked, it exists primarily as a justification of that opinion in which it is rooted.
Modern philosophy cowers from the surrounding abyss unless it can pretend there is no abyss at-all but a nice little middle class nursery where inanimate objects argue and fuss.
While, on the other hand, any number of theories, however contradictory, bask in a semblance of universality provided by the tied-in philosophies which they support.
www.petersnet.net /browse/1226.htm   (5518 words)

  
 Body
He believed that Japanese philosophy was destined to raise this feature of Japanese culture to universality much as the natural sciences had universalized Western culture.
This aspect of his philosophy is quite contemporary, and has brought about a "return" to Nishida on the part of some Japanese intellectuals who have found anticipations of a Japanese "post-modernity" in his thought, while others worry about the renewal of nationalism this return appears to imply.
The association between philosophy and nationalist politics was not forgotten after the War and sometimes caused the one to be rejected with the other, especially on the Left.
www-rohan.sdsu.edu /faculty/feenberg/Ultnish.htm   (5518 words)

  
 LINGUISTIC UNDERSTANDING AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE
No doubt, methodological naturalism is the correct methodology for empirical linguistics but the claim that the correct account of method is identical in both science and philosophy is a harder one to establish, presupposing, as it does, that empirical knowledge is the only kind of knowledge to be had.
On this view, individual (mis)use can be corrected with reference to the rule itself while agreement in judgement (agreement in intuition) is explained by appeal to the (contingent) fact of the universality of endowment of the language faculty.
Paul Tomassi teaches logic, philosophy of science and history of philosophy at the University of Aberdeen, where he is also Director of the M.Litt.
www.ul.ie /~philos/vol4/chomsky.html   (5518 words)

  
 20th WCP: Philosophical Pluralism in the Service of Humane Governance
Yet, to the degree that there is a quest for relation of differences, this need not presuppose the universality of philosophical discourse, comparative philosophy moving inevitably within a logic of opposition rather than a logic of mutuality.
'Philosophy' construed narrowly, i.e., in terms that at their best represent fallacies of appeals to traditional wisdom and parochialism and at worst amount to the more serious charge of metaphysical racism, cannot but fail to meet the really urgent dimension of philosophical responsibility.
The idea that Europe and European philosophy are archontic for "humanity", for what may properly be conceived as "the ends of humanity", is surely suspect in the way in which Derrida calls it a "metaphysical racism".
www.bu.edu /wcp/Papers/Comp/CompSwaz.htm   (1928 words)

  
 The Philosophy Resource Center: The Ancient Greek Moral Tradition
This is why he specifically stresses that the principles of moral philosophy only acquire a certain kind of universality when applied as a general guide to one's own life and not as a specific set of rules that hope to "get you on the right path quickly" as would be expected from a how-to book.
This is a fine example he uses as to why the same principles of moral philosophy apply to the formulation of 'making a good life', and that to dismiss them because of their lack of specificity on how to deal with a particular problem would be lacking any sort of common sense.
Furthermore, this common sense that is inherent in understanding moral philosophy will not serve as a specific guide through the dark periods of one's life, but will consequently serve as some kind of moral reference point in order to even begin to have a chance at making it through those dark points of life.
radicalacademy.com /studentrefphilmb5.htm   (3954 words)

  
 GWFHegel.Org - Hegel's Science of Philosophy
Hegel has admitted that his philosophy is basically the same as Aristotle's except that he has made it more systematic and scientific.
The overthrow of what eventually was called "anthropomorphism", that seemed to form the very heart of Aristotelian philosophy, became immanent with this challenge to the authority of the great philosopher.
Its domain is the pure plane of universality or thought, and, as we shall see, its center is the universal Self or universal aspect of God, which is not rooted in the particularity of human individuality.
www.gwfhegel.org /personalism.html   (1806 words)

  
 Jean-François Lyotard [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Just as pagan religions believe in a number of different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard's pagan philosophy represents a concern for pluralism and multiplicity (terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality).
This rejection is manifested in the philosophy of paganism that preceded Lyotard's postmodernism.
Whereas in the libidinal philosophy the focus was to see that a single interpretation of an event did not become hegemonic, in Lyotard's later philosophy he is primarily concerned with the problems of justice that arise between competing interpretations of events.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/l/Lyotard.htm   (13557 words)

  
 The Crisis of European Sciences
Thus we can say quite correctly (broadening the meaning): it is a matter of a logic as a theory of norms and a technology with the fullest universality, to the end of attaining a universal philosophy.
In every direction rational philosophy was under construction; of primary interest were discoveries, theories, the rigour of their inferences, and correspondingly the general problem of method and its perfection.
Irrespective of the truth of the Kantian philosophy, about which we need not pass judgment here, we must not pass over the fact that Hume, as he is understood by Kant, is not the real Hume.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/husserl.htm   (13557 words)

  
 Tree of Knowledge: Politics
The Perennial Philosophy was intended to show the universality of that core truth behind the multitude of names and forms which the religious impulse--the search for God--has taken throughout history.
If the perennial philosophy articulates that toward which humanity is evolving--enlightenment--then America represents the best political means devised so far to create societal circumstances for nurturing, and even hastening, human evolution to enlightenment.
The spiritual foundations of America are wholly congruent with the perennial philosophy, which is the highest wisdom known to humanity.
www.21stcenturyradio.com /t-politics-c2-patriotwhite.html   (7318 words)

  
 The Critical Philosophy
This criticism obviously but repeats the observation of Hume (§ 39) that the categories as a whole ideas of universality and necessity are entirely absent from sensation; and that the empirical fact both in form and contents differs from its intellectual formulation.
A general remark may still be offered on the result to which the Critical philosophy led as to the nature of knowledge; a result which has grown one of the current 'idols' or axiomatic beliefs of the day.
The Critical Philosophy however widened the contrast in such a way, that the subjectivity comes to embrace the ensemble of experience, including both of the aforesaid elements; and nothing remains on the other side but the 'thing-in-itself'.
www.marxists.org /reference/subject/philosophy/works/ge/hegel.htm   (5700 words)

  
 Philosophy
Think of abstraction as objectivity, interpretation as subjectivity; of abstraction as universality, of interpretation as individuality; of abstraction as generalization, of interpretation as specialization.
Spirituality – Here is where you consider that which is beyond boundaries of your own existence to the origins of the universe, the meaning of death, and even this philosophy.
I was particularly fascinated with the origin and meaning of existence (ontology) and the origin of the universe (cosmology) and to a lesser degree with the nature of knowledge (epistemology).
home.pacbell.net /tahl/philosophy.htm   (1096 words)

  
 Existentialism Philosophy
His objective is to allow philosophy and religion to bleed into one another so as to ensure that singularity is never consumed by universality, or, and this amounts to the same thing, that ethics keeps metaphysics in check”.
According to Dera Sipe, professor of philosophy: “Kierkegaard’s pseudonym A. presents woman by way of irony as Western patriarchy has traditionally done: he mocks woman for her lack of philosophical inclination, her domestic nature, her nagging tendencies, and her supposed connection to nature.
Register with Blogger and publish your work on Existentialism Philosophy.
existentialist.blogspot.com   (6662 words)

  
 m759's Xanga Site
The typical affirmation of Exaggerated Realism, the most outspoken ever made, appears in Plato's philosophy; the real must possess the attributes of necessity, universality, unity, and immutability which are found in our intellectual representations.
Atiyah's misleading remarks may appeal to believers in the contemptible religion of Scientism, but they have little to do with either historical reality or authentic philosophy.
The idea is absolutely stable and exists by itself (ontos on; auta kath' auta), isolated from the phenomenal world, distinct from the Divine and human intellect....
www.xanga.com /home.aspx?user=m759&nextdate=11%2f1%2f2005+23%3a59%3a59.999   (976 words)

  
 Art & Philosophy
Art becomes a topic in the first place, not because of a peculiar inclination of the author, but because of the assumption that a social theory claiming universality cannot ignore the existence of art.
Wollheim is one of the dominant figures in the philosophy of art, whose work has shown not only how paintings create their effects but why they remain important to us.
Art and Aesthetics At Work edited by Adrian Carr, Philip Hancock (Palgrave) The chapters of these essays are grouped in terms of common themes.
www.sirreadalot.org /arts/artphilosophyR.htm   (6692 words)

  
 Cultural bias article - Cultural bias philosophy Economics Psychology Anthropology Sociology goodness - What-Means.com
This is a danger in any field of knowledge that claims objectivity and universality, such as philosophy and the natural sciences.
As one might expect, the effects on philosophy are profound, and not merely limited to ethics.
The problem of cultural bias is central to social and human sciences, such as Economics, Psychology, Anthropology and Sociology, which have had to develop methods and theories to compensate for or eliminate cultural bias.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Cultural_bias   (580 words)

  
 Wired For Learning-Featuring Online Philosophy Courses at Universal Class.com
Wired For Learning-Featuring Online Philosophy Courses at Universal Class.com
www.wiredforlearning.com   (580 words)

  
 Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History
§ 75 The condition of Philosophy's existence is the taking up of the object of thought, and at the same time clothing it with the form of universality.
§ 65 The investigation of the history of ancient peoples, to trace their annals up to the point where fragments of primary revelation are to be met with.
O The subject of this course of Lectures is the Philosophical History of the World.
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/hegel/works/hi/hiconten.htm   (1973 words)

  
 Existentialism Philosophy
His objective is to allow philosophy and religion to bleed into one another so as to ensure that singularity is never consumed by universality, or, and this amounts to the same thing, that ethics keeps metaphysics in check”.
According to Dera Sipe, professor of philosophy: “Kierkegaard’s pseudonym A. presents woman by way of irony as Western patriarchy has traditionally done: he mocks woman for her lack of philosophical inclination, her domestic nature, her nagging tendencies, and her supposed connection to nature.
More from Mr Dooley: “Kierkegaard endeavors to rescue religion, and especially the Christ-figure, from the labor of the negative in Hegel’s speculative account of consciousness; his belief is that philosophy will become genuinely useful only after its supposed superiority over religion is discredited.
existentialist.blogspot.com   (1973 words)

  
 Karl Marx - The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature. In Two Parts - Part One with an Appendix
The Alexandrian philosophy is finally regarded entirely as exaltation and derangement-a confusion in which at most the universality of the intention can be recognised.
Epicurean philosophy is taken as a syncretic combination of Democritean physics and Cyrenaic morality; Stoicism as a compound of Heraclitean speculation on nature and the Cynical-ethical view of the world, together with some Aristotelean logic; and finally Scepticism as the necessary evil confronting these dogmatisms.
The objective history of philosophy in Greece seems to come to an end with Aristotle, Greek philosophy's Alexander of Macedon, and even the manly-strong Stoics did not succeed in what the Spartans did accomplish in their temples, the chaining of Athena to Heracles so that she could not flee.
evans-experientialism.freewebspace.com /marx01.htm   (6146 words)

  
 List
Klima, G. (in press) “The Universality of Logic and the Primacy of Mental Language in the Nominalist Philosophy of Logic of John Buridan”, Mediaevalia Philosophica Polonorum
Klima, G. The Semantic Principles Underlying Saint Thomas Aquinas's Metaphysics of Being", Medieval Philosophy and Theology, 5(1996), pp.
Klima, G. (2003) “John Buridan”, in: J. Gracia and T. Noone (eds.), A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, Blackwell, pp.
www.fordham.edu /gsas/phil/klima/list.htm   (1635 words)

  
 Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History
§ 75 The condition of Philosophy's existence is the taking up of the object of thought, and at the same time clothing it with the form of universality.
§ 78 Among all world-historical peoples, art, science, even philosophy show not only diversity in style, but still more remarkably in subject-matter.
§ 99 Philosophy, as occupying itself with the True, has only to do with the eternally present.
www.marxists.org /reference/archive/hegel/works/hi/hiconten.htm   (1973 words)

  
 Vladimir Solovyov [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
In "The Reliability of Reason," the second article comprising the Theoretical Philosophy, Solovyov concerns himself with affirming the universality of logical thought.
For the remainder of the 1880s, despite his prolificacy, Solovyov concerned himself with themes of little interest to contemporary Western philosophy.
This hastily enunciated conclusion receives here no further argument.
www.iep.utm.edu /s/solovyov.htm   (1973 words)

  
 Gadmer
In this reading of Gadamer’s hermeneutics, of his hermeneutic philosophy, the author emphasizes and whenever appropriate to come back to the importance of the roots of Gadamer’s thinking in the developments of the 1920s where philosophy in effect returns to the experience of life as a way of underscoring this determination of philosophy.
Looking back over his life and thought, Gadamer takes up key issues in his philosophy, addresses points of controversy, and replies to his critics, including those who accuse him of having been in complicity with the Nazis.
That is to say, the claim to universality is not about an unconditional validity relative to Gadamer’s "theory" of understanding, for in fact the actual condition for understanding that Gadamer posits (viz., the historicity of understanding) runs counter to any claim to universality.
www.wordtrade.com /philosophy/gadmer.htm   (1973 words)

  
 Kant's Language: 'Common Sense' and Claiming Universals. Kant's Critique of Judgement. Linguistic Relativism after Kant - On universals and Common sense.
I will consider Kantian notions of universality and common sense and go on to explore their place in the Linguistic Philosophy of the twentieth century.
[16] Criticisms of the linguistic approach to philosophy suggest that the implication of language in philosophy is unsurpassable, that the constraint of language is a universal prerequisite, so to speak.
Kant's notions of universality and subjectivism present a number of problems: either we must accept that his categories have a physiological basis, or we have to simply take his word for it that there is no better way to map out the workings of the mind.
nbprojects.co.uk /nickfry/kant.htm   (1973 words)

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