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Topic: Unsolved problems in physics

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  physics - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
Physics is sometimes said to be the "fundamental science", because each of the other natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) deals with particular types of material systems that obey the laws of physics.
Condensed matter physics, by most estimates the largest single field of physics, is concerned with how the properties of bulk matter, such as the ordinary solids and liquids we encounter in everyday life, arise from the properties and mutual interactions of the constituent atoms.
Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics, like the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water droplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes, or self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections, still remain insufficiently characterized, and more importantly, poorly understood.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/physics   (3251 words)

Physics (from Greek from φυσικός (phusikos): natural, from φύσις (fysis): nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense.
Physics is very closely related to the other natural sciences, particularly chemistry, the science of molecules and the chemical compounds that they form in bulk.
In condensed matter physics, the biggest unsolved theoretical problem is the explanation for high-temperature superconductivity.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ph/PhysIcs.html   (1507 words)

 ipedia.com: Physics Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Physics (from Greek from φυσικός (physikos): natural, from φύσις (physis): Nature) is the science of Nature (or natural science) in the broadest sense.
That the physical world can necessarily be completely reduced in such a way is unclear; one could conceive of a world comprised of an infinite variety of particles behaving in accordance with an infinite number of laws, or perhaps behaving entirely randomly on occasion.
As an example, a particularly fertile area of applied physics is solid-state physics, in which researchers use the more fundamental laws of quantum mechanics and electromagnetism to analyze the behavior of atoms that comprise a solid.
www.ipedia.com /physics_1.html   (2121 words)

 Education Resources » Physics
Physics is sometimes said to be the “fundamental science”, because each of the other weaker sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) deals with particular types of material systems that obey the laws of physics.
Physics is closely related to mathematics, which provides the logical framework in which physical laws can be precisely formulated and their predictions quantified.
Complex problems that seem like they could be solved by a clever application of dynamics and mechanics, such as the formation of sandpiles, nodes in trickling water, the shape of water droplets, mechanisms of surface tension catastrophes, or self-sorting in shaken heterogeneous collections are unsolved.
www.thecatalyst.org /resource/2006/04/21/Physics   (3894 words)

 Unsolved problems in physics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some of these problems are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining some observed phenomenon or experimental result.
Long-duration bursts are associated with the deaths of massive stars in a specific kind of supernova-like event commonly referred to as a collapsar.
Physics News Update A weekly physics news bulletin hosted by the American Institute of Physics.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Unsolved_problems_in_physics   (1192 words)

 Clark University | Departments | Physics
It also is possible to major in physics as part of the Environmental Science and Policy Program or to combine the physics major with a concentration in Computational Science.
Physics is an excellent choice of major if you intend to become a physician, due in part to the perceived difficulty of the major and the fact that relatively few students interested in medicine choose to major in physics.
Physics is a structured discipline, which means that the courses are ordered in sequence, much like the steps in a ladder.
www.clarku.edu /departments/physics   (988 words)

 Top20Physics.com - Online Directory for Physics Education.
Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (phusikos), "natural", and φύσις (phusis), "nature") is the science of the natural world in the broadest sense, dealing with matter, energy, and the fundamental forces that govern the interactions between particles.
Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena spanning all length scales, from the sub-nuclear particles of which all ordinary matter is made (particle physics) to the material Universe as a whole (cosmology).
Physics is closely related to mathematics - mathematics provides the logical framework where physical laws can be precisely formulated and their predictions quantified.
www.top20physics.com   (3853 words)

 I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The unsolved problems of physics stem from the unclear nature of the physical perception of change, and their resolution lies in the analysis of perception as a physical process.
The unsolved problems of metaphysics stem from the same source, and can be resolved by the same perception analysis.
The problems of metaphysics are also answered: metaphysics is elevated to an exact science without any tinge of dogma, and physics and metaphysics are united.
www.cheniere.org /techpapers/quiton/p1.htm   (445 words)

 Victor F. Hess - Nobel Lecture
From a consideration of the immense volume of newly discovered facts in the field of physics, especially atomic physics, in recent years it might well appear to the layman that the main problems were already solved and that only more detailed work was necessary.
As I was able to observe no reduction in ionization during the eclipse I decided that, essentially, the sun could not be the source of cosmic rays, at least as far as undeflected rays were concerned.
It is likely that further research into "showers" and "bursts" of the cosmic rays may possibly lead to the discovery of still more elementary particles, neutrinos and negative protons, of which the existence has been postulated by some theoretical physicists in recent years.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1936/hess-lecture.html   (903 words)

Are all the (measurable) dimensionless parameters that characterize the physical universe calculable in principle or are some merely determined by historical or quantum mechanical accident and uncalculable?
Two of the great theories of modern physics are the standard model, which uses quantum mechanics to describe the subatomic particles and the forces they obey, and general relativity, the theory of gravity.
As defined in physics, information is not the same as meaning, but simply refers to the binary digits, or some other code, used to precisely describe an object or pattern.
www.oglethorpe.edu /faculty/~m_rulison/top10.htm   (1437 words)

 Links to open problems in mathematics, physics and financial econometrics
Are all the (measurable) dimensionless paramters that characterize the physical universe calculable in principle or are some merely determined by historical or quantum mechanical accident and uncalculable?
Problems: construct a quantum theory of gravity from some basic principles assuming noncommutative geometry (John Madore,...) or express some sector or limit of an underlying theory in terms of the language of noncommutative geometry
Unnaturalness problem: original calculation in which the introduction of the Higgs boson in the standard model gives it and the Z and two W infinite mass
www.geocities.com /ednitou   (536 words)

 Breaking Lorentz symmetry (March 2004) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb
To a physicist such equality and fairness of physical laws is called a symmetry, and the symmetry that requires the laws of physics to be the same for all observers is known as Lorentz symmetry.
Symmetry is one of the most important concepts in physics, and it is closely linked to the conservation of quantities such as energy, momentum and charge.
This means that the physical properties of a particle, such as its energy and momentum, will change as the motion or spin orientation of the particle changes with respect to the background SME coefficients.
physicsweb.org /articles/world/17/3/7   (4463 words)

 PRIME-SPOT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
This is a promising branch of physics which lives at the intersection of theoretical and experimental physics and a very exciting field to work in right now.
I am very interested in the justification of this approach and in the consequences especially in regard to the unsolved puzzle of the non-appearance of the GZK cutoff in ultra high energetic cosmic rays.
Neutrino physics as a first evidence of physics beyond the standard model is a currently very active and interesting field to work in.
www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de /~hossi/Physics/phystop.html   (914 words)

 Press Release: The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics
This year's Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to three physicists who have made decisive contributions concerning two phenomena in quantum physics: superconductivity and superfluidity.
Recent studies show how this order passes into chaos or turbulence, which is one of the unsolved problems of classical physics.
Doctor's degree in physics in 1951 at the Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow.
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2003/press.html   (534 words)

 A List of Unsolved Problems in Physics for the 21st Century
Some of them aren't even recognized currently as problems, and some are not appreciated as being problems as such, or otherwise as problems which Physics can address.
The problem is that the statement P(E) = 1/2 allows for ANY outcome for a series or repeated trials of event E. A statement cannot be falsified by what it says is possible.
The problem is that there is no such principle; and no occurrence of "Causality" exists at the foundation of any physical theory.
www.lns.cornell.edu /spr/2000-08/msg0027202.html   (3622 words)

 Strings 2000 Conference - Physics Problems for the Next Millennium
In 1900 the world-renowned mathematician David Hilbert presented twenty-three problems at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris.
As a piece of millennial madness, all participants of the Strings 2000 Conference were invited to help formulate the ten most important unsolved problems in fundamental physics.
To qualify, the problem must not only have been important but also well-defined and stated in a clear way.
feynman.physics.lsa.umich.edu /strings2000/millennium.html   (430 words)

 Physicists trash turbulence lab & turn pleasant stream into raging torrent
Turbulence is one of the main unsolved problems in physics.
In the case of the solar wind it was hoped that the density of the wind is passive, allowing researchers to use a relatively simple set of mathematical tools to model the turbulence.
However new results about to appear in Physics Review Letters by researchers at the University of Warwick has shown that the density in the solar wind behaves less like a leaf in a stream and more like a pile of enormous boulders and tree trunks being smashed along a raging torrent of water.
www.eurekalert.org /pub_releases/2005-04/uow-ptt041305.php   (393 words)

 Akademika   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The problem of quark confinement is one of the classic unsolved problems ofparticle physics.
The problem of quark confinement is one of the classic unsolved problems ofparticle physics and is fundamental to our understanding of the physics of thestrong interaction and the behaviour of non-Abelian gauge theories in general.The confinement problem is also are area in which concepts from topology andtechniques of computational physics both find important applications.
It is aimed at research scientists and graduate students ofhigh energy physics and nuclear physics.
www.akademika.no /vare.php?isbn=1402008740   (220 words)

 13 things that do not make sense - space - 19 March 2005 - New Scientist Space
This "horizon problem" is a big headache for cosmologists, so big that they have come up with some pretty wild solutions.
A variation in the speed of light could also solve the horizon problem - but this too is impotent in the face of the question "why?" In scientific terms, the uniform temperature of the background radiation remains an anomaly.
If the observations are correct, the only vaguely reasonable explanation is that a constant of physics called the fine structure constant, or alpha, had a different value at the time the light passed through the clouds.
space.newscientist.com /article.ns?id=mg18524911.600   (4178 words)

Based on state-of-the-art cooling techniques (super sonic jets, MOT etc.) and nuclear physics imaging methods fragmentation processes of atoms, molecules, clusters, as well as of solid state surfaces induced by single photon or multi photon laser absorption, electron or ion impact can be explored completely in momentum space and, for ions, with micro-eV resolution.
The physics of these data is discussed in ref. [1, 2].
Details of the physical interpretation of these data are given in ref. [6].
www.europhysicsnews.com /full/18/article8/article8.html   (888 words)

Programming at the Renaissance Weekend is rather like that of an up-scale science fiction convention, except that the panels have far more participants than SF Con panels, with each panelist allowed only a 5-minute "sound bite" to describe his or her take on the subject under discussion.
From the viewpoint of particle physics, this is a problem because at the particle level energetic processes normally produce matter particles and antimatter particles (e.g., electrons and positrons) together, so that the balance between matter and antimatter is preserved.
These time arrows are all related to one of the most fundamental and mysterious laws of physics is the principle of causality, the rule that a cause must always precede all of its effects in any reference frame.
www.npl.washington.edu /av/altvw96.html   (2331 words)

 Physics News Update Number 459 - Story THE TOP PHYSICISTS IN HISTORY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Other highlights of Physics World's millennium canvas: the most important physics discoveries are Einstein's relativity theories, Newton's mechanics, and quantum mechanics.
Most physicists polled (70%) said that if they had to do it all over again, they would choose to study physics once more.
Ten great unsolved problems in physics: quantum gravity, understanding the nucleus, fusion energy, climate change, turbulence, glassy materials, high-temperature superconductivity, solar magnetism, complexity, and consciousness.
www.aip.org /pnu/1999/split/pnu459-3.htm   (133 words)

 Unsolved Problems
In an age where scientific discovery is everyday news, there are in fact problems which have never been solved.
There are actually so many unsolved problems in all areas of science, that the task of creating a complete list of them would in fact be another unsolved problem.
A list of unsolved problems in a number of mathematical fields, with (small) cash rewards if you are the first to solve them.?
www.hypography.com /topics/unsolvedproblems.cfm   (358 words)

 Physics 199, Caltech, Spring 2006   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Prerequisites: Classical and quantum physics at the level of Phys 106 and Phys 125.
Intro, caveats, philosophies, mathematical physics, fundamental vs emergent, length and energy scales, decoupling of scales, fundamental laws.
Physics at the Planck scale, extra dimensions, Kaluza-Klein, compact dimensions, gravity in extra dimensions, KK towers and excitations, quantum gravity, quantum divergent amplitudes, effective theories, the string theory solution, rules of string theory, ST in 10 dimensions, superstrings, Calabi-Yau compactification, entropy of fl holes, problems with realistic string theories, cosmological constant and ST landscape.
www.hep.caltech.edu /~ajw/ph199   (658 words)

 CERN Courier - Einstein tops physicist pop - IOP Publishing - article
Albert Einstein is the greatest physicist of all time, according to a survey of 100 leading physicists conducted by Physics World (the journal of the British Institute of Physics).
In second place is Isaac Newton, closely followed by two other founding fathers of physics, Galileo Galilei and James Clerk Maxwell.
The respondents were also asked what were the greatest unsolved problems in physics.
www.cerncourier.com /main/article/40/1/10   (160 words)

 Page 2: Spontaneous Energy
Here a pressure that is uniformly applied to a macroscopic body focuses down to tiny junctions where it reaches levels of one million atmospheres.
None of the above problems has been explained nor is there a generic understanding of the tendency of nature to form strctures and focus energy off-equilibrium.
Finally it must be emphasized that these unsolved problems in physics are fundamental.
www.physics.ucla.edu /Sonoluminescence/page2.html   (431 words)

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