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Topic: Upper Peru


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  History of Bolivia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called "Upper Peru" or "Charcas" and was under the authority of the Viceroy of Lima.
Upper Peru, at first a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, joined the new Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (whose capital was Buenos Aires) when it was created in 1776.
Although Upper Peru was fundamentally loyal to Spain, the ideas of the Enlightenment and independence from Spain continued to be discussed by scattered groups of radicals.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Bolivia   (5166 words)

  
 f. Peru and Upper Peru (Peru and Bolivia). 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Two Buenos Aires expeditions invaded Upper Peru but disintegrated as soldiers plundered the countryside and royalists defeated them.
Royalists eradicated guerrillas from the countryside, and reestablished their dominance in Upper Peru.
Anxious to preserve their autonomy from the hegemonic pretensions of Buenos Aires, Upper Peru patriots resorted to Sucre's protection to proclaim the INDEPENDENCE of the new republic of Bolívar (BOLIVIA).
www.bartleby.com /67/1649.html   (459 words)

  
 Ethnologue report for Peru
[amc] 90 to 130 in Peru (2000 SIL).
Ethnic population: 500 (300 in Peru and 200 in Brazil).
[omg] 10 to 100 in Peru (1976 SIL).
www.ethnologue.com /show_country.asp?name=Peru   (2083 words)

  
 BOLIVIA - LoveToKnow Article on BOLIVIA
The boundary with Chile was greatly modified by the results of the war of 187983, as determined by the treaties of 1884, 1886 and 1895, Bolivia losing her department of the littoral on the Pacific and all access to the coast except by the grace of the conqueror.
The Mamor, the upper part of which is called the Chimor, rises on the north-east slopes of the Sierra de Cochabamba a little south of the 17th parallel, and follows a northerly serpentine course to its confluence with the Beni, the greater part of which course is between the 65th and 66th meridians.
During this time and in the six succeeding years a guerrilla warfare was maintained by the patriots of Upper Peru, who had taken refuge in the mountains, chiefly of the province of Yungas, and who frequently harassed the royalist troops.
www.1911encyclopedia.org /B/BO/BOLIVIA.htm   (12646 words)

  
 Search Results for "Peru"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Peru and Upper Peru (Peru and Bolivia) 1809 The inhabitants of Chuquisaca and La Paz, declaring loyalty to Ferdinand VII, established juntas in their cities and...
Background:Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores...
Peru Peru after independence was riven by conflict between rival military caudillos.
bartleby.com /cgi-bin/texis/webinator/sitesearch?FILTER=&query=Peru&...   (266 words)

  
 A short history of Peru
Present-day Peru is settled by Quechua and Aymara between the fifth and eight century.
Peru's independence movement is by Jose de San Martin of Argentina and Simon Bolivar of Venezuela.
As most South-American states Peru is a weak and unstable state, ruled by a succesion of military dictators for most of the 19th century.
www.electionworld.org /history/peru.htm   (837 words)

  
 Comparative Criminology | South America - Peru
The national upper class is located almost exclusively in the province of Lima, the second strata of elites is provincial, residing in the old principal regional cities, such as Arequipa, Trujillo, and Cusco, but not in Huancayo, Chimbote, or Juliaca, whose populations are predominantly of highland mestizo and cholo origins.
Peru's penal code in force in 1991 was the much amended 1924 code and addressed itself primarily to common crime as opposed to political violence.
Peru's police forces (FF.PP.) date from the days of Simón Bolívar in 1825 but were formally organized as a responsibility of the central government in 1852, with the establishment of the Gendarmerie.
www-rohan.sdsu.edu /faculty/rwinslow/samerica/peru.html   (21249 words)

  
 Peru   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The population of Peru was 26,624,582 in 1999.
Peru is mostly ruled by an upper class that has been there since the Colonial times.
Peru's government goes back all the way to 200 A.D. This is when the two main cultures are the Moche and the Nazca were around.
staff.esuhsd.org /~balochie/studentprojects/peru   (1782 words)

  
 History of BOLIVIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
In conquering the Inca empire, the conquistadors - even though few in number - move with surprising speed into the Altiplano, the high plateau in the Andes which is often called Upper Peru and which comprises much of modern Bolivia.
Upper Peru has been administered from Lima in the early centuries of Spanish rule, although geographically - lying mainly east of the Andes - it has more obvious links with Buenos Aires.
During the first few decades of their existence as the independent nations of Peru, Bolivia and Chile, the three Andean provinces of the old viceroyalty of Peru engage in two bouts of war.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac11   (1204 words)

  
 Lalor, Cyclopaedia of Political Science, V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA: Library of Economics and Liberty
Bolivia was at first united to the republic of Peru, and Bolivar exercised over it an unlimited power, the rigor of which Colombia and Peru themselves had not felt to the same extent.
A quarrel with Peru, in which Peru seems to have been altogether in the wrong, came near compromising, in 1860, this favorable movement, but harmony was restored between the two republics, and they became more closely united, some years later, under the influence of common interests and common dangers.
Its immense basin is inclosed by a double chain of mountains, the Cordillera of the Andes and the Cordillera of Alama.
www.econlib.org /library/YPDBooks/Lalor/llCy148.html   (1725 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Upper Peru   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
It is bordered by Brazil in the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina in the south, and Chile and Peru in the west.
When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, Bolivia, rich in silver deposits, was incorporated in the Viceroyalty of Peru, and later that of La Plata.
Lake Titicaca is located on the border between Bolivia and Peru.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Upper-Peru   (872 words)

  
 BOLIVIA - Online Information article about BOLIVIA
PERU (apparently from Biru, a small river on the west coast of Colombia, where Pizarro landed)
Tacna frontier, and to the Nevado Pomarape, near the frontier of Peru.
Fauna.—The indigenous fauna of Bolivia corresponds closely to that of the neighbouring districts of Argentina, Brazil and Peru.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /BLA_BOS/BOLIVIA.html   (6779 words)

  
 Flora of the Alto Mayo
Peru is the fourth largest country in Latin America (+1,285,000 sq km) and the fifth most populous (ca.
Peru is widely recognized as one of the twelve major centers of origins for world food plants.
In the Department of San Martín in northeastern Peru, the upper elevation montane forests and the ceja de la montaña (the eyebrow of the forest) give way to the lowland rain forests of the Amazon basin.
www.sacha.org /NatGeo/NatGeo_Final.htm   (1984 words)

  
 BOLIVIA - LoveToKnow Article on BOLIVIA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
The Bolivian general was now in turn to invade Peru, when Chile again interfered to prevent him.
Under this president Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru which was destined to have grave consequences for both countries.
An offer on the part of Peru to act as mediator met with no favor from Chile.
68.1911encyclopedia.org /B/BO/BOLIVIA.htm   (12646 words)

  
 United States and the Bolivian Sea Coast - Chapter 1
Pointsett, the boundaries between Chile and Upper Peru were clearly established, and the coast of Atacama was a possession of the intendancy of Potosí and not of the kingdom of Chile.
During the period of the colony, Arica was established in 1546 as a port of exit for minerals from Upper Peru, and in 1547, Virrey Francisco de Toledo declared it the official and mandatory port for exportation of silver from Potosí.
It is understood that the governments of Peru and Bolivia have been in treaty for the cession of the Port of Arica from the former to the latter: and whilst this could not materially injure Peru it would be of essential advantage to Bolivia as well as to the commerce of our country.
www.boliviaweb.com /mar/sea/chapter1.htm   (8036 words)

  
 Discover Amazonia - Inti Travel and Tours - Amazon - Peru - Amazon River Jungle Cruises
Upper deck cabins all have private bath / showers and picture windows for a perfect view of the river.
Two lower beds with reading lamps and a small writing desk and chair complete the cabins' furnishings Sun deck cabins are slightly larger, have two twin beds, a third bed, a small closet and a chair.
Down river cruises operate from Iquitos (Peru) to the twin cities of Tabatinga (Brazil) and Leticia (Colombia), departing Sundays and arriving Wednesdays.
www.discoveramazonia.com /peru/cruises.htm   (659 words)

  
 Drug Control: U.S. Antidrug Efforts in Peru's Upper Huallaga Valley
With the loss of U.S. support to Santa Lucia, the government of Peru agreed to administer the base and maintain it as a location from which antidrug operations could be conducted.
According to the U.S. Embassy's NAS Director, U.S. officials were concerned that the government of Peru might be unable to provide the resources needed to maintain and operate the base adequately.
U.S. officials in Peru said that since the policy change, drug traffickers have changed their operations and (1) have begun multiple flights with smaller drug loads and (2) have begun flying during the day, and some traffickers have doubled their time on the ground.
www.druglibrary.org /schaffer/govpubs/gao/gao49.htm   (3401 words)

  
 U.S. Antidrug Efforts in Peru's Upper Huallaga Valley
CORAH - Coca Eradication in the Upper Huallaga Valley
Coca Eradication in the Upper Huallaga Valley 16.9
About $6.4 million was spent for police support at Santa Lucia, including (1) per diem for Peruvian police officers stationed at the base to provide security for the base and for workers on eradication missions and (2) commodities used by the police to support the base.
www.druglibrary.org /schaffer/govpubs/peru1.htm   (3147 words)

  
 AgPage International Consulting web design: A Short History of Peru
The first entry of humans into the area later known as Peru, occurred as descendants of the original migrants who crossed the land bridge over what is know the Bering Straits reached northern South America.
Peru fought as an ally of Bolivia against Chile (Peru lost territory to Chile in the peace settlement).
1883-1979 Peru is governed by a long line of dictators, with coups to mark the transitions between factions.
www.agpage.com /consulting/peru-history.htm   (786 words)

  
 Bolivia in 1994 (1)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
By the middle of the 17th century Potosi was the largest city in the Americas and Upper Peru (Bolivia) had become a major source of wealth for the Viceroyalty of Peru in Lima until it was attached to the Viceroyalty of La Plata in Buenos Aires in 1776.
When Upper Peru was liberated by Marshal Antonio José de Sucre in 1825, the local white elite convinced Simon Bolivar and Sucre to let Upper Peru become independent rather than be joined with Peru or Argentina and it became Bolivia.
Leaving Peru at Yunguyo I arrived in the small Bolivian town of Copacabana (3810 m), where I spent a night at the Imperator Hotel for only two dollars in spite of its imposing name.
www.berclo.net /page94/94en-bolivia-1.html   (911 words)

  
 Junín Department   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Asháninka Settlement in the Upper Montaña of Peru.
Prehistoric Occupations of the Eastern Andes of Peru.
Pre-Contact Campa Occupation of the Upper Chanchamayo Valley, Eastern Peru.
www.chsbs.cmich.edu /charles_hastings/Research/junin.htm   (1728 words)

  
 Bolivia The Economy of Upper Peru - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, ...
The labor shortage was addressed by Francisco de Toledo, the energetic viceroy (the king's personal representative) of Peru, during a visit to Upper Peru in the 1570s.
The attempts to revive the mining sector in Upper Peru were only partially successful, however, and could not halt the economic collapse of Potosí at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
The crown granted a small number of conquistadors the right to the labor and produce of Indians living on the encomienda, and by the 1650s there were some eighty-two encomiendas in Upper Peru.
workmall.com /wfb2001/bolivia/bolivia_history_the_economy_of_upper_peru.html   (892 words)

  
 economy of peru and other peru related information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Peru South America ECONOMY Peru’s economy is one of the most dynamic in Latin America, showing particularly...
Economy Peru Table of Contents THE PERUVIAN ECONOMY achieved a higher rate of economic growth than the average for Latin America from 1950 to 1965, but since then has turned from one...
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil.
www.nethorde.com /peru/economy-of-peru.html   (361 words)

  
 Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru -- Baisley et al. 59 (5): 710 -- American ...
Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru -- Baisley et al.
A cross-sectional serosurvey of a rural community near Iquitos, Peru was conducted to determine Oropouche (ORO) virus antibody prevalence and risk factors for human infection.
Venous blood samples, and demographic, social, and risk factor data were obtained from people age five years of age and older who lived in the village of Santa Clara on the Nanay River, a tributary of the Amazon River.
www.ajtmh.org /cgi/content/abstract/59/5/710   (401 words)

  
 A short history of Bolivia
The area is settled by Quechuas, allied with the Incas, but the Aymaran culture remains intact.
Spain conquers the area in 1532 on the Inca Empire and adds it as Upper-Peru to its colony of Peru.
Upper Peru is part of the newly independent state of Peru between 1821 and 1825.
www.electionworld.org /history/bolivia.htm   (888 words)

  
 Martin Guemes Biography / Biography of Martin Guemes Main Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
war · crucial · groups · the province · peru · buenos aires · military career · spanish forces · spanish troops · upper peru · gaucho · royalist army · northwestern argentina · cavalry charges · driven south · inevitable result · emes · stratagem
In that year he was assigned by Gen. José de San Martín to take charge of the irregular resistance to the Spanish in Upper Peru (modern Bolivia).
So successful were these tactics that Pezuela evacuated the city in June 1814 and retreated to Upper Peru.
www.bookrags.com /biography-martin-guemes/index.html   (562 words)

  
 Bolivia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Bolivia has long been inhabited by advanced cultures, the most important being the civilization of Tiahuanaco.
It became part of the Inca empire in the 15th century.
Struggle for independence began in 1809, but it remained part of Spain until 1825, when it was liberated by Simón Bolívar, for whom the nation was later named.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/bolivia   (701 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Bolivia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22)
Bolivia is a member of the Andean Community and enjoys nominally free trade with other member countries (Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela.) Bolivia began to implement an association agreement with Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market) in March 1997.
The agreement provides for the gradual creation of a free trade area covering at least 80% of the trade between the parties over a 10-year period, though economic crises in the region have derailed progress at integration.
Bolivia's ethnic distribution is estimated to be 33% Quechua and 30% Aymara Amerindians, 25% Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) and 12% European.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Bolivia   (10213 words)

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