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Topic: Urothelium

In the News (Sun 16 Jun 19)

  Urothelium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The urothelium is the tissue layer that lines much of the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, the ureters, the bladder, and parts of the urethra.
Urothelium is the most specialized epithelium and plays important and conflicting roles: the urothelium must act as a permeability barrier -- protecting underlying tissues against noxious urine components — while also stretching to accommodate urine pressures.
Urothelium is a tissue layer of approximately 3-5 cell layers, accompanied by a thick layer of protective glycoprotein plaques at its luminal (apical) surface, and is classified as transitional epithelium.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Urothelium   (464 words)

Urothelium has a very low cell turnover but a high capacity for proliferation in response to injury; we contend that efficient urothelial tissue repair and a high threshold for apoptosis are critical for maintaining barrier function.
Based on the above, we have formulated the hypothesis that the evolution of urothelium as a barrier epithelium is reflected both in structural and regulatory adaptations.
Our studies of normal urothelium have led us to investigate the potential of using cells generated in the laboratory to reconstruct or replace bladders damaged by disease or dysfunction.
www-users.york.ac.uk /~biol32/research2.htm   (1683 words)

 USCAP 2003 Annual Meeting
Dysplastic urothelium (low-grade intraurothelial neoplasia) has appreciable cytologic and architectural abnormalities felt to be neoplastic, yet falling short of the diagnostic threshold for urothelial carcinoma in situ.
In the urinary bladder, transitional epithelium (urothelium) overlies a basement membrane and lamina propria composed of connective tissue, vascular and neural structures.
In fact, even in the undistended bladder, the lamina propria is much attenuated (and consequently the muscularis propria is closer to the epithelial surface) in the area of the trigone, bladder neck and adjacent to the ureteral orifices.
www.uscap.org /site~/92nd/companion10h3.htm   (3128 words)

 The immortalized UROtsa cell line as a potential cell culture model of human urothelium Environmental Health ...
The expression of these genes was chosen for analysis because they are members of the stress response gene superfamily, which are widely accepted as being major weapons in the cell's armamentarium for protection against and recovery from both physical and chemical environmental insult (12-15).
For bladder cancer, it was demonstrated that MT-3 might be a potential biomarker because it was not expressed in normal urothelium but was overexpressed in all bladder cancers, with expression correlating directly to increasing tumor grade (7).
For samples from patients with interstitial cystitis and related disorders, it was demonstrated that expression of the hsp 60 and hsp 70 was reduced compared to that found in the urothelium of the normal bladder, whereas hsp 27 and hsc 70 expression were unaltered (9-11).
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0CYP/is_8_109/ai_80744264   (812 words)

 USCAP 2003 Annual Meeting
Case 4 - Figure 3 - Nests of urothelium associated with dilated congested vessels and fibrin deposition.
Histologically, the finding of mitotic figures in atypical urothelium is also more consistent with CIS, as opposed to radiation atypia.
Cytoxan may also give rise to reactive urothelial atypia, which tends to effect the umbrella cells and hence is more of a diagnostic dilemma in evaluating cytological specimens.
www.uscap.org /site~/92nd/specgenih4.htm   (1707 words)

 Overexpression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Urothelium Elicits Urothelial Hyperplasia and Promotes Bladder ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The expression of the transgene in mouse urothelium was examined
Note the absence of BrdUrd incorporation in the normal urothelium and the increased BrdUrd-incorporating cells in the EGFr-expressing transgenic mouse urothelium.
I, Western blot demonstration of the overexpression of PCNA in the urothelia of the EGFr transgenic mice.
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/62/14/4157   (5642 words)

 Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening - National Cancer Institute
The urothelium is a layer of tissue that lines the urethra, bladder, ureters, prostate, and renal pelvis.
Cancer that begins in the urothelium of the bladder is much more common than cancer that begins in the urothelium of the urethra, ureters, prostate, or renal pelvis.
Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that may form in the bladder urothelium after long-term infection or irritation.
www.cancer.gov /cancertopics/pdq/screening/bladder/Patient/page2   (544 words)

 UrologyHealth.org - Bladder Cancer   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The majority of diagnosed bladder tumors are confined to the urothelium or the lamina propria and have not invaded the bladder muscle.
Stages Ta and Tis (in the urothelium) and stage T1 (in the lamina propria) are the non-muscle-invasive stages.
In the bladder, a layer of loose connective tissue between the urothelium and bladder muscle (separated by a membrane from the urothelium).
www.urologyhealth.org /print/index.cfm?topic=37   (2992 words)

 Bladder urothelium in PBS/IC shows distinct differences in keratin profiles
Research groups from the Netherlands and Denmark led by Pilar Laguna studied urothelial involvement in PBS/IC by characterizing the keratin phenotype of bladder urothelium in 18 patients with the disorder.
The study demonstrated distinct changes in the keratin phenotype of urothelium in patients with PBS/IC that can be categorized as follows: 1) In a considerable number of PBS/IC cases, the urothelium loses its "keratin-urothelial phenotype" and keratin makeup shifts to a phenotype associated with squamous type epithelium.
The keratin phenotype was not related to mucosal inflammation, and, in all cases, the urothelium was light microscopically normal.
www.news-medical.net /?id=19558   (344 words)

 CNS/WH - Lori Birder, PhD
Localization of afferent nerves next to the urothelium suggests that these cells may be targets for transmitter release from bladder nerves or that chemicals released by urothelial cells may alter afferent excitability.
These findings suggest that there is a bidirectional chemical communication between the urothelium and adjacent nerves and that the urothelium may be involved in sensory transduction in the bladder.
We have identified a number of abnormalities in the urothelium (increased responsiveness to chemical and mechanical stimuli) from cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), supporting a general hypothesis that alterations in bladder afferent neurons as well as in urothelial cells may be part of the etiology of FIC.
ibs.med.ucla.edu /Bios/BirderL.htm   (321 words)

 Research Priorities in Urothelial Cell Physiology:
Tung-Tien Sun (New York University) described the apical surface of the mammalian urothelium which is covered by 16 nm protein particles packed hexagonally to form 2D crystals of asymmetric unit membranes (AUM); this structure contributes to the remarkable permeability barrier function of the urinary bladder.
While normal urothelium in situ is mitotically quiescent and displays stratification into basal, intermediate and specialized superficial cell zones, monocultures of urothelial cells are highly proliferative and show little evidence of differentiation.
For the urothelium, learning how urothelial growth and differentiation are regulated is important to the effective cure or management of interstitial cystitis, recurrent UTI and incontinence.
www.the-aps.org /publications/tphys/2006html/Feb/IUPSbirder.htm   (4302 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Exogenous glycosaminoglycans coat damaged bladder surfaces in experimentally damaged mouse ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
It has long been evident that, whatever the cause, IC is a disease of the urothelium and the symptoms are triggered by urine [3].
The separation of the entire urothelium from the stroma seen in all the damaged bladders probably represents actual damage induced by, for example, edema resulting from loss of permeability rather than an artefact of sectioning.
The normal urothelium has minimal affinity for chondroitin sulphate and binds it only on the luminal surface of the umbrella cells in miniscule quantities.
www.arabmedmag.com /issue-31-10-2005/urology/main01.htm   (2476 words)

 Urothelium and Uroplakin Figures
Urothelium is not just a passive permeability barrier - it can secrete proteins into the urine
Dr. Kong demonstrated that uroplakin Ia is the receptor for uropathogenic E. coli.
Ablation of UPIII gene comprised the permeability barrier function of urothelium
www.med.nyu.edu /sun/research/bladderfigures.html   (308 words)

 p63 regulates commitment to the prostate cell lineage -- Signoretti et al. 102 (32): 11355 -- Proceedings of the ...
of the prostate epithelium and urothelium, we rescued the developmental
-gal-positive (blue) cells are detected in the prostate epithelium or urothelium of p63–/– chimeras.
urothelium of p63–/– mice is abnormal (12) and suggest
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/102/32/11355   (3662 words)

 Dr. Laurence Baskin Abstract - 10/13/2000   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
urothelium and gut epithelium) and PAS (specific for mucin or goblet cells
The phenotype of both mouse and rat urothelium was changed to a
age occurring in the embryonic, newborn and adult urothelium.
www.ahsc.arizona.edu /bmeidp/Seminar/baskin_abs.html   (257 words)

 University of York Enterprise and Innovation Office - Licensing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Numerous attempts have been made over the last twenty years to produce an in vitro-generated urothelium, but to date the results have borne little resemblance to functional urothelium; although urothelial cells have been successfully cultivated, there has been little or no stratification and differentiation into an organised tissue.
Stratification and differentiation are important in natural urothelium, providing it with low permeability to molecules such as urea, ammonia, water and protons and also to large molecules such as dextrans, and an active transepithelial ion transport system.
The method for producing the stratified urothelium has been patented and we are keen to collaborate with pharmaceutical companies working in relevant drug discovery programmes in diseases of the bladder and urological system.
www.york.ac.uk /enterprise/eio/5_licensing_life_biomim.html   (334 words)

 ACS :: What Is Bladder Cancer?
Beneath the urothelium, there is a thin zone of connective tissue called the lamina propria.
They are divided into several subtypes according to whether they are noninvasive or invasive and whether their shape is papillary or flat.
Currently, any bladder cancer not limited to the urothelium is classified as invasive.
www.cancer.org /docroot/cri/content/cri_2_4_1x_what_is_bladder_cancer_44.asp?sitearea=cri   (1015 words)

 Bladder Cancer - Natural Progression
Since superficial tumors affect the lining of the bladder (urothelium), it is possible for other areas of the urothelium (kidneys, ureters, urethra, prostatic segment of urethra) to develop tumors.
Invasive bladder cancer is likely to recur with aggressive local tumors in other areas of the bladder, even if the initial tumor is effectively removed through the urine passage (transurethral resection) or partial removal of the affected part of the bladder (partial cystectomy.) Complete removal of the bladder is usually recommended.
Up to 25% of these patients will later develop tumors in the kidneys, affecting the urothelium of the renal pelvis or ureter, so ongoing surveillance is important.
www.cornellurology.com /bladder/progression   (299 words)

 [Frontiers in Bioscience, 2, d592-595, December 1, 1997]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
We have recently shown that KGF is directly responsible for the proliferation of urothelium during bladder injury.
Within four days, the urothelium completely covered the acellular matrix, and within two weeks native smooth muscle was seen streaming into the acellular matrix in association with a new epithelium.
It is hypothesized that cellular interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme, as we have shown in bladder differentiation, are encouraging the new growth of smooth muscle.
www.bioscience.org /1997/v2/d/baskin/1.htm   (440 words)

 Molecular Regulation of Urothelial Renewal and Host Defenses during Infection with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli -- ...
receptors on the luminal surface of the bladder epithelium (urothelium)
of the urothelium; infiltration of inflammatory/immune cells is
The section shown at the upper left is stained with Cy3-tagged mouse uroplakin III (UpIII) mAb and FITC-tagged antibodies to aquaporin 3 (Aqp3).
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/277/9/7412   (5316 words)

 Effect of rilmakalim on detrusor contraction in the presence and absence of urothelium.
In this study we examined whether intact urothelium may modulate the effect of the selective KATP channel opener rilmakalim.
In preparations with urothelium rilmakalim reduced KCl contractions with similar potency and efficacy [-logIC50 (M) 4.6 to 5.1; Effmax reduction to 14-30% of control].
The presence of urothelium did not affect the concentration-response curves for rilmakalim, with the exception of KCl-induced contractions in pig.
www.galenicom.com /?ac=viewArticleMXPrint&idpm=16283254   (340 words)

 Department of Urology - Mount Sinai School of Medicine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The lining of the bladder, known as the urothelium, also lines the upper tracts (the kidney, pelvis and ureters) and the nearest portion of the urethra.
Because of the potential involvement of the upper tracts, imaging studies (CT, IVP, ultrasound) are generally performed to assess the entire urothelium for this possibility when hematuria (blood in the urine) occurs.
Cystoscopy (a direct visual examination of the urinary tract with a cystoscope) is performed to visually examine the bladder.
www.mssm.edu /urology/patient_care/bladder_cancer.shtml   (534 words)

 Inštitut za Biologijo Celice, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Normal urothelium has a number of highly specialized features, which complement the function of the urothelium to provide an accommodating urinary barrier.
In order to study the specialized properties of urotheliam as reflected in bladder pathogenesis in particular, tumour cells we shall study differentiation of the cells in primary explants culture of urinary bladder urothelium and in urothelial cells of patient with urinary tract diseases.
The aim of the program is: To determine the biogenesis of AUM and the role of urothelial specific differentiation markers as well as the study of the membrane turn over and to establish the reciprocal relationship between the lamina propria and urothelium.
www.mf.uni-lj.si /biologija_celice/raziskovalno_delo_eng.php   (265 words)

 Cytochrome P450 lsoenzyme mRNA Expression Pattern in...
In addition, biopsies from normal urothelium (N = 32) taken at the time of transurethral resection of bladder cancer in eight patients from surrounding histologically normal urothelium also were characterized conceming their specific cyrochrome P450 mRNA expression pattem.
Biopsies from macroscopically and histologically normal urothelium from tumor-invaded bladders also showed expression of cytochrome P450 lB1 in 75% (24 of 32), 4B1 in 62.5% (20 of 32), and lAl in 50% (16 of 32).
The polymerase chain reaction analysis of normal urothelium from normal bladders that do not harbor a neoplasm revealed CYP450 mRNA expression for CYP450 lAl in 6 of 10; lBl in 5 of 10; 4B1 in 6 of 10; 2D6 in 2 of 10; and 2E1 in 2 of 10.
www.cancerprev.org /Journal/Issues/24/4/3071   (402 words)

 eMedicine - Bladder Cancer : Article Excerpt by: Gary David Steinberg, MD
The most common type of bladder cancer in the United States is urothelial carcinoma, formerly known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
The urothelium in the entire urinary tract may be involved, including the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra.
The urothelium consists of a 3- to 7-cell mucosal layer within the muscular bladder.
www.emedicine.com /med/byname/bladder-cancer.htm   (585 words)

 Urothelium-specific Expression of an Oncogene in Transgenic Mice Induced the Formation of Carcinoma in Situ and ...
Note in b that uroplakin expression occurs in suprabasal cell layers of mouse urothelium; even the basal cells were weakly stained.
Note in c that uroplakins were confined to the superficial (umbrella) cells in bovine urothelium.
in bovine urothelium, in the superficial umbrella cells (30, 31)
cancerres.aacrjournals.org /cgi/content/full/59/14/3512   (4545 words)

 NGC - NGC Summary
Use of chemotherapy in advanced unresectable or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelium.
Use of chemotherapy in advanced unresectable or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelium [full report].
Reference lists from these sources, as well as from review articles on advanced unresectable or metastatic cancer of the bladder or urothelium were also searched for additional trials.
www.guideline.gov /summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=4258&nbr=3258   (2124 words)

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