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Topic: Utterance

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In the News (Wed 21 Aug 19)

  What is an utterance?
An utterance is a natural unit of speech bounded by breaths or pauses.
An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by the speaker's silence.
Phonetically an utterance is a unit of speech bounded by silence.
www.sil.org /linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnUtterance.htm   (117 words)

 Chapter 2 - Bakhtin and His World (Continued)
Any utterance -- from a short (single-word) rejoinder in everyday dialogue to the large novel or scientific treatise -- has, so to speak, an absolute beginning and an absolute end: its beginning is preceded by the utterances of others, and its end is followed by the responsive utterances of others.
Utterances are characterized by a change of speakers in a "specific finalization" determined by three aspects of a whole utterance: semantic exhaustion of the theme; the speaker's plan or speech will; and generic, compositional forms of finalization (76-77).
Bakhtin's theory of utterance counters the prevailing linguistics of his time by denying that utterances (parole) are "completely free combination[s] of forms of language" and therefore "purely individual acts," while the system of language (langue) is a social phenomenon (81).
www.public.iastate.edu /~honeyl/bakhtin/chap2c.html   (1668 words)

  Performative utterance -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Performative utterances are (The use of language to perform some act) speech acts which perform the action the sentence describes.
Performative utterances are often in the (Pronouns and verbs used to refer to the speaker or writer of the language in which they occur) first person (A verb tense that expresses actions or states at the time of speaking) present tense.
Performative utterances can be 'transformative' performatives, which create an instant change of personal or environmental status or 'promisory' performatives, which describe the world as it might be in the future.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/p/pe/performative_utterance.htm   (738 words)

 What is an utterance?
Utterance does not have a precise linguistic definition.
Linguists sometimes use utterance to simply refer to a unit of speech under study.
This page is an extract from the LinguaLinks Library, Version 5.0 published on CD-ROM by SIL International, 2003.
www.sil.org /LINGUISTICS/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnUtterance.htm   (117 words)

For example, the reference of an utterance of ‘that’ is determined (in part) by the speaker's accompanying pointing gestures, or by the speaker's intention to refer to a particular object.
For instance, an utterance of ‘I’ refers to the speaker, whether or not she points at herself, and an utterance of ‘tomorrow’ refers to the day after the day of utterance, regardless of the speaker's intention to refer to some particular day.
Then there may be utterances of this sentence in which the utterance of the antecedent is true, while the utterance of the consequent is false, simply because the first utterance of P has taken more than one day to complete.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/indexicals   (10076 words)

 van Oort - Performative-Constative Revisited: The Genetics of Austin's Theory of Speech Acts
Single-word utterances, such as the cry "Fire!", demonstrate this primitive level of ostensive utterance, which requires the context of the scene in which it is uttered to be understood.
Certainly, such ostensive utterances can be seen as simply abbreviations of the declarative/propositional utterance: e.g., "(I declare) there is a fire (here)."(12) But such explanations fail to comply with the criterion of a minimal explanation of language.
The difference between an utterance that is fictional and one that is propositional is not that the former is parasitic upon the latter, but precisely that the latter forgoes the primacy of its independent construction of an imagined state of affairs to relate this conceptual scene to a worldly reality.
www.humnet.ucla.edu /humnet/anthropoetics/Ap0202/Vano.htm   (7495 words)

 Reporting Utterance Types:
Since the demonstrated utterance is not produced by the person to whom speech is being attributed, Davidsonians typically give a further analysis of indirect quotation in terms of a “samesaying” relation that (putatively) holds between the utterance produced by the speech reporter and a prior utterance of the person to whom speech is attributed.
The meaning of an utterance of this sentence depends not only on the speaker and the person to whom the utterance is directed, but also on its grammatical structure and the meaning of the word ‘glasses’.
As with opaque the opaque case, utterances are structurally-typed in terms of logical form, but the constituents of utterances are typed semantically, in terms of their meanings.
people.uleth.ca /~peter.alward/papers/talk.htm   (5931 words)

 Trevor Pateman: "Pragmatics in Semiotics: Bakhtin/Volosinov"
Utterances other than 'Scissors!' could have accomplished the passing of the scissors ('Scissors, please' would presumably get the scissors passed, even if the recipient was puzzled by the 'please'.
This non-verbal context of the utterance is formed out of three factors: 1) a spatial purview common to the speakers (the unity of what is, the room, the window and so on), 2) the couple's common knowledge and understanding of the circumstances, and finally 3) their common evaluation of these circumstances.
What happens in (4) is that a term the reference of which is relative to the time of utterance, that is, the temporal deictic 'tomorrow', is retained in representing at a different, future time what John said, though the tense of the verb changes to indicate the anteriority of John's speaking.
www.selectedworks.co.uk /pragmatics.html   (4146 words)

 Utterance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An utterance is a complete unit of speech in spoken language.
It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways.
Note that utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Utterance   (71 words)

 Default Semantics, Pragmatics, and Intentions   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Grice suggested that in the case of utterances which exhibit an ambiguity of interpretation that cannot be attributed to the lexicon or grammar, what is said should be regarded as the same in the two readings, whereas the conversational implicatures are different (Grice 1978).
POL and DI guarantee the interpretation of the utterance which is either the default one or differs from it if the departure from the default is signalled in the context.
In any case, the utterance is permeated with the primary intention of the speaker's thought and the specific or nonspecific interpretation is established between the speaker and the hearer.
www.cus.cam.ac.uk /~kmj21/DefaultSemantics.html   (12990 words)

 Speech Acts
The patrons must infer that the bartender intends to be urging them to leave and, indeed, it seems that the reason his utterance counts as an act of that sort is that he is speaking with this intention.
There is a similarly indirect connection when an utterance of 'It's getting cold in here' is made not merely as a statement about the temperature but as a request to close the window or as a proposal to go some place warmer.
A promise expresses the speaker's firm intention to do something, together with the belief that by his utterance he is obligated to do it, and normally aims further for the addressee to expect, and to feel entitled to expect, the speaker to do it.
userwww.sfsu.edu /~kbach/spchacts.html   (4418 words)

 Relevance theory
A speaker who wants her utterance to be as easy as possible to understand should formulate it (within the limits of her abilities and preferences) so that the first interpretation to satisfy the hearer’s expectation of relevance is the one she intended to convey.
An utterance is echoic when it achieves most of its relevance not by expressing the speaker’s own views, nor by reporting someone else’s utterances or thoughts, but by expressing the speaker’s attitude to views she tacitly attributes to someone else.
The speaker may indicate that she endorses or dissociates herself from the thought or utterance she is echoing: that she is puzzled, angry, amused, intrigued, sceptical, and so on, or any combination of these.
www.dan.sperber.com /relevance_theory.htm   (10301 words)

 Analysis of Speech Acts in Situation Semantics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Devlin(1990) had suggested that a described situation be just the situation described by the linguistic expression or the propositional content of a utterance and the result of impact of a utterance be governed by the hearer's intention.
But I distinguished the situation described by the linguistic expressions of the whole utterance from the situation described by those of the embedded clause of it and suggested that the speaker's intention connect a utterance with the result of the impact of it.
Besides, he had suggested that the abstract meaning of a assertive utterance be the abstract linkage between the utterance situation and the described situation, and that of a directive one be the linkage between the utterance situation and the result of the impact of that utterance.
plaza.snu.ac.kr /~linguist/thesis/1992MS-cmc-L.html   (204 words)

 Four tones and downtrend - -
For JE, in T2 utterances there is a small drop in F0 which showed a greater tendency to occur in longer sentences, though on average less than one semitone.
Rather, given the slender evidence for declination in T2 and T3 utterances for JE, it may be more plausible to suggest that the main (or only) effect, for both speakers, is one of final lowering.
The drop in F0 on 'nuar' might therefore be attributed to final lowering; since it is not utterance final, it may not be expected to reach as low as otherwise expected.
lucy.ukc.ac.uk /dz/connell/downtrend/downtrend.html   (5173 words)

 Zone of Proximal Development: Dialogue, Otherness, and the "Third Voice"
The utterance is neither a simple output of a system on the one hand, as in the tradition of Saussure's langue, nor simply a matter of free individual instantiations of language (parole) on the other.
While the first two episodes were characterized by the presence of overt, external mother-child dialogue in which the mother responded to the child's question about the proper placement of a puzzle piece by directing the child's attention to the model puzzle, a move that, in turn, led to the child's consultation of the model.
The self-guiding utterance of the child is taken to be a response to the "invisible presence" of the mother's utterance.
watarts.uwaterloo.ca /~acheyne/ZPD.html   (8620 words)

 Disc of the Week (1/24/2001): Comus: First Utterance   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Comus could have been one of the most outstanding of those bands, but bad luck shafted them bigtime, and now they are essentially one hell of a curiosity.
Thankfully, their first and best record, First Utterance, is now on CD thanks to the Korean label Si-Wan Records.
The Wicker Man was still four years off, but First Utterance could have been the soundtrack to that bizarre vision.
www.thegline.com /disc-of-the-week/2001/01-24-2001.htm   (679 words)

 MySpace.com - Utterance - TACOMA, WASHINGTON - Metal / Hardcore / Experimental - www.myspace.com/utterance
And since 2002 Utterance has gone leaps and bounds to make sure that the Pacific Northwest knows that Tacoma will be heard.
Utterance is on a mission to change not just the face of heavy metal, but rock music as a whole.
Utterance wishes to achieve nation and international success, and show the world that Tacoma, Washington has a place on the map of Rock and Roll.
www.myspace.com /utterance   (832 words)

 HLW: Word Meanings: Deixis and Person
An utterance needs to be distinguished from a particular word, phrase, or sentence because an utterance has an utterance context, a particular Speaker, Hearer, time, and place, in addition a linguistic form.
The word form, you, is part of the form of the utterance and is joined by the meaning arrow to the role of Hearer rather than to a particular individual (as for proper nouns) or a category (as for common nouns).
There are question marks in the Location and Time roles because we don't know what these are, and the number at the end of "utterance" is meant to indicate that this a particular utterance, not the general prototype for utterances shown in the previous two figures.
www.indiana.edu /~hlw/Meaning/deixis.html   (1805 words)

 Excited Utterance Exception   (Site not responding. Last check: )
An excited utterance is one "made under stress of excitement caused by an external event, and not the product of studied reflection and possible fabrication." People v Johnson __ NY2d __, 2003 WL 22989706 (2003).
Judge Smith argued that the hearsay evidence had insufficient indications of trustworthiness; the error was not harmless beyond a reasonable doubt, according to the dissent.
In a federal habeas corpus proceeding that reviewed a state conviction for aggravated assault, the federal appeals court found constitutional error to be not harmless, and granted the writ.
www.mcacp.org /issue50.htm   (883 words)

 Speech acts (Keith Allan, 1998) - Linguistics at Monash   (Site not responding. Last check: )
We recognize utterance acts, even in a language that is completely unknown to us, in which we cannot distinguish the sentences used, and what Speaker's message is. We do this on the basis of brute perception: by hearing the utterance spoken, seeing it signed or written, or feeling it impressed in braille.
Speaker reflexively intends the utterance to be taken as a reason for Hearer to believe that Speaker does not believe that Φ and Speaker reflexively intends Hearer to consider the implications of Φ in a world in which it IS the case that Φ.
The illocutionary point of any utterance is discovered by an inferential process that attends to Speaker's tone of voice and the context of utterance, knowledge of the language itself and of conversational conventions, and perhaps general encyclopedic knowledge.
www.arts.monash.edu /ling/staff/allan/papers/speech_acts.html   (14741 words)

 Stef Slembrouck (1998-2004) - WHAT IS MEANT BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS?
utterances which are neither true or false but which bring about a particular social effect by being uttered (e.g.
Further on in his essay, Austin abandons the distinction between constatives and performatives and replaced it by (i) a new distinction between three different "aspects" of an utterance against the background of (ii) a generalised claim that all utterances are really performatives.
According to Derrida, the force of an utterance is already there in the locution and we never succeed in strictly separating force from meaning: meanings have force and forces have meaning.
bank.rug.ac.be /da/da.htm   (13759 words)

 purevolume™ | A Cassandra Utterance U.S.
A Cassandra Utterance U.S. hasn't posted a blog yet.
A Cassandra Utterance U.S. hasn't posted any shows yet.
All songs, lyrics and pictures © A Cassandra Utterance U.S..
www.purevolume.com /acassandrautteranceus   (120 words)

 repetitious utterance, code mjms2cy2   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Your manual characterization of these repetitious utterances is needed in order to develop a statistical model of the repetitions children make when trying to read unfamiliar text.
This volunteer effort will help support the development of low-cost, telephone-based systems for automatic evaluation of the reading ability of elementary school children on-demand by teachers or parents, as often as needed.
When at least three characterizations of each utterance are collected, this script will be replaced with a full description of all the characterizations collected, and the derived statistical models will also be made available here when they have been computed.
www.bovik.org /reps-char.cgi   (836 words)

 Ephesians 6:19 On my behalf, that utterance may be given to me
And on my behalf, that utterance may be given unto me in opening my mouth, to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel,
And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the gospel,
And for me, that utterance may be given to me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the gospel,
bible.cc /ephesians/6-19.htm   (244 words)

 Beholding the Outcry: The Collision of Utterance, Inscription, and Image as Revenants of the Holocaust in Barnett ...
Newman’s emphasis on statement, utterance, cry, in Stations of the Cross, as well as throughout his artistic and written production, privileges and literally and figuratively accents the concept of voice in a complex play of re-marks, both painted and printed which subverts modernism’s association of the site of utterance with masculine authority and originality.
Newman’s criticism of Stations follows a strange conceptual loop or Moebius strip in which the utterance, the declaration, the transcendent word which points to or indicates corporeal exteriority, a realm of pure and unruptured thought or disembodiment cannot be distinguished from an individual body wracked and broken with pain.
For a cry is not a declaration: the former, like the notion of passion, of The Passion itself, refers to a body situated in space and time by emotion, pain and sensation while “declaration” signifies coolness, detachment, a distance from the impropriety and contamination of unseemly emotion.
epsilon3.georgetown.edu /~coventrm/asa2000/panel1/buchwald.html   (4796 words)

 Particles vs. Patterns -- Ken Butler's "Japanese CyberTutorial 2
This is a legitimate utterance in Japanese, though it is not a sentence (or "sentence pattern") in terms of English grammar.
It is of course possible to speak an utterance in Japanese that is fully acceptable in terms of English grammar.
The speaker here is allowing him or her self to be a little less laconic, and has provided everything necessary to understand the utterance without reference to context, except the object of the verb (which by English standards might be considered somewhat crucial to the meaning).
users.tmok.com /~tumble/jpp/parvpat.html   (2286 words)

 TG Utterance
And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the
giveth utterance, that you may stand as a
And ye are called to do this by prayer and thanksgiving, as the Spirit shall give utterance in all your doings in the house of the Lord, in the school of the prophets, that it may become a sanctuary, a tabernacle of the Holy Spirit to your
scriptures.lds.org /tgu/uttrnc?sr=1   (290 words)

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