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Topic: Verbal auxiliaries

  Book reviews
Auxiliary Verb Constructions is a large-scale typological investigation of auxiliary verbs based on a representative sample of approximately 800 languages.
He defines the respective verbal element carrying person, number, and TAM inflection as the head of an AVC, which yields the four possible types of AUX-headed constructions, LEX-headed constructions, a double pattern in which both elements carry the same inflectional morphology, and a split pattern in which the morphology is distributed across both elements.
In this construction type, the auxiliary itself is a finite verbal element that bears inflectional morphology and encodes grammatical information, while the lexical verb functions as a complement of the auxiliary and appears in a non-finite form.
www.cognitivelinguistics.org /Reviews/anderson   (1325 words)

Only the highest verb in a verbal sequence is marked for tense and agreement regardless of whether it is a main or auxiliary verb.
Some auxiliaries (be, do, and have) share with main verbs the property of having overt morphological marking for tense and agreement, while the modal auxiliaries do not.
Auxiliary verbs cannot occur as the sole verb in the sentence, but must be followed by a main verb.
www.cis.upenn.edu /~xtag/tech-report/node175.html   (339 words)

 Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. English: A Characteristic SVO Language
Among the auxiliaries DO is the most remarkable in having today only a grammatical function, whether as interrogative marker as in (11.3), or as a device for the indication of negation or emphasis.
Moreover, since understanding of the auxiliaries corresponds to an understanding of that section of the grammar of SVO languages regarding the verb phrase, the analysis of their role and functioning is required for an understanding of SVO languages.
For while the affixes of OV languages are parallel in their treatment, the auxiliaries of SVO languages are comparable on the one hand to principal verbs, on the other to grammatical markers.
www.utexas.edu /cola/centers/lrc/books/type04.html   (11129 words)

 The constituent structure of German VPs
While the fact that auxiliaries and modal verbs are `argument-inheritance' verbs has been widely accepted, questions concerning the constituency of phrases headed by such argument-inheriting verbs have not been answered uniformly.
As is admitted by Baker herself, this account overgenerates, as it not only accepts ordinary cases of auxiliary flip, but also the examples in (15), where example (15a) (which receives the derivation in (16)) is acceptable only to some speakers, and (15b) is completely ungrammatical.
non-flipped) word order such as (14), there is a `flat' structure, whereas for examples of auxiliary flip such as wird lesen können she assumes that the double infinitive is a constituent.
odur.let.rug.nl /~vannoord/papers/german/node3.html   (898 words)

 Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium. Mutations of Linguistic Categories
In the Latin verbal paradigm a reorganization of the original perfectum is effected, a change which leads through a split to two different forms.
Wherever the phenomenon in question is observed, one notes that the auxiliary verb is endowed with special properties and pertains to the same series, transcending differences of linguistic structure.
As auxiliaries, they are suffixed to the verb and, in the classical language, endow the verbal form with a certain aspectual force.
www.utexas.edu /cola/centers/lrc/books/hist04.html   (3064 words)

Word orders in which the head of a verbal complement precedes its governor are usually referred to as instances of ``inversion''.
Auxiliaries allow for the same type of inversion as modals, that is, the participle of an auxiliary may often occur either to the right or to the left of the auxiliary.
Note that in these complex inversion cases, the participle has to occur as the first element of the verb sequence, and (normally) cannot occur left-adjacent to the governing auxiliary, as in (46c).
odur.let.rug.nl /vannoord/papers/clusters/node21.html   (679 words)

 Auxiliary verb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb whose function it is to give further semantic information about the main verb which follows it.
They differ from the other auxiliaries both in that they are defective verbs, and in that they can never function as main verbs.
Auxiliaries can appear alone where a main verb has been omitted, but is understood: John never sings, but Mary does [''sing''].
auxiliary-verb.kiwiki.homeip.net   (980 words)

 Berkeley Construction Grammar
It's also true of certain requirements of the verbal complement: whether or not it can be headed by an auxiliary, what its morphology must be, and what its semantics has to be, in cases where there are some constraints.
The progressive aspect is represented by the auxiliary "be" and the present participial inflection on the head of the complement verb.
Passive clauses make use of the auxiliary "be" whose complement has two characteristics: it is in passive voice (hence something like "seen the children" rather than "seen by the polic"); and its head verb is in the past participial form.
www.icsi.berkeley.edu /~kay/bcg/lec04.html   (1477 words)

The verbal inflectional system is quite regular and can be obtained by the combination of prefixes, stems, inflections and auxiliaries.
The enclitic form of the auxiliary budan (be) is the one used in the formation of the perfect forms of all verbs.
Verbal inflection can only appear on the light verb itself, but bound morphemes can be attached to the preverbal element as well as the light verb.
crl.nmsu.edu /Research/Projects/shiraz/morph.html   (1607 words)

 Verbs and Verbals
She drove a new car." And the past participle form is combined with auxiliary verbs to indicate that something happened in the past prior to another action: "She has been a student.
Verbals are words that seem to carry the idea of action or being but do not function as a true verb.
Verbals are frequently accompanied by other, related words in what is called a verbal phrase.
grammar.ccc.commnet.edu /grammar/verbs.htm   (3203 words)

 Buber's Basque Page: Tense and Aspect in Basque
By combining the auxiliary in the present tense with the nominalized main verb (verbal noun) in the inessive, we get the normal present tense, as can be seen in example (1).
Thus, the formal opposition between verbal noun and participle distinguishes imperfective and perfective aspect in the past, whereas in the present tense it is used for distinguishing simple present and perfect.
Moreover, the auxiliary suppletion (izan vs. *edin (intransitive, 'to be') and ukan vs. *ezan (transitive, 'to have'), perhaps different verbs once) allowed for a regular distinction of indicative and subjunctive mood.
www.buber.net /Basque/Euskara/tense.html   (3227 words)

 Language in India
The structure of verbal complex (which include simple and compound verbs) is unique and capturing this complexity in a machine analyzable and generatable format is a challenging job.
Though the formation of the verbal complex is mainly anchored on the morphological level, it is linked to syntax on the one side and semantics on the other side.
The combination of cey which is a verb and tu which an adverbial marker forms the first chunk of the verbal complex and the combination of viT which is a secondary verb, T which is a past tense marker and een which is a person-number-marker forms the second chunk of the word.
www.languageinindia.com /april2003/verbalcomp.html   (5940 words)

 Linguistics 001 -- Lecture 20 -- First Language Acquisition
Furthermore, each child's development is usually characterized by gradual acquisition of particular abilities: thus "correct" use of English verbal inflection will emerge over a period of a year or more, starting from a stage where vebal inflections are always left out, and ending in a stage where they are nearly always used correctly.
In the early multi-word stage, children who are asked to repeat sentences may simply leave out the determiners, modals and verbal auxiliaries, verbal inflections, etc., and often pronouns as well.
In English, this includes finite auxiliaries ("is", "was"), verbal tense and agreement affixes ("-ed" and '-s'), nominative pronouns ("I", "she"), complementizers ("that", "where"), and determiners ("the", "a").
www.ling.upenn.edu /courses/Fall_2005/ling001/acquisition.html   (1752 words)

 Lhasa Verbs - General Material
For the other two transitive verbal arguments, affective and benefactive, there is still a subject and an object, but the subject doesn't have any clear agency over the object.
The verbaliser རྒྱག is pronounced རྒྱབ་ for all tenses in Lhasa dialect.
The inferential auxiliary ཤག, which can be added to the end of a declarative statements, has been written in a way to distinguish this auxiliary from བཞག, the past tense of འཇོག.
www.tibetanportal.com /lhasaverbstop/webmodule/utf8/LVwhitePaper.html   (2820 words)

 Dictionary and Grammar of the Language of Sa'a and Ulawa, Solomon Islands, by Walter G. Ivens (1918)
Verbal particles are used in all the families of Oceanic languages.
Eventually recourse was had to a verbal noun qao olanga formed from aqo ola to worship, hold communication with the ghosts, as an equivalent of prayer.
These verbal suffixes are among the commonest features of the Melanesian languages, but with the single exception of Samoan they can not be said to appear at all prominently [175/176] in Polynesia, though on Melanesian analogies their presence may be detected in the words in the dictionaries.
anglicanhistory.org /oceania/ivens_dictionary_app03.html   (6998 words)

 Virtual Hindi - Grammar Lesson 4
used with the participles as auxiliaries of tense and mood.
preceding the participle; the auxiliary is usually dropped unless the negation is strongly stressed.
When the auxiliary is dropped, the nasality of the feminine plural forms is transferred to the final syllable of the participle.
www.nyu.edu /gsas/dept/mideast/hindi/old/lesson4.html   (584 words)

 The Camargo Foundation : Fellow Project Details   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
However, (later) Latin right-branching structures never developed into prefixes, shown by both the verbal auxiliaries in compound past tenses in Romance, and the subject personal pronoun in French.
It can be demonstrated that when advanced stages of grammaticalization are reached in the case of right-branching, phonetic deterioration to the point of achieving the affix state is prevented, probably due to processing and perception factors.
Such incomplete grammaticalization of right-branching structures thus constitutes an important parameter of naturalness for the structure of the Romance languages, as it is pervasive in the evolution of both nominal and verbal structure.
www.camargofoundation.org /fellowdetails_new05.asp?recno=%0D%0A421   (342 words)

 NASA on Sanskrit & Artificial Intelligence by Rick Briggs
The next step in the process of isolating the verbal meaning is to rephrase the description in such a way that the agent and number categories appear as qualities of the verbal action.
However, it is not sufficient to state, for instance, that a word with a dative case represents the "recipient" of the verbal action, for the relation between the recipient and the verbal action itself requires more exact specification if we are to center the sentence description around the notion of the verbal action.
The Sanskrit language has seven case endings (excluding the vocative), and six of these are definable representations of specific "auxiliary activities." The seventh, the genitive, represents a set of auxiliary activities that are not defined by the other six.
www.gosai.com /science/sanskrit-nasa.html   (4095 words)

AVP is an abbreviation for `adverbial participle' a form of the verb that is essentially its past stem minus person-number-gender (PNG) markers; it expresses in ordinary syntax the notion that some verbal action preceded another verbal action, that expressed by the next verb in the sentence.
The extreme variability of the phonology of this AV bespeaks a radical departure of some sort that may be part of the grammaticalization process.
Annamalai refers to this verb as `ego-benefactive.' Many of the examples of aspect (which he refers to as verbal extension), are taken from his 1985 book on the subject.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /~haroldfs/dravling/aspect/footnode.html   (359 words)

 Être ou ne pas être in Immersion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
As such, auxiliary selection in French is not entirely predictable and is a source of difficulty for both L1 and L2 speakers (cf.
She presents 12 sentences showing auxiliary alternation, six of which involve the use of the auxiliary verb avoir with 'être-verbs' and six of which involve using être with 'avoir-verbs.' Kenemer also provides three tokens in which avoir is used as the auxiliary with reflexive verbs in the passé composé.
In the area of auxiliary selection, however, the immersion students do display thorough knowledge of the rules of auxiliary selection in Standard French and use the standard variant at a rate comparable to that of native speakers.
www.utpjournals.com /product/cmlr/582/582-Knaus.html   (6582 words)

 Lecture notes, Ling 290
The moment of speech (now, present) is the deictic center, and the meaning of terms varies depending on whether the time referred to occurred before (past) or after (future) the deictic center, as well as construal of relative distance from the deictic center.
Temporal deixis is usually coded by adverbs and/or by verbal inflections/auxiliaries.
More elaborate systems of tense are found in languages of Africa and the Americas, with as many as five distinctions between degrees of past tense and as many as three degrees of future tense.
darkwing.uoregon.edu /~spike/ling290/Deixisnotes.html   (1014 words)

The past participle can be used as part of a verb with the auxiliary "haber": he hablado (I have spoken), habías comido (you had eaten), habremos ido (we will have gone).
Just as in English, it can also be used in a sentence as an adjective of a noun (and as such, agrees in number and gender with its noun): "un edificio construido de ladrillo", "unas tortillas hechas a mano", "una canción escuchada muchas veces" (c.f., "a heated argument" or "a broken record").
The present participle can be used as part of a verb with the auxiliary "estar": estoy hablando (I am speaking), estabas comiendo (you were eating), estaremos saliendo (we will be leaving).
www.stedwards.edu /hum/mcclendon/class/gram/verb/verb.html   (1331 words)

 LSA 2004 - AR
, fusion is blocked because three morphosyntactic terminals are present; the incompatibility of reduced auxiliaries with inversion (3a-b) and raised negation (4) follows.
The ungrammaticality of (3a) cannot be attributed to absence of phonological material for the reduced allomorph to lean on; reduced auxiliaries are equally banned in tag questions like (5a).
, the reduced auxiliary is licensed in (6).
www.yorku.ca /eflagg/LSA2004abstract.htm   (393 words)

 Morphology of the Noun
By means of a prefix, which may be a noun, a verb or a particle, placed before another noun or verbal form, a large number of Compound Nouns were constructed.
The prefix, when it stands immediately before the noun or verbal form, is always in the Construct Form.
Note: This verbal form has been named Participium Conjunctum, and is indicated in the Dictionary by the abbreviation: pc.
www.metalog.org /files/plumley/html/morphology_a.htm   (950 words)

 English grammar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Auxiliary verbs may be used to define tense, aspect, or mood of a verb phrase.
The passive voice is derived from the active by the auxiliary verb "to be".
Conditionals are expressed through the use of the verbal auxiliaries could, would, should, may and might in combination with the stem form of the verb.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/English_grammar   (5228 words)

 Word annotation system - Patent 4864501
Each verb base form is either encoded according to a regular verbal paradigm, denoted V1-V4, or according to a modified paradigm V1d, V2d, or V4d with a doubled consonant, or a partial or irregular paradigm.
First an unsuccessful retrieval attempt is made for the form "advanc", then the second and third steps of the algorithm are bypassed (since "advanc" does not end in a doubled consonant or the letter "i"), then "e" is added to "advanc" and a main dictionary record is retrieved corresponding to this word.
There are, however, more complex paradigms for the verbal auxiliaries; for example, the verb "have" has the irregular third-person present-tense form "has" (as well as the irregular past tense form/past participle "had"), and the verb "be" has an eight-member paradigm that requires distinctions not present in any other verbal paradigm (e.g.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4864501.html   (11806 words)

 English grammar   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The verbal system, on the other hand, is quite large and complex, like those of many other Indo-European languages.
It is expressed through the use of the verbal auxiliaries could, would, should, may and might in combination with the stem form of the verb.
It is typically marked in the present tense by the auxiliary "were" plus the continuous aspect (<-ing>) form of the verb.
english-grammar.kiwiki.homeip.net   (2529 words)

 Grammatical tense
The exact number of tenses in a language is often a matter of some debate.
The more complex tenses in English are formed by combining a particular tense of the verb with certain verbal auxiliaries, the most common of which are various forms of "be", various forms of "have", and the modal auxiliary "will." An example of some generally-recognized English tenses using the verb "to go" is shown below: \n
For many verbs, this is used to express habit or ability ("I play the guitar").
encyclopedia.codeboy.net /wikipedia/g/gr/grammatical_tense.html   (496 words)

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